Cheiloneurus Westwood 1833

Zuparko, Robert L., 2015, Annotated Checklist of California Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera), Zootaxa 4017 (1), pp. 1-126: 18-20

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4017.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:BBFC3D93-6A7E-4862-84EF-021ADE2F4B3A

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CC87E4-FF95-4348-FF02-C08D8A03FAE7

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Cheiloneurus Westwood 1833
status

 

Cheiloneurus Westwood 1833 

Hosts. Hyperparasitoids of Coleoptera  : Coccinellidae  ; Diptera  : Cecidomyiidae  , Syrphidae  ; Hemiptera  : Aclerdidae  , Cicadellidae  , Coccidae  , Delphacidae  , Eriococcidae  , Kermesidae  , Pseudococcidae  ; Neuroptera  : Chrysopidae  ; via Hymenoptera  : Dryinidae  , Encyrtidae  , Ichneumonidae  , Perilampidae  , Platygastridae 

albinotatus De Santis 1964: 351 [New state record] ( RLZC)

Type. MLPA

Distribution. W (San Benito, Santa Barbara)

Host/habitat. Host unknown, but one specimen was swept from sedge ( Cyperaceae  ), and a series of three specimens were swept from a grassy field.

Remarks. Previously this species has only been recorded from Argentina  , but in addition to those from California, specimens have been collected in Arizona and North Carolina (both UCRCAbout UCRC). banksi ( Howard 1898 a: 247)  ( Chrysopophagus  )

Type. USNMAbout USNM

Distribution. N (Alameda, Calaveras, Contra Costa, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Lassen, Los Angeles, Madera, Marin, Modoc, Napa, Nevada, Plumas, Riverside, San Benito, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Shasta, Sierra, Solano, Sonoma, Stanislaus, Tehama, Tulare)

Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of Antonina graminis  , Eriococcus  sp. via Pseudococcobius  sp.; NEWAbout NEW: Phenacoccus  sp. ( UCRCAbout UCRC), Dysmicoccus timberlakei  , hyperparasitoid of Hyperaspis pleuralis  via Homalotylus affinis  ( EMECAbout EMEC)

Remarks. The specimen ( EMECAbout EMEC) reared from D. timberlakei  is probably a hyperparasitoid of an undescribed species of Pseudleptomastix  , which was reared from the same host. This appears to be a species with a high variation in body color—ranging from coppery fuscous with yellow patches to almost totally dark, with the scutellum always at least partly yellow. A Cheiloneurus  species near banksi  was collected from Inyo County ( UCDCAbout UCDC), and there is another long series from Los Angeles and Riverside counties ( UCRCAbout UCRC).

compressicornis (Ashmead 1894: 246)  ( Chrysopophagus  )

Type. USNMAbout USNM

Distribution. N (Los Angeles, Nevada, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego)

Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of undetermined Syrphidae  , Ceraeochrysa cubana  , C. sanchezi  , C. valida  , Chrysopa nigricornis  , Chrysoperla plorabunda  , C. rufilabris  , via Isodromus iceryae  , I. niger  , Gelis tenellus  , Perilampus chrysopae  ; NEWAbout NEW: Chrysopa oculata  , undetermined Hemerobiidae  (both UCRCAbout UCRC).

Remarks. Two Cheiloneurus  species near compressicornis  were collected in Nevada & Sierra Counties ( UCDCAbout UCDC), another from Imperial County ( UCRCAbout UCRC), and two more specimens from Riverside County, which were reared from a whitefly on Encelia  sp. ( Asteraceae  ). Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)  has been recorded as a host in North America  , but some authorities consider this species is restricted to the Palearctic, and would attribute such Nearctic host records to the C. plorabunda  complex. The host record of a syrphid fly stems from a single observation by McGregor (1914) —it remains to be seen if this represents a misidentification, or if the secondary host range of C. compressicornis  does indeed extend beyond the Neuroptera  (there are no records of I. iceryae  , I. niger  , G. tenellus  or P. chrysopae  attacking any Diptera  ).

elegans ( Dalman 1820: 151)  [New state record]( RLZC)

Type. NHRSAbout NHRS

Distribution. W (Contra Costa, Marin, Stanislaus)

Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of Mayetiola destructor  (via Platygaster zosinae  ), Aclerda subterranea  (via Paraphaenodiscus subterraneus  ), Eulecanium franconicum  , Phenacoccus hordei  , Physokermes piceae  , Pulvinaria vitis  , Trionymus abberans 

