Zuparko, Robert L., 2015, Annotated Checklist of California Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera), Zootaxa 4017 (1), pp. 1-126: 9-11

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Acerophagus  E. Smith 1880

Hosts. Hemiptera  : Coccidae  , Dactylopiidae  , Diaspididae  , Pseudococcidae 

abstrusus ( Gahan 1946: 316)  ( Pseudaphycus  ) Type. USNM

Distribution. W (Imperial)

Host/habitat. Pseudococcus comstocki  , P. sp., Spilococcus pressus 

angelicus ( Howard 1898 a: 245)  ( Aphycus  )

Type. USNM

Distribution. N (Alameda, Fresno, Imperial, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Stanislaus, Tulare, Ventura)

Host/habitat. Dysmicoccus brevipes  , D. ryani  , Ferrisia virgata  , Formicococcus njalensis  , Phenacoccus gossypii  , P.? maderiensis  , Planococcus citri  , Pseudococcus calceolariae  , P. longispinus  , P. maritimus  , P. sp., Spilococcus implicatus  ; NEW: Phenacoccus colemani  , P. pergandei  , P. solani  (all UCRC)

Remarks. The natural range of this species is restricted to the western United States, but there are two incongruous records, from Quebec, Canada (Gordh 1979: 927) and Bermuda (de Santis 1989: 41). The record from Quebec traces back to the citation in Peck (1963: 398) that refers to its importation from California in a biocontrol program against P. maritimus  in greenhouses ( Burnett 1947). Similarly, the citation by de Santis presumably traces back to its use in a biocontrol program against P. longispinus  in Bermuda in 1951, although it failed to establish there ( Bennett & Hughes 1959), and Hilburn et al. (1990) did not list  it in their list  of Bermuda Hymenoptera  . A series of specimens was reportedly reared from Saissetia oleae  ( EMEC), but I suspect this is an error in identification. Another specimen ( EMEC), determined as near angelicus  , was reared from Spilococcus mamillariae  in Alameda County.

antennalis Rosen 1969: 50 

Type. USNM

Distribution. C (Los Angeles) Host/habitat. Dysmicoccus ryani 

californicus Rosen 1969: 68 

Type. UCRC

Distribution. C (Imperial)

Host/habitat. Spilococcus pressus 

Remarks. A specimen determined possibly as A. californicus  was collected from Riverside County ( UCRC). Two other specimens were collected together from Adenostoma fasciculatum  ( Rosaceae  ) in Marin County ( RLZC): a macropterous female resembling A. californicus  , and a brachypterous female.

citrinus ( Howard 1898 a: 235)  ( Rhopoideus  )

Type. USNM

Distribution. N (Nevada)

Host/habitat. Unknown

Remarks. Howard (1898 a) reported Diaspidiotus pernicious  (repeated in Quaintance 1915) and Tortrix  sp. as hosts. The latter is clearly a mistake, while Timberlake (1916) opined that the former was likely to be in error as well, based on the host records of related species. Aulacaspis rosae  was also reported as a host in Peck (1951, 1963), who mistakenly attributed this to Ashmead (1900: 408) —Ashmead instead listed only D. perniciosus  .

coccois  E. Smith 1880: 84

Type. USNM

Distribution. N (Los Angeles, Riverside, Tulare)

Host/habitat. Oracella acuta  , Phenacoccus acericola  , P. a c er i s, P. gossypii  , P. herreni  , P. maderiensis  , P. manihoti  ; NEW: Pseudococcus comstocki  ( UCRC)

Remarks. Timberlake (1916) reported the locations of the types are not known, but Rosen (1969) redescribed the species from a cotype. The host record of Pulvinaria vitis (Linnaeus)  attributed by Peck (1963: 401) to Howard (1895 b) is incorrect.

fasciipennis Timberlake 1918: 348 

Type. USNM

Distribution. C (Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Ventura) Host/habitat. Anisococcus crawii  ; NEW: Dysmicoccus ryani  ( UCRC)

flavidulus ( Brèthes 1916: 424)  ( Psilomirinus  )

Type. MACN

Distribution. E (San Luis Obispo)

Host/habitat. Pseudococcus viburni  , Pseudococcus  sp.

