Cheiloneurus Westwood 1833,
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|Cheiloneurus Westwood 1833|
Hosts. Hyperparasitoids of Coleoptera : Coccinellidae ; Diptera : Cecidomyiidae , Syrphidae ; Hemiptera : Aclerdidae , Cicadellidae , Coccidae , Delphacidae , Eriococcidae , Kermesidae , Pseudococcidae ; Neuroptera : Chrysopidae ; via Hymenoptera : Dryinidae , Encyrtidae , Ichneumonidae , Perilampidae , Platygastridae
albinotatus De Santis 1964: 351 [New state record] ( RLZC)
Distribution. W (San Benito, Santa Barbara)
Host/habitat. Host unknown, but one specimen was swept from sedge ( Cyperaceae ), and a series of three specimens were swept from a grassy field.
Remarks. Previously this species has only been recorded from Argentina , but in addition to those from California, specimens have been collected in Arizona and North Carolina (both UCRC). banksi ( Howard 1898 a: 247) ( Chrysopophagus )
Distribution. N (Alameda, Calaveras, Contra Costa, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Lassen, Los Angeles, Madera, Marin, Modoc, Napa, Nevada, Plumas, Riverside, San Benito, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Shasta, Sierra, Solano, Sonoma, Stanislaus, Tehama, Tulare)
Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of Antonina graminis , Eriococcus sp. via Pseudococcobius sp.; NEW: Phenacoccus sp. ( UCRC), Dysmicoccus timberlakei , hyperparasitoid of Hyperaspis pleuralis via Homalotylus affinis ( EMEC)
Remarks. The specimen ( EMEC) reared from D. timberlakei is probably a hyperparasitoid of an undescribed species of Pseudleptomastix , which was reared from the same host. This appears to be a species with a high variation in body color—ranging from coppery fuscous with yellow patches to almost totally dark, with the scutellum always at least partly yellow. A Cheiloneurus species near banksi was collected from Inyo County ( UCDC), and there is another long series from Los Angeles and Riverside counties ( UCRC).
Distribution. N (Los Angeles, Nevada, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego)
Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of undetermined Syrphidae , Ceraeochrysa cubana , C. sanchezi , C. valida , Chrysopa nigricornis , Chrysoperla plorabunda , C. rufilabris , via Isodromus iceryae , I. niger , Gelis tenellus , Perilampus chrysopae ; NEW: Chrysopa oculata , undetermined Hemerobiidae (both UCRC).
Remarks. Two Cheiloneurus species near compressicornis were collected in Nevada & Sierra Counties ( UCDC), another from Imperial County ( UCRC), and two more specimens from Riverside County, which were reared from a whitefly on Encelia sp. ( Asteraceae ). Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) has been recorded as a host in North America , but some authorities consider this species is restricted to the Palearctic, and would attribute such Nearctic host records to the C. plorabunda complex. The host record of a syrphid fly stems from a single observation by McGregor (1914) —it remains to be seen if this represents a misidentification, or if the secondary host range of C. compressicornis does indeed extend beyond the Neuroptera (there are no records of I. iceryae , I. niger , G. tenellus or P. chrysopae attacking any Diptera ).
elegans ( Dalman 1820: 151) [New state record]( RLZC)
Distribution. W (Contra Costa, Marin, Stanislaus)
Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of Mayetiola destructor (via Platygaster zosinae ), Aclerda subterranea (via Paraphaenodiscus subterraneus ), Eulecanium franconicum , Phenacoccus hordei , Physokermes piceae , Pulvinaria vitis , Trionymus abberans
Remarks. In South America and the Old World, this species is recorded as a hyperparasitoid of Aclerdidae , Pseudococcidae and Coccidae , whereas in North America it is only known as a hyperparasitoid of Diptera , which suggests records of this species represents a complex of species or two biological races of one species ( Ferriere 1952). Neunenschwander et al. (1987) reported Cheiloneurus ? elegans as a hyperparasitoid of Phenacoccus manihoti via Anagyrus lopezi in Africa, but this identification has apparently never been confirmed. Eupelmus elegans Dalman 1820 , is a junior of C. elegans ( Noyes 2001) , which led Noyes (2001) to mistakenly record Rhyacionia buoliana as a host of this species, based on the report of Millan de De Santis & De Santis (1960). However, the host record in that paper referred to Eupelmus elegans Blanchard 1942 .
Distribution. N (Alpine, Contra Costa, Inyo, Marin, Monterey, Sacramento, Sonoma, Stanislaus)
Remarks. This species was described from material collected in Ohio, and has become established in Hawaii.
Distribution. W (Alameda, Amador, Butte, Calaveras, Contra Costa, El Dorado, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Benito, San Bernardino, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Stanislaus, Solano, Tulare, Ventura)
Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of Ceroplastes sp., Physokermes insignicola , Saissetia oleae via Metaphycus lounsburyi , M. physokermis ; NEW: Amonostherium lichtensioides , Lecanodiaspis rufescens , Pulvinaria mesembryanthemi via Diversinervus elegans , Microterys nietneri (all UCRC)
Remarks. Specimens of a Cheiloneurus species near inimicus were collected from Fresno and Tehama counties ( EMEC), Marin County ( RLZC) and San Bernardino County, the latter having emerged from a gall on a Quercus sp. ( Fagaceae ) ( UCRC). McCoy & Selhime (1970) reported this species as a primary parasitoid of S. oleae based on the lack of host remains, but Rosen (1981) corrected this, pointing out that hyperparasitoids can consume their entire host.
Distribution. N (Los Angeles, Napa, San Bernardino, San Diego, Ventura)
Distribution. C (Contra Costa, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Stanislaus )
Remarks. This species was accidentally established in Hawaii ( Beardsley 1976). In nature, this species is probably restricted to S. oleae / M. lounsburyi —all other host records are from laboratory rearings. Weseloh (1969) reported this species appears to be able to discriminate between encyrtid and aphelinid primary parasitoids in the scale host.
Remarks. In addition to the species listed above, I have seen specimens that appear to represent an additional 10 morphospecies present in the state
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