Efferia spinula, Scarbrough & Perez-Gelabert, 2009
Aubrey G. Scarbrough & Daniel E. Perez-Gelabert, 2009, Review of the West Indian species of Efferia Coquillett (Diptera: Asilidae) with 13 new species and checklist: Part II. Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Lesser Antilles including Tobago and Trinid, Zootaxa 1994, pp. 1-66: 38-40
treatment provided by
Efferia spinula sp. nov.
Figs. 70–75View FIGURES 70–75, Table 1
Male. Measurements, body 13.8–15.0 mm; wing 8.7–10.6 mm. Mostly gray tomentose, white setae and bristles. Head: Face pale yellowish-gray tomentose, vestiture white, sometimes with 1–4 black bristles dorsally; face at antennae about 3/4 as wide as eye at antennae. Frons, palpi, and ocellar tubercle white setose. Antennae mostly black setose, scape with white setae ventrally. Occiput whites setose, postocular bristles pale yellowish or whitish.
Thorax: Pronotum gray tomentose, white vestiture. Scutum usually pale yellowish-gray tomentose, gray posteriorly; setae mostly black, whitish setose narrowly along anterior, lateral, and posterior margins; anterior scutal setae about 2/3 as long as scape; scutal bristles usually black, 1 sometimes pale. Scutellum grayish tomentose, white setose, setae as long as scape and pedicel combined; marginal bristles whitish, 2 stout, 1 additional thinner, 1 bristle sometimes black. Pleura gray tomentose, pale yellowish-gray anteriorly; setae and bristles white. Halter yellow.
Wing: Costal margin moderately dilated, costal cell and apical veins brownish. Cell r4 narrow basally, base well beyond cell d apically; R4 recurrent vein absent. Crossvein r-m about apical 1/3 of cell d.
Legs: Mostly black, tibiae mostly brownish-yellow or yellow, apices black; setae mostly whitish. Femora with sparse black setae apically, bristles mostly white, sparse black bristles apically; metathoracic femora with 1 black apical anteroventral bristle. Tibiae with sparse long pale setae, short, dense setae pale yellow or yellow ventrally. Tarsomeres reddish basally, apices black; metathoracic tarsus often entirely reddish-black; bristles black; dense setae yellow ventrally.
Abdomen: Mostly gray tomentose, white setose; tergites sparsely tomentose dorsally, blackish in dorsal view, wide sides denser gray tomentose; sternites 1–3 long, erect, shorter beyond except long and dense along apical margin of 7–8.
Terminalia ( Figs. 70–73View FIGURES 70–75): Black, black setose, yellowish dorsally. Epandrium 2.1–2.5 longer than wide, narrow dorsoposterior process, posterior margin narrowly membranous; dorsomedial process strongly narrowed to acute point. Gonostylus narrow, mostly membranous apically. Aedeagus with minute spine at angle of aedeagal flange; tubes oblique, angled about 130 degrees. Gonocoxa with a prominent anterior tubercle, lateral surface with numerous transverse grooves and ridges; setae dense, longest posteriorly, slightly shorter ventrally.
Female. Measurements, body 11.8–13.1 mm; wing 8.4–10.3 mm. Head: Face with 6–8 black bristles medially; palpi usually entirely white setose, sometimes 1–2 black setae. Postocular bristles usually pale, sometimes 1–3 black. Thorax: Scutum grayish tomentose; anterior setae white, about 2/3–1/2 as long as scape, black setae much shorter. Scutellar setae about 1/2 as long as scape; 2–3 short marginal bristles, about as long as midline length of scutellum, usually white, sometimes 1 black and 1 white, rarely black. Wing: Costal cell only slightly brownish. Cell r4 nearly square basally, diameter about as long as R4 recurrent vein. Legs: Prothoracic femur ventrally with 3–4 stout pale bristles. Femoral bristles mostly or entirely white; mesothoracic and metathoracic femora with 2 and 1 black bristles respectively. Abdomen: Mostly gray tomentose, white setose; wide sides of tergites 1–6 gray, partly black setose on 5 or 6–7 dorsally. Tergite 7 black, atomentose, at most diffuse brown tomentum dorsally, black setose; sternite 7 gray tomentose basally, setae usually white basally, black apically. Terminalia ( Figs. 74–75View FIGURES 70–75): Length 3.1–4.0 mm, 9.0–12.5 times longer than wide at middle.
Distribution. Known only from the type locality.
Types. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Independencia Prov., terrenos / Zona Franca (E. of Duverge), / 18o22.260’N 71o28.954’W, / 12 m, 11.viii.2006, D. Perez, / R. Bastardo, B. Hierro (holotype ♂, NMNH). Paratypes: same data as holotype (2 ♂, 6 ♀, NMNH; 2 ♂, 3 ♀, MHND); Pr. [Prov.] Barahona, 29 km E. / Barahona, 29.ix.85 / Woodruff & Stange (1 ♂, FSCA); RD-135 ~ 7 km Rd. to Caseta 1, / Parque Nacional Sierra de / Bahoruco, Independencia Prov., / 18o17.711’N / 71o34.335’W, / 777 m, 3.vii.2003, D. Perez / R. Bastardo, B. Hierro (day) (1 ♀, NMNH); RD-176 Southern slopes of / Cerro Gordo, Baní [Peravia Prov.], on way to / Salinas, 18o16.138’N 70o20. / 630’W, 23.xi.2003, D. Perez, / R. Bastardo, A. Francisci (d) (1 ♀, NMNH); RD-232 Road San Juan - / Vallejuelo, near river, San / Juan Prov., 449 m, 18o41. / 754’N / 71o1.725’W, 21.iv. / 2004, D. Perez, B. Hierro, / R. Bastardo (d) (1 ♀, NMNH); RD-233Few kms E. Valle- / juelo, San Juan Prov., 704 m, / 18o40.122’N / 71o18.446’W, / 21.iv.2004, D. Perez, B. / Hierro, R. Bastardo (d) (5 ♀, NMNH).
Distribution. Dominican Republic: Barahona, Independencia, Peravia and San Juan provinces. Active at sea level to 777 meters in elevation during April, July, August, September, and November.
Etymology. Latin spinula for small spine, referring to the spine on the apical margin of the aedeagal flange.
Remarks. Efferia spinula is most similar to E. fortis in color of the vestiture and tomentum but differs in the more slender male terminalia, not significantly inflated or with angular shoulders, and in the combined characters of the apical processes, aedeagus, gonostylus, and gonocoxa ( Figs. 70–75View FIGURES 70–75). The female is almost identical to females of E. fortis and E. clava but is distinguished by the short marginal scutellar bristles and the combined characters of the terminalia ( Figs. 74–75View FIGURES 70–75).
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