Copidosoma Ratzeburg 1844
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|Copidosoma Ratzeburg 1844|
albipes ( Westwood 1837 b: 440) [New state record]
Host/habitat. Anacampsis innocuella , A. niveopulvella , A. populella , Choristoneura conflictana , Coleophora viburniella , Epinotia solandriana , Gelechia turpella , Holcocera modestella , Pseudosciaphila duplex
Remarks. Zolnerowich (in litt.) reported specimens of C. innocuellae Barron from California, but did not note the exact locations. In 2005, Guerrieri & Noyes synonymized C. innocuellae under C. albipes , thus extending the latter’s distribution range from Europe to the Holarctic.
Distribution. W (El Dorado, Los Angeles, Orange, Sacramento, San Bernardino, Siskiyou, Sutter) Host/habitat. Agrotis orthogonia , A. venerabilis , Apamea devastator , Euxoa auxiliaris , E. detersa , E. flavicollis , E. intrita , E. lidia , E. messoria , E. ochrogaster , E. scandens , E. tristicula , E. sp., Feltia jaculifera , F. subgothica , F. sp., Lacinipolia renigera , Peridroma saucia , Rachiplusia nu, Trichoplusia ni, Xestia smithii
Remarks. Specimens identified as “ C. bakeri ?” have been collected from Mono County ( CSCA), and Kern and Riverside Counties, with Agrotis ipsilon noted as a host ( UCRC). Peck (1963) reported Pissodes strobi ( Coleoptera : Curculionidae ) as a host, citing MacAloney in Taylor (1929) as the authority. However, MacAloney did not positively associate C. bakeri with P. strobi , he merely reported that the parasitoid was reared from pine leaders which were infested with the weevil—undoubtedly C. bakeri had emerged from an unseen lepidopteran which was also in the plant material.
Distribution. N (San Diego, Trinity)
Remarks. Noyes (2001), citing Peck (1963), noted “ Diptera (leaf miner)” as a host, but the original report upon which this record is based is in fact Proctor (1938), in which C. bucculatricis is reported from a leaf miner on arborvitae ( Cupressaceae ), without any indication as to the taxon of the leaf miner.
capsicum Burks 1967: 54 [New state record] ( EMEC, RLZC) Type. USNM
celaenae Howard 1885: 11 [New state record] ( EMEC, LACM, USNM, UCDC, UCRC)
Distribution. N (Alameda, Alpine, Calaveras, Contra Costa, El Dorado, Glenn, Inyo, Kern, Napa, Lake, Lassen, Los Angeles, Marin, Modoc, Monterey, Napa, Plumas, Riverside, San Benito, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Clara, Shasta, Sierra, Siskiyou, Solano, Tulare, Ventura)
Host/habitat. Agrotis orthogonia , Eupsilia spp., Euxoa declarata , E. messoria , E. ochrogaster , E. perpolita , E. scolastica , E. tristicula , Feltia jaculifera , Lacinipolia renigera , Peridroma saucia , Polia purpurissata , Protolampra rufipectus , Rhynchagrotis cupida , Xestia mustelina ; NEW: Agrotis ipsilon ( EMEC), Agrotis sp. ( UCRC)
cervius ( Walker 1846: 177) [New state record] ( BMNH, CAS, ROM, UCDC, UCRC)
Distribution. W (Fresno, Kern, Marin, Orange, Placer, Riverside, San Bernardino, Solano, Sonoma, Tulare)
Host/habitat. Cosmorhoe ocellata , Eupithecia abietaria , E. analoga , E. assimilata , E. centaureata , E. expallidata , E. gueneata , E. haworthiata , E. innotata , E. laricata , E. linariata , E. pimpinellata , E. pusillata , E. rosmarinata , E. simpliciata , E. succenturiata , E. tripunctaria , E.? trisignaria, E. unedonata , E. vulgata , E. spp., Perizoma affinitata , P. bifasciatum
Distribution. N (Calaveras, Mariposa, Riverside, San Bernardino, Tulare, Tuolumne)
Host/habitat. Acleris variana , Argyresthia aureoargentella , Battaristis vittella , Coleotechnites apicitripunctella , C. canusella , C. huntella , C. milleri , C. moreonella , C. piceaella , C. starki , C. thujaella , C. spp., Epinotia nanana , Exoteleia dodecella , E. nepheos , E. pinifoliella , Recurvaria spp.
