Bothriothorax Ratzeburg 1844

Zuparko, Robert L., 2015, Annotated Checklist of California Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera), Zootaxa 4017 (1), pp. 1-126: 16

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4017.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:BBFC3D93-6A7E-4862-84EF-021ADE2F4B3A

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CC87E4-FF8B-4354-FF02-C5FB8D2AF864

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Bothriothorax Ratzeburg 1844
status

 

Bothriothorax Ratzeburg 1844 

Hosts. Diptera  : Syrphidae 

californicus Howard 1895 a: 609 

Type. USNM

Distribution. C (Alameda, Alpine, Contra Costa, Fresno, Humboldt, Lassen, Marin, Mendocino, Merced, Mono/Tuolumne border, Monterey, Nevada, Riverside, Sacramento, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Sierra, Solano, Sonoma, Tehama, Trinity, Yolo, coastal southern California)

Host/habitat. Eupeodes nitens  , Scaeva pyrastri  , Syrphus opinator 

Remarks. Howard described B. californicus  from three specimens, noting the “ types ” were in the U.S. National Museum, but I found only two specimens there. The Nearctic Bothriothorax  species are badly in need of revision—the only generic treatment was by Howard (1895 a) and there are discrepancies between the specimens and the descriptions therein. This species may prove to be a senior synonym of B. faridi  and B. rotundiformis  (q. v.).

faridi Kamal 1926: 283 

Type. USNM

Distribution. C (Santa Clara)

Host/habitat. Syrphus opinator 

Remarks. In the original description, Kamal did not provide a diagnosis for this species. It is very close to B. californicus  , and the only difference I could discern between the types of the two species is a pair of medial longitudinal carina on the propodeum of B. faridi  (missing in B. californicus  ). However, this is not a reliable defining characteristic, as an examination of a series of specimens from Merced County show it is present in some specimens and absent from others, so I suspect B. faridi  will prove to be a junior synonym of B. californicus  .

nigripes Howard 1895 a: 610 

Type. USNM

Distribution. N (Colusa, Contra Costa, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Los Angeles, Marin, Mono, Monterey, Orange, Placer, Riverside, Sacramento, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Joaquin, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Trinity, Tulare  )

Host/habitat. Eupeodes lapponicus  , E. volucris 

Remarks. In the original description, Howard erroneously reported the first funicle segment was as long as the pedicel. There is a series of specimens of this species from Los Angeles County that were apparently reared from the pupa of a Lycaenidae  ( Lepidoptera  ) ( EMEC). Interestingly, this is not the first record of a Bothriothorax  associated with Lepidoptera— B. altensteinii Ratzeburg 1844  has been reported as a hyperparasitoid of Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus)  ( Lepidoptera  : Lymantriidae  ) via Exorista larvarum (Linnaeus)  ( Diptera  : Tachinidae  ) ( Erdös 1957), and B. paradoxus ( Dalman 1820)  has been reported from L. dispar  , as well as Phalera bucephala (Linnaeus)  ( Notodontidae  ), and as a hyperparasitoid of Gastropacha quercifolia (Linnaeus)  ( Lasiocampidae  ), via the tachinids Compsilura concinnata (Meigen)  , E. larvarum  and Sturmia scutellata (Robineau-Desvoidy) ( Gyorfi 1942)  . Although Noyes (2001) considers the P. bucephala  record erroneous based on the discontinuity in the generic host range (predatory syrphids vs. parasitic tachinids), a similar dichotomy is present in the genus Syrphophagus  , which are known as primary parasitoids of syrphids and hyperparasitoids of aphids.

rotundiformis Howard 1895 a: 610 

Type. USNM

Distribution. N (Placer)

Host/habitat. Unknown

Remarks. This species is known from only the single type specimen, which is very close to B. californicus  . I am treating it as a good species, but further research may prove these two species to be synonymous.

spp.

Remarks. Specimens that appear to represent three additional species were collected in Alameda, Marin, Nevada, San Mateo and Santa Clara, Santa Cruz and Sonoma counties ( CAS, EMEC, LACM, RLZC).

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

EMEC

Essig Museum of Entomology

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

LACM

Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Encyrtidae

Loc

Bothriothorax Ratzeburg 1844

Zuparko, Robert L. 2015
2015
Loc

faridi

Kamal 1926: 283
1926
Loc

californicus

Howard 1895: 609
1895
Loc

nigripes

Howard 1895: 610
1895
Loc

rotundiformis

Howard 1895: 610
1895