Anagyrus Howard,

Zuparko, Robert L., 2015, Annotated Checklist of California Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera), Zootaxa 4017 (1), pp. 1-126: 55-57

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Anagyrus Howard


Anagyrus Howard  [in Howard & Ashmead] 1896

Hosts. Hemiptera  : Pseudococcidae 

californicus ( Compere 1947: 19)  ( Apoanagyrus  )

Type. USNM

Distribution. W (Alpine, Amador, Calaveras, Contra Costa, Fresno, Inyo, Glenn, Inyo, Lassen, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Joaquin, San Luis Obispo, Solano, Stanislaus)

Host/habitat. Phenacoccus solani  , P. sp.; NEW: Ferrisia virgata  , Phenacoccus gossypii  ( EMEC, UCRC)

Remarks. Noyes (2000) mistakenly reported the holotype was in the collection of the University of California, Riverside. I have seen specimens from throughout the state that are near to A. californicus  but have narrower frontovertex widths and a wide variation in the color of the flagellum. I have provisionally treated these as A. californicus  , but recognize that they may represent additional undescribed species.

clauseni Timberlake 1924: 226 

Type. UCRC

Distribution. W (Fresno, San Joaquin, Santa Clara)

Host/habitat. Pseudococcus maritimus 

Remarks. This species was described on the basis of a single specimen, that was in good condition except for the absence of one flagellum; in the original description, Timberlake (1924: 223) noted his intention of depositing the type in the USNM. However, there is no record of the type at the USNM (M. Gates, in litt.), but, as reported by Noyes (2000: 123), a slide mounted antenna and forewing from the holotype are deposited at UCRC. According to the literature, this species has a disjunct distribution, reported only from California ( Compere 1947) and Chile ( De Santis 1989). Noyes (2000) noted that this species might be synonymous with A. putonophilus  , which also has a disjunct New World distribution (California and Costa Rica).

dzhanokmenae Trjapitzin, Myartseva & Ruiz 2001: 413 Type. USNM

Distribution. N (Contra Costa, Kern, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Diego, San Luis Obispo) Host/habitat. Unknown

Remarks. A small series of specimens from Inyo County ( UCDC) appear to be near to this species.

kamali Moursi 1948: 1 

Type. USNM

Distribution. E (Imperial)

Host/habitat. Ferrisia virgata  , F. sp., Maconellicoccus hirsutus  , Nipaecoccus viridis  , N. sp., Pseudococcus  sp., Trabutina serpentinus 

Remarks. Along with Gyranusoidea indica  , this species was imported in a biocontrol program against M. hirsutus ( Roltsch et al. 2006)  . Releases took place in Imperial County from 1999 through 2002, and included material originating from China, Hawaii and Egypt, and it established as the dominant parasitoid against the mealybug. Shafee et al. (1975) reported Formicococcus  (= Planococcus  ) robustus as a host for A. flavus Agarwal 1965  (later amended to A. flavidus  after Agarwal recognized his original name was a junior homonym of A. flavus Ishii, 1928  ), which is a junior synonym of A. kamali  . However, Noyes & Hayat (1994) noted that specimens of that species in the USNM determined by Shafee et al. are actually A. chrysos Noyes & Hayat, 1994  , thus bringing that host record into question.

nigritus ( Howard 1898 a: 243) ( Aphycus  )

Type. USNM

Distribution. C (Los Angeles)

Host/habitat. Undetermined pseudococcid on Artemisia  sp.

Remarks. In the original description, this species was reported from a “ Dactylopius  sp.” At that time, many mealybugs were placed in Dactylopius  , but that genus is now restricted to cochineal scales, placed in the family Dactylopiidae  .

paralia Noyes & Menezes, in Noyes 2000: 39 [New state record] CSCA, UCRC Type. INBio

Distribution. W (Imperial, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Diego) Host/habitat. Unknown

Remarks. This species was previously known only from Arizona, Texas, Mexico and Costa Rica.

sp. nr. pseudococci  ( Girault 1915 c) ( Epidinocarsis  ).