Remarks. Craighead (1950) reported Recurvaria nanella Denis & Schiffermüller (a Palearctic species) as a host of C. deceptor , but this undoubtedly was based on European records of C. nanellae Silvestri , the name by which the American species was known until Miller (1958) separated the two taxa.
Distribution. W (Alameda, Calaveras, Contra Costa, Fresno, Imperial, Kern, Lake, Lassen, Los Angeles, Marin, Merced, Nevada, Orange, Riverside, Sacramento, San Diego, San Joaquin, Santa Clara, Sierra, Solano, Stanislaus, Tulare)
Host/habitat. Agrapha agnata , A. tarassota , Argyrogramma signatum , Autographa gamma , Chrysodeixis acuta , C. argentifera , C. chalcites , C. eriosoma , C. sp., Mamestra brassicae , Nebrarctia obliqua , Plusia sp., Polychrysia moneta , Pseudoplusia includens , Rachiplusia nu, Thysanoplusia orichalcea , T. intermixta , Trichoplusia ni; NEW: Autoplusia egena ( CSCA), A. oliveacea ( LACM)
Remarks. This is a cosmopolitan species, very similar to C. truncatellum , and pre- 1988 records of either species should not be taken at face value. Noyes (1988 a) and Guerrieri & Noyes (2005) noted the characteristics useful for separating the two, and suggest that C. floridanum is probably host-specific on noctuids from the subfamily Plusiinae , and that records from non-plusiines may be attributable to C. truncatellum . Conversely, they note that the following host records of C. truncatellum are probably instead attributable to C. floridanum : Autographa californica , A. egena , A. gamma , A. sp., Euchalcia modestoides , Lamprotes c-aureum, Plusia festucae , Rachiplusia ou, Syngrapha epigaea . De Santis & Monetti (2008) reported Peridroma saucia as a host, but this is probably a misidentification. A short series ( LACM) was labelled “ D. menippe ” (= Danaus plexippus Linnaeus , Nymphalidae ), but this also may be a misidentification.
gelechiae Howard 1885: 10 [New state record] ( RLZC)
Distribution. N (Calaveras, Lassen, Marin, Modoc, San Mateo)
Remarks. De Santis (1979) reported this species from Peru, attacking Tuta (= Gnorimoschema ) absoluta (Meyrick) . Since all other records of this species are from North America , I believe this single South American record represents a different species.
Distribution. N (Lake, Lassen, Nevada, Placer, Sacramento, Stanislaus)
Remarks. This is a replacement name for C. gelechiae Howard 1898 a , a junior homonym of C. gelechiae Howard 1885 . Özdikmen (2011) subsequently proposed the replacement name C. americanum for this same species.
Distribution. E (Southern California)
Remarks. The initial importations of Copidosoma stock from South America released in California for control of P. operculella were originally credited to this species. However, as Annecke & Mynhardt (1974) pointed out, these importations were actually of C. desantisi (which failed to establish). But in the 1960 s, C. koehleri was imported from Argentina and did establish ( Oatman 1978). Cydia molesta ( Lepidoptera : Tortricidae ) has been recorded as a host, but this is doubtful.
Distribution. E (San Bernardino, Sutter, Yolo, Yuba) Host/habitat. Anarsia lineatella , Dichomeris flavocostella , D. setosella Remarks. This species was described from Florida, and has been reported from throughout the eastern USA, as far west as Utah, as well from Europe ( Peck 1963), although Guerrieri & Noyes (2005) suggest the European records refer to C. varicorne (q. v.). In 1932, specimens from the eastern USA were released in Yuba County, and subsequently recovered ( Clausen 1956 a). Specimens labelled as this species collected from San Bernardino County ( UCRC) may in fact be descendants of the material imported from France, and therefore represent C. varicorne , which may prove to be the senior synonym of C. pyralidis .
