Efferia forbesi (Curran),

Aubrey G. Scarbrough & Daniel E. Perez-Gelabert, 2009, Review of the West Indian species of Efferia Coquillett (Diptera: Asilidae) with 13 new species and checklist: Part II. Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Lesser Antilles including Tobago and Trinid, Zootaxa 1994, pp. 1-66: 47-52

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.1455810

persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Efferia forbesi (Curran)

sp. nov.

Efferia forbesi (Curran) 

Figs. 90View FIGURES 89–96, 97–102View FIGURES 97–102, Table 1

Erax forbesi Curran 1931: 10  .

Nerax forbesi (Curran)  , Hull 1962: 479. Comb. nov.

Efferia forbesi (Curran)  , Martin & Papavero 1970: 68. Catalogue, comb. nov.

Redescription, male. Measurements, body 10.2–15.0 mm; wing 9.5–12.5 mm. Head: Mostly yellowish-gray tomentose with white vestiture. Face with black bristles medially, mostly dorsally; face at antennae 2/3 as wide as 1 eye. Proboscis and palpi white setose; palpi usually black setose on apical 1/4–1/3. Antennae black setose. Frons yellowish-gray tomentose, vestiture mostly white, with sparse black setae; ocellar tubercle mostly black setose. Postocular bristles usually black, sometimes mostly, sparse black bristles sometimes present.

Thorax: Pronotum pale setose, bristles usually black, sometimes mixed pale and black. Scutum mostly brownish-yellow tomentose, yellowish-gray posteriorly; setae and bristles black, sparse yellow setae laterally above wings; anterior setae longer than scape, sometimes subequal in length to 3 antennal segments; dorsocentral bristles and long thin setae posteriorly, lateral bristles stouter. Scutellum yellowish-gray tomentose, yellow or mixed yellow and black setose, setae longer than scape and pedicel combined; 6–7 marginal bristles, mixed or entirely black or yellow, most thin, 2–4 usually stout. Pleura brownish or brownish-yellow tomentose anteriorly, paler posteriorly, setae usually mostly black dorsally, sometimes only on anepisternum; sparse yellow setae ventrally. Halter pale yellow.

Wing ( Fig. 90View FIGURES 89–96): Slightly brownish on apical 1/2; costal margin moderately dilated; costal cell medially brown. Crossvein r-m at or just before apical 1/4 of d cell. Base of cell r4 beyond d, R4 recurrent vein short, length less than diameter of cell basally.

Legs: Coxae, trochanters and usually femora black, sometimes partly brownish-yellow; setae mostly white, black setae apically; bristles mostly black, metathoracic femora with 2–3 black anteroventral bristles, remaining pale. Tibiae brownish-yellow, apices dark brown or blackish, bristles black, setae mostly pale. Tarsi blackish with slight reddish tint, bristles and setae black.

Abdomen: Mostly white tomentose with whitish setae, setae long and erect on basal 4 segments; tergites 2–5 mostly brown tomentose dorsally with short brown setae; segment 8 blackish, black setose dorsally. Apical margin of sternite 7 produced, and with several unusually long yellowish or black setae, extending beyond base of gonocoxa, partially concealing black setae.

Terminalia ( Figs. 97–100View FIGURES 97–102): Black mostly black setose, yellowish dorsally. Epandrium with dorsal process produced, apical margin with corners rounded; about 3 times as long as wide. Gonocoxa about as long as epandrium, setae moderately dense, mostly blackish, usually bordered by row of sparse pale setae.

Female. Measurements, body 10.9–15.0 mm; 7.8–11.9 mm. Head: Palpi with apical 1/3–1/2 black setose. Thorax: Anterior scutal setae slightly longer than scape and pedicel combined; 2–4 scutellar bristles, yellow or black, setae longer than pedicel and scape combined, sometimes subequal to 3 antennal segments; pleura sometimes mostly yellow setose, anepisternum with sparse black setae dorsally. Abdomen: Mostly grayish tomentose, pale setose, long on sternites 1–6, sternite 6 setae about 1/2 as long as that on 1; tergites 4–7 blackish setose dorsally; segment 7 black, dorsum medially, narrow lateral margin of tergite brown tomentose; sternite 7 mostly or at least medially brownish or brownish-gray tomentose, setae usually pale, yellowish or whitish. Terminalia ( Figs. 101–102View FIGURES 97–102). As long as apical 3 or 4 segments, 8.6–10.3 times longer than middle diameter. Tergite 9 membranous dorsally; length about twice as long as cercus. Spermathecae oval, slightly longer than wide, brownish.