Remarks. The confusion surrounding the identity of this species rivals that of Copidosoma floridanum  / C. truncatellum  . Anagyrus pseudococci  was described from specimens collected in Sicily, and a species identified as such was introduced into California from Brazil in biocontrol programs against Planococcus citri  in 1934 ( Bartlett & Lloyd 1958), and Pseudococcus longispinus  in 1953 ( Bartlett 1978 c). In 1955, a species identified as A. sp. nr. pseudococci  was imported from Italy against a suite of citrus mealybugs ( Bartlett & Lloyd 1958). Evidently the 1934 attempt failed, but the species established after the later efforts. However, recent research indicated that at least two genetically and reproductively distinct taxa are involved: the “true” A. pseudococci  (native to the Mediterranean area and probably accidentally established in South America  ), and another taxon referred to as Anagyrus  sp. nr. pseudococci  , which is native to the Palearctic region, but has been introduced across the globe (as A. pseudococci  ) in a series of biological control programs (Triapitsyn et al. 2007). It is this second taxon that has become established in California, reported from Fresno, Orange, Riverside and Ventura Counties on Planococcus citri  and P. ficus (Triapitsyn et al. 2007)  , and from San Luis Obispo County on Pseudococcus longispinus  and P. viburni (Daane et al. 2008)  . Trjapitzin (1989: 136) synonymized A. kivuensis Compere 1939  under A. pseudococci  , a taxon that Triapitsyn et al. (2007: 18) treated as A. sp. nr. pseudococci  .

putonophilus Compere 1947: 22 

Type. UCRC

Distribution. W (Marin, Ventura) Host/habitat. Puto ambiguous  , P. yuccae  Remarks. See remarks under A. clauseni  . Compere (1947) reported his intention to deposit new types described in that paper in the US National Museum, but he evidently failed to do so. Compere’s syntype series is at U.C. Riverside, and Noyes (2000) designated a lectotype from that material.

smithi Doutt 1952: 401 

Type. CAS

Distribution. C (Alameda, Contra Costa, Fresno) Host/habitat. Spilococcus implicatus  Remarks. I designated a female specimen as lectotype ( Zuparko 2009).

yuccae ( Coquillet 1890: 44)  ( Blastothrix  )

Type. USNM

Distribution. C (Fresno, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, San Diego)

Host/habitat. Anisococcus crawii  , Pseudococcus maritimus  , Puto yuccae  ; NEW: Amonostherium lichtensioides  , Puto simmondsiae  (both UCRC)

Remarks. Compere (1947) synonymized Anagyrus ferrisi Compere 1926  under Anagyrus  (=Epidinocarsus) subalbicornis ( Girault 1916)  , and noted that the latter was very near to A. yuccae  , but maintained them as different species. However Gahan (1949) later synonymized A. subalbicornis  under A. yuccae  . The record of Achrysopophagus  (= Prochiloneurus  ) modestus  as a host in Peck (1951: 476) probably stems from a misreading of Clausen (1924), who records that species as a hyperparasitoid of P. maritimus  via A. subalbicornis  ).


Remarks. In addition to the species listed above, I have seen specimens that appear to represent an additional 35 morphospecies present in the state ( CSCA, EMEC, RLZC, SBMN, UCDC, UCFC).


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


University of Newcastle


Essig Museum of Entomology


University of California, Riverside


R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology


California State Collection of Arthropods


National Biodiversity Institute, Costa Rica


California Academy of Sciences


University of Central Florida












Anagyrus Howard

Zuparko, Robert L. 2015


Doutt 1952: 401


Moursi 1948: 1


Compere 1947: 22


Timberlake 1924: 226

californicus (

Compere 1947: 19

yuccae (

Coquillet 1890: 44