Distribution. W (Fresno, Lassen, Monterey, Nevada, Orange, Santa Clara, Sierra, Solano)
Host/habitat. Actinotia polyodon , Agrotis malefida , A. sp., Anomis erosa , Apamea monoglypha , A. sublustris , Catocala electa , Euxoa lidia , E. obelisca , E. temera , E. sp., Hadena luteago , Hepialus humuli , Mamestra brassicae , Mocis latipes , Notodonta ziczac , Spodoptera ornithogalli , S. sp., Xestia diatrapezium
Remarks. This species has been commonly confused with C. floridanum (q. v.), and similarly has been erroneously associated with numerous hosts (see Guerrieri & Noyes 2005). Noyes (2001) listed this species as a “Biocontrol introduction” in California. However, the species was never purposely imported into the state although an attempt was made to propagate field-collected C. truncatellum and then release it back in the field ( Clancy 1969).
vagum Howard 1885: 11 [New state record] [ BMNH, CSCA, CNC, LACM, USNM]
Distribution. N (Riverside, Shasta, Sonoma, Tulare)
varicorne (Nees 1834: 214) [New state record] ( EMEC)
Distribution. E (Colusa, Orange, San Bernardino)
Host/habitat. Acleris hippophaeana , Anarsia eleagnella , A. ephippias , A. lineatella , A. sagmatica , A. spartiella , A. sp., Compsolechia anisogramma , Cydia funebrana , C. molesta , C. pomonella , Cydia sp., Dichromeris eridantis , Eucosma sp., Gypsosoma minutana , Lobesia incultana , Tortrix viridana
Remarks. In 1931 a biocontrol program was initiated against Anarsia lineatella using Copidosoma pyralidis , an important parasitoid of this species known from the eastern USA, and thought to occur in Europe as well. European specimens were easier to obtain, and so specimens from France were imported into the USA, released near Yuba City (Sutter County) and Chino (San Bernardino County), and subsequently recovered ( Oatman 1978). However, Guerrieri & Noyes (2005) opined that the French populations were actually C. varicorne , and recovered specimens ( EMEC) certainly key out to that species. In 1932, additional releases of domestically obtained C. pyralidis were made in Yuba County (and subsequently recovered as well), and so “true” C. pyralidis is present in California, although C. pyralidis may prove to be a junior synonym of C. varicorne .
Remarks. Copidosoma filicorne ( Dalman 1820) is an Old World species that became established in eastern North America—a single specimen ( UCDC) from Fresno County closely resembles this species, although it varies in several details. Additionally, at least 5 other undescribed species occur in California (Zolnerowich, in litt.).
Remarks. This species was introduced into the San Joaquin Valley from the 1960 s through the 1970 s from Mexico ( Meals & Caltagirone 1995). Although the initial importations probably failed ( Clausen 1978 c, as Pentalitomastix sp.), by 1979 this species had established in both the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys ( Legner 1983).
Distribution. C (El Dorado, Los Angeles, Stanislaus)
Host/habitat. Ephestia kuehniella
Remarks. The holotype was originally deposited with the Division of Biological Control, University of California, Berkeley, but was transferred to the California Academy of Sciences in 1993 ( Zuparko & Hamai 1994).
Remarks. Specimens that represent an undescribed species were collected in Marin and Modoc counties ( RLZC).
University of California, Riverside
Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History
California State Collection of Arthropods
R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology
Essig Museum of Entomology
Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
University of Newcastle
California Academy of Sciences
Royal Ontario Museum
Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology Collections
No known copyright restrictions apply. See Agosti, D., Egloff, W., 2009. Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach. BMC Research Notes 2009, 2:53 for further explanation.
Copidosoma Ratzeburg 1844
|Zuparko, Robert L. 2015|
|Caltagirone 1985: 705|
|Miller 1958: 58|
|Blanchard 1940: 107|
|Westwood 1837: 440|
|Howard 1898: 238|
|Howard 1892: 366|
|Burks 1967: 54|
|Howard 1885: 11|
|Walker 1846: 177|
|Ashmead 1900: 365|
|Howard 1885: 10|
|Ashmead 1888: 15|
|Dalman 1820: 168|
|Howard 1885: 11|
|Caltagirone 1966: 146|