Remarks. In South America  and the Old World, this species is recorded as a hyperparasitoid of Aclerdidae  , Pseudococcidae  and Coccidae  , whereas in North America  it is only known as a hyperparasitoid of Diptera  , which suggests records of this species represents a complex of species or two biological races of one species ( Ferriere 1952). Neunenschwander et al. (1987) reported Cheiloneurus  ? elegans  as a hyperparasitoid of Phenacoccus manihoti  via Anagyrus lopezi  in Africa, but this identification has apparently never been confirmed. Eupelmus elegans Dalman 1820  , is a junior of C. elegans ( Noyes 2001)  , which led Noyes (2001) to mistakenly record Rhyacionia buoliana  as a host of this species, based on the report of Millan de De Santis & De Santis (1960). However, the host record in that paper referred to Eupelmus elegans Blanchard 1942  .

flaccus ( Walker 1847: 21)  ( Encyrtus  )

Type. BMNH

Distribution. N (Alpine, Contra Costa, Inyo, Marin, Monterey, Sacramento, Sonoma, Stanislaus)

Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of undetermined Cicadellidae  ; Megamelus proserpina  via Echthrodelphax fairchildii  , Haplogonatopus vitiensis  , Pseudogonatopus hospes 

Remarks. This species was described from material collected in Ohio, and has become established in Hawaii.

inimicus Compere 1925: 297 

Type. USNMAbout USNM

Distribution. W (Alameda, Amador, Butte, Calaveras, Contra Costa, El Dorado, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Benito, San Bernardino, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Stanislaus, Solano, Tulare, Ventura)

Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of Ceroplastes  sp., Physokermes insignicola  , Saissetia oleae  via Metaphycus lounsburyi  , M. physokermis  ; NEWAbout NEW: Amonostherium lichtensioides  , Lecanodiaspis rufescens  , Pulvinaria mesembryanthemi  via Diversinervus elegans  , Microterys nietneri  (all UCRCAbout UCRC)

Remarks. Specimens of a Cheiloneurus  species near inimicus  were collected from Fresno and Tehama counties ( EMECAbout EMEC), Marin County ( RLZC) and San Bernardino County, the latter having emerged from a gall on a Quercus  sp. ( Fagaceae  ) ( UCRCAbout UCRC). McCoy & Selhime (1970) reported this species as a primary parasitoid of S. oleae  based on the lack of host remains, but Rosen (1981) corrected this, pointing out that hyperparasitoids can consume their entire host.

lineascapus Gahan 1910: 207 

Type. USNMAbout USNM

Distribution. N (Los Angeles, Napa, San Bernardino, San Diego, Ventura)

Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of Kermes nigropunctatus  , Saissetia oleae  via Metaphycus lounsburyi  ; NEWAbout NEW: Radiococcus kelloggii  ( EMECAbout EMEC)

Remarks. The host record of a Kermes  sp. on lilac ( Oleaceae  ) given in the original description is probably a misidentification, since as far as is known, Kermes  spp. are restricted to Quercus  spp.

noxius Compere 1925: 302 

Type. USNMAbout USNM

Distribution. C (Contra Costa, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Stanislaus  )

Host/habitat. Hyperparasitoid of Coccus hesperidum  , Saissetia coffeae  , S. oleae  via Diversinervus elegans  , Metaphycus lounsburyi  , M. luteolus  , M. stanleyi  , Microterys nietneri 

Remarks. This species was accidentally established in Hawaii ( Beardsley 1976). In nature, this species is probably restricted to S. oleae  / M. lounsburyi  —all other host records are from laboratory rearings. Weseloh (1969) reported this species appears to be able to discriminate between encyrtid and aphelinid primary parasitoids in the scale host.

spp.

Remarks. In addition to the species listed above, I have seen specimens that appear to represent an additional 10 morphospecies present in the state

UCRC

University of California, Riverside

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

NEW

University of Newcastle

EMEC

Essig Museum of Entomology

UCDC

R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology

NHRS

Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology Collections

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Encyrtidae

Loc

Cheiloneurus Westwood 1833

Zuparko, Robert L. 2015

2015
Loc

lineascapus

Gahan 1910: 207

1910
Loc

elegans (

Dalman 1820: 151

Loc

flaccus (

Walker 1847: 21

Loc

inimicus

Compere 1925: 297

Loc

noxius

Compere 1925: 302