Specimens examined. PUERTO RICO: (holotype ♂, allotype ♀, AMNH); Salinas / 2.vii.1943 ~ AE Pritchard / Collection / 1962 (1 ♂, 1 ♀, NMNH); same data except 2.viii.1943 (1 ♂, 2 ♀, NMNH); Maricao / Bosque Estatal de / Maricao 4.3 km S. Maricao, 18-08-39 N, / 66-58-46W [18o08.39'N, / 66o58.46'W], at summit ~ 980 m 10–11.vi.1996 / J. Rawlins, C. Young, / R. Davidson, W. Zanol, / S. Thompson, R. Klingler ~ (1 ♂, number 62,728, CMNH; 1 ♂ 62,794 CMNH; 1 ♀ 62,288 CMNH); Jayuya / Bosque Estatal del / Toro Negro, 0.7 km SE / Cerro de Punta, / Cordillera Central ~ 18-09-09 N, / 66-58-46W [18o08.39'N, / 66o35.16'W] / 1195 m 9.vi.1996 / J. Rawlins, C. Young, / R. Davidson, W. Zanol, / S. Thompson, R. Klingler ~ (1 ♀; number 67, 878, CMNH). BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS: Guana Island 0–80 m / 5–23.vii.1985 / S.E. & P.M. Miller (1 ♂, NMNH); Guana Island / 1–14.vii.1984 / S.E. & P.M. Miller (1 ♀, NMNH).

Distribution. Puerto Rico, British Virgin Islands (Guana Island). Active at sea level to 980 meters in elevation during June and July.

Remarks. Efferia forbesi  is distinguished from congeners by the brownish-yellow tomentum of the body, slightly to moderately dilated costa, only segments 6 and 7 are white tomentose, the long pale or black setae along the apical margin of sternites 7 and 8 which extend forward partially covering the black setae of the gonocoxa, produced apical margin of sternite 8, and in the characters of the terminalia ( Figs. 97–102View FIGURES 97–102). Though similar to E. portoricensis  , it is further distinguished from that species by the several, often numerous, black setae on the apical 1/3–1/2 of the palps, black setose antennae, and the anterior scutal and scutellar setae are longer that the scape and pedicel combined. The male of E. forbesi  is further distinguished from E. stylata  by the mostly whitish setose palpi and the longer scutal and scutellar setae.

Curran distinguished Efferia forbesi  by the extensive white setae along the margin of the gonocoxite, and his figure suggests that the setae are unusually short. However, the setae is usually black, at most sparse and scattered pale setae, and is always long. The long pale setae on sternites 7–8 ( Fig. 97View FIGURES 97–102) are usually present in specimens from southeastern Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands but usually absent from other parts of Puerto Rico. The male terminalia in both localities are identical.

Efferia montensis  sp. nov.

Figs. 95View FIGURES 89–96, 103–108View FIGURES 103–108, Table 1

Male. Measurements, body 20.1–22.1 mm; wing 14.8–16.2 mm. Head: Yellow tomentose, mostly yellow setose. Mystax black medially with golden yellow setae intermixed; golden yellow setae and bristles laterally and ventrally. Face at antennae 1/2–2/3 as wide as eye. Palpi mostly black setose, yellow on basal 1/3–1/2 ventrally. Antennae and ocellar tubercle black setose. Dorsal postocular bristles orange or yellow.

Thorax: Black, postalar callus sometimes reddish-black, tomentum mostly yellow, bristles and setae black. Pronotum with yellow vestiture. Scutum golden brownish-yellow tomentose, dark anteriorly, paler posteriorly; setae short dorsally, longer anteriorly and posteriorly, anterior setae about as long as scape; bristles black, lateral bristles stout and long, dorsocentrals much thinner, shorter, seta-like except 1–2 moderately thick posterior bristles. Scutellum yellowish tomentose, entirely yellow setose, often black setose medially, sparse yellow setae laterally, setae slightly longer than scape; 4 black, yellow, or mixed marginal bristles, usually with sparse orangish or blackish bristly setae. Pleura yellowish-brown or brown tomentose anteriorly, yellow posteriorly, vestiture variable mostly black or yellow, mixed black and yellowish or entirely yellow ventrally; anepisternium usually black setose dorsally and posteriorly. Halter pale yellow.

Wing ( Fig. 95View FIGURES 89–96): Brownish, costa reddish brown or brown medially. Costal margin slightly produced, veins reddish-brown, thicker veins blackish. Crossvein r-m at apical 1/3 of discal cell. Base of cell r4+5 just beyond apex of d; R5 joining costa at or just above wing apex. R4 recurrent vein as long or much shorter than basal width of cell r4.