Remarks. This is a South American species, and material from Chile was used to begin an insectary colony in that country. Material from that colony was released from 1997–1999 in a biocontrol program against Pseudococcus viburni  in San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara counties  , and the species was recovered in the former county almost ten years later, albeit at low rates (Daane et al. 2008). In the original description, this species was reportedly reared from the diaspidid, Diaspis  (= Pseudaulacaspis  ) pentagona  , but Noyes (2001) considers this an error.

maculipennis ( Mercet 1923: 140)  ( Pseudaphycus  )

Type. MNMS

Distribution. E (San Luis Obispo)

Host/habitat. Pseudococcus maritimus  , P  . viburni

Remarks. This is a Palearctic species that has been used successfully in New Zealand to control P. viburni (Daane et al. 2008)  . In 2006, material from New Zealand was brought into California quarantine, but has not yet been released (Daane, pers. comm.). Nevertheless, this species was reared from P. viburni  in San Luis Obispo County in 2007.

malinus ( Gahan 1946: 317)  ( Pseudaphycus  ) Type. USNM

Distribution. E (Kern, Stanislaus, Tulare) Host/habitat. Coccura suwakoensis  , Pseudococcus comstocki  , P. cryptus  ; NEW: Pseudococcus longispinus  ( UCRC)

Remarks. This species was established after being introduced from Japan in a biological control program against Pseudococcus comstocki  in the 1970 s ( Meyerdirk & Newell 1979). Dysmicoccus brevipes  has been cited as a host ( Noyes 2001), based on the use of P. malinus  in a biocontrol program against that species ( Bartlett 1978 c), but there are no records of the parasitoid attacking the mealybug. Pulvinaria vitis  has been cited as a host of this species in the USSR ( Shutova & Kukhtina 1955), but I suspect this is a misidentification of the host.

notativentris ( Girault 1917 b: 10)  ( Pseudaphycus  )

Type. USNM

Distribution. N (Fresno, Kern, Los Angeles, Santa Clara, Solano, Stanislaus, Tulare)

Host/habitat. Dysmicoccus ryani  , Eurycoccus blancharidii  , Ferrisia virgata  , Formicococcus njalensis  , Pseudococcus comstocki  , Pseudococcus maritimus  , Pseudococcus viburni  , Pseudococcus  sp.

pallidus Timberlake 1918: 350 

Type. USNM

Distribution. C (Kern, Ventura)

Host/habitat. Ferrisia virgata  , Formicococcus njalensis  , Phenacoccus gossypii  , P. madeirensis  , P. solani  , Pseudococcus maritimus  , Spilococcus atriplicis  , S. eriogoni 

texanus ( Howard 1898 a: 245)  ( Aphycus  )

Type. USNM

Distribution. E (Imperial)

Host/habitat. Ferrisia virgata 

Remarks. This species was imported from Mexico and released from 1966–1967 ( DeBach & Warner 1969)


Remarks. Specimens determined as Acerophagus  “ meracus or near” were collected from Tulare county ( UCRC). There are undetermined specimens of this genus from Alameda, Calaveras, Contra Costa, Lassen, Modoc, San Bernardino, San Joaquin, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Stanislaus, Tulare, Tuolumne and Ventura counties ( CSCA, EMEC, RLZC, SJSC, UCFC), including a series ( EMEC) recorded from Spilococcus sequoiae  .


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


University of Newcastle


University of California, Riverside


Essig Museum of Entomology


Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia


California State Collection of Arthropods


San Jose State University, J. Gordon Edwards Museum of Entomology


University of Central Florida













Zuparko, Robert L. 2015


Rosen 1969: 50


Rosen 1969: 68


Timberlake 1918: 348


Timberlake 1918: 350


Smith 1880: 84

abstrusus (

Gahan 1946: 316

angelicus (

Howard 1898: 245

citrinus (

Howard 1898: 235

flavidulus ( Brèthes 1916: 424 )

Brethes 1916: 424

maculipennis (

Mercet 1923: 140

malinus (

Gahan 1946: 317

notativentris (

Girault 1917: 10

texanus (

Howard 1898: 245