Tetracnemoidea Howard 1898 a,

Zuparko, Robert L., 2015, Annotated Checklist of California Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera), Zootaxa 4017 (1), pp. 1-126: 63-64

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4017.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:BBFC3D93-6A7E-4862-84EF-021ADE2F4B3A

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CC87E4-FFBA-4364-FF02-C672895FFE8D

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Tetracnemoidea Howard 1898 a
status

 

Tetracnemoidea Howard 1898 a 

Hosts. Hemiptera  : Pseudococcidae 

brevicornis ( Girault 1915 e: 174)  ( Arhopoideus  )

Type. QM

Distribution. E (Alameda, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Diego)

Host/habitat. Pseudococcus calceolariae  , P. longispinus  , P. maritimus  , P. viburni 

Remarks. Imported from Australia in 1928 in a biological control program against Pseudococcus calceolariae  , this species was released at several sites in Southern California, and immediately established ( Bartlett 1978 c, as Hungariella pretiosa  ). Pseudococcus comstocki  is not a proven host (see Methods). In California, I have found the three described species of the genus can occur sympatrically on urban shade trees.

peregrina ( Compere 1939 b: 59)  ( Tetracnemus  )

Type. USNM

Distribution. E (Alameda, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Diego, San Luis Obispo)

Host/habitat. Ferrisia virgata  , Pseudococcus calceolariae  , P. longispinus  , P. maritimus  , P. viburni  , P. sp.

Remarks. Imported from Brazil in 1934 and released in a biocontrol program against Pseudococcus longispinus  , this species became established in southern California ( Bartlett 1978 c). Dysmicoccus brevipes  , Pseudococcus comstocki  , and P. njalensis  are not proven hosts (see Methods). Additionally, Onillon (1988: 484) reports the use of T. peregrina  in a partially successful biocontrol program against Pseudococcus citriculus  in Israel, citing DeBach (1964); however DeBach (1964: 681) reported that parasitoid only in programs against P. longispinus  in California and Bermuda. Noyes (2001), citing Wysoki et al (1989), reported Pseudococcus  sp. as a host; however Wysoki et al. (1989) were referring to P. longispinus  .

sydneyensis ( Timberlake 1929: 18)  ( Anarhopus  )

Type. USNM

Distribution. E (Alameda, Los Angeles, Marin, Orange, Placer, San Diego, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Ventura)

Host/habitat. Pseudococcus calceolariae  , P. longispinus 

Remarks. Imported from Australia in 1933 in a biocontrol program against P. longispinus  , this species was released and established in southern California, and in conjunction with T. peregrina  provided excellent control of the mealybug ( Bartlett 1978 c). Pseudococcus comstocki  and P. njalensis  are not proven hosts (see Methods). One specimen was reportedly reared from a Protopulvinaria  species in Los Angeles County ( UCRC), but this is probably a misidentification of the host.

spp.

Remarks. Specimens from Alameda, Fresno, Santa Barbara and Stanislaus counties ( EMEC, RLZC, SBMN) represent an undescribed species, and single specimens from San Diego ( UCRC) and Marin ( RLZC) represent two additional species.

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

UCRC

University of California, Riverside

EMEC

Essig Museum of Entomology

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Encyrtidae

Loc

Tetracnemoidea Howard 1898 a

Zuparko, Robert L. 2015
2015
Loc

brevicornis (

Girault 1915: 174
Loc

peregrina (

Compere 1939: 59
Loc

sydneyensis (

Timberlake 1929: 18