Legs: Coxae, trochanters, and femora black with black bristles, metathoracic femora sometimes brownishyellow apically and basally on metathoracic femora; setae golden yellow, long, and abundant on coxae and prothoracic and mesothoracic femora ventrally, scattered, shorter black setae anteriorly; metathoracic femora entirely black setose, setae long ventrally, with 6 black anteroventral bristles. Tibiae brownish-yellow, apices blackish, long scattered setae yellowish, short dense setae coppery, bristles black. Tarsi black, reddish –black or brownish-yellow basally, setae and bristles black.

Abdomen: Black, slightly reddish-black apically; tergites 1–4 brownish-yellow tomentose laterally, black dorsally and narrow basal margin of tergites 3–4; setae long, yellow laterally and dorsally on tergites 1–2; short black setae on tergites 2–4, sparse on tergite 2; sternites 1–4 yellowish tomentose, with long, fine, yellow setae, lengths only slightly shorter on 3–4. Segments 5–7, sometimes narrow base of 4, white tomentose, whitish setae, tergite 5 basally sometimes with sparse black setae; apical margin of sternites 6–7 with row of long, stout, white setae. Segment 8 reddish-black, transverse row of long, bristly, setae ventrally.

Terminalia ( Figs. 103–106View FIGURES 103–108): Black, slightly reddish-black anteriorly, mostly black setose, sparse yellowish setae dorsally. Epandrium 3 times as long as wide, with 2 dorsoposterior digitate processes. Gonocoxa and gonostylus slightly shorter than epandrium, gonocoxa dense black setose. Gonostylus capitate, apex pointed. Aedeagus distinctive.

Female. Measurements, body 19.1–21.4 mm; wing 13.8–17.0 mm. Head: Black facial bristles often numerous, extending along oral margin laterally. Basal 1/3 of palpi yellowish setose ventrally. Thorax: Dorsocentral bristles often stout. Scutellum entirely yellow or mostly black setose; usually 2, sometimes 6, black or yellow marginal bristles. Pleura entirely yellow setose. Wing: Costal cell dark yellow; R4 recurrent vein as long as or longer than basal width of cell. Legs: Femora sometimes yellow dorsally and apically, often entirely black, mostly yellow setose; tibiae brownish-yellow or reddish. Tarsi reddish-black or brownishyellow basally. Abdomen: Tergites 1–6 laterally and sternites 1–7 usually yellowish-gray tomentose, sometimes brownish-yellow; all tergites brown dorsally; setae mostly yellow, long on basal segments and laterally on tergites 3–6, sparse black setae on 5 or 6, sometimes abundant on 6; segment 7 mostly or entirely black setose. Terminalia ( Figs. 107–108View FIGURES 103–108): Black, base wide, 4.5–5.0 mm, longer than segments 5–7, about 10–11 times longer than diameter at middle. Spermathecae spherical, mostly brownish. Cercus 1/2 as long as tergite 9.

Types. PUERTO RICO: 11.viii.30 / Utuado (holotype ♂, AMNH); 3/30 / Utuado ~ 27 (1 ♀, AMNH); 11.viii.30 / Utuado ~ 27 (1 ♀, AMNH); 14.vii.30 / Utuado ~ Erax stylatus Fabr.  (1 ♀, AMNH); [teneral], Aibonito, P.R. / 13.vi.1915 ~ F-3937 ~ Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. / Dept. Invert. Zool. (1 ♂, AMNH); Aibonito, P.R. / 1–3.vi.1915 ~ Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. / Dept. Invert. Zool. / No. ~ A.M.N.H. / Collection (1 ♂, 1 ♀, FSCA);

Cerro de Guardarraya / Patilla, P. Rico, Luz / O.H. Garrido y A. Silva ~ HPPR-2638 / Assilidae [ Asilidae  ] ~ 11.xii.04 (1 ♀, NMNH); Aibonito / P.R. 6.i.15 ~ C.W. Johnson coll. (1 ♂, 1 ♀, MCZ).

Etymology. Latin montensis  , from the mountains, refers to the fact that the material were collected in montane areas in Puerto Rico.

Remarks. The large robust body, yellow and brownish-yellow tomentum of the body, yellow facial setae, and unique terminalia distinguish E. montensis  ( Figs. 103–108View FIGURES 103–108). The male is further characterized by 3 white tomentose abdominal segments, slightly dilated costal margin of the wing, the spike-like apical process of the epandrium, the long gonostylus and gonocoxa, the capitate gonostylus, and long ovipositor which is subequal to the apical 4 abdominal segments. The female is further distinguished by the spherical spermatheca, and short, wide ovipositor.


American Museum of Natural History


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


The Cleveland Museum of Natural History


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


Museum of Comparative Zoology














Efferia forbesi (Curran)

Aubrey G. Scarbrough & Daniel E. Perez-Gelabert 2009

Erax forbesi

Curran 1931: 10