Parnara kiraizana Sonan, 1938

Chiba, Hideyuki, Hsu, Yu-Feng, Tsukiyama, Hiroshi, Lo, Philip Yik-Fui, Chen, Chien-Ren & Wang, Shou-Ming, 2009, Jinhaku Sonan’s skipper type collection deposited at Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), Zootaxa 2202, pp. 48-58: 55

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.189654

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Parnara kiraizana Sonan, 1938


Parnara kiraizana Sonan, 1938 

Zephyrus 7: 255.

Labels: “ Parnara  / kiraizana Sonan  / DET. J. SONAN,” “ Kirai/ 10 VIII 1934 / M. Yamanaka,” “ No. 65,” “ Type [in red].”

A male was designated as the [holo] type when Sonan (1938 b) described this taxon, and the holotype was retrieved from TARI ( Fig. 28–30View FIGURES 19 – 39). Evans (1949) treated this taxon as a subspecies of mencia Moore, 1877  [as Polytremis mencia kiraizana  ]. Shirôzu (1960) viewed it as a distinct species but transferred it to the genus Pelopidas  without giving a rationale. He probably judged by the general appearance of kiraizana  , notably the male stigma on the upperside of the forewing. Shirôzu’s treatment was followed by a few subsequent authors (e. g. Yamanaka 1980). However, this transfer was inappropriate, as the mesotibia of kiraizana  possess no spines, a diagnostic character for the genus Polytremis  , whereas the mesotibia of Pelopidas  species possess prominent spines ( Evans 1949; Kawazoé & Wakabayashi 1976; Tsukiyama et al. 1997). This point was recognized by a few authors, who considered kiraizana  a species endemic to Taiwan and used the combination of Polytremis kiraizana  for the taxon (e. g. Hamano 1986; Sugiyama 1999). Nevertheless, this combination is never explicitly proposed, and no comparison between mencia  and kiraizana  was performed. The male genitalia of kiraizana  ( Fig. 40–42View FIGURES 40 – 42) and those of mencia  ( Fig. 43–45View FIGURES 43 – 45) are considerably different, thus we support that the combination of Polytremis kiraizana  should be applied to this taxon (confirmed status). Although both P. s u p re m a Sugiyama, 1999 from Guangxi and P. m a t s u i i Sugiyama, 1999 from Sichuan may be good candidates for continental relatives, P. k i r a i z a n a is regarded as an endemic Taiwanese species for the present ( Fig. 46View FIGURE 46. A).


Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute