Efferia fortis (Walker),

Aubrey G. Scarbrough & Daniel E. Perez-Gelabert, 2009, Review of the West Indian species of Efferia Coquillett (Diptera: Asilidae) with 13 new species and checklist: Part II. Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Lesser Antilles including Tobago and Trinid, Zootaxa 1994, pp. 1-66: 20-23

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.1455810

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CD2B50-FFFB-6753-0FAC-FBECFB2F8AD6

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Efferia fortis (Walker)
status

 

Efferia fortis (Walker) 

Figs. 27–32View FIGURES 27–32, 91View FIGURES 89–96, Table 1

Erax fortis Walker, 1855: 623  . Type ♂, locality Dominican Republic, Santo Domingo District. BMNH; Aldrich 1905: 276. Catalogue; Kertész 1909: 236. Catalogue.

Nerax fortis, Hull 1962: 479  . Comb. nov., syn. nov. of Erax rufitibia Macquart. 

Efferia fortis, Martin & Papavero 1970: 56  . Catalogue; comb. nov.

Erax rufitibia Macquart 1848: 187  (1848: 27). Syntype ♀, Haiti, not Río Negro, Brazil specimen, OUMNH; Curran 1953, 1644. Name restricted for Río Negro syntype, Haitian syntype without name.

Nerax rufitibia, Hull 1962: 479  . Comb. nov.

Efferia rufitibia, Martin & Papavero 1970: 56  . Catalogue; comb. nov.

Phoneus flavotibius Bigot, 1878: 239  . Type ♀, locality Haiti, OUMNH; syn. nov.

Neophoneus flavotibius, Bigot 1879:21  . ( Phoneus  ), emend; Martin and Papavero 1970: 45. Catalogue; comb. nov.

Neophoneus  flavitibius, flavipes Bigot, 1880: 40 ( Phoneus  ), error or emend.

Neophoneus flavitibia Aldrich, 1905: 273  , emend.

Male. Measurements, body 12.5–15.6 mm; wing 9.3–11.0 mm. Black, mostly white tomentose with white setae. Head: Mostly yellowish-gray tomentose, vestiture pale. Face mostly pale tomentose, setae white, usually sparse black bristles dorsally, sometimes scattered medially, stout white or yellowish bristles along oral margin; face at antennae 3/4 as wide as 1 eye. Palpi mostly or entirely white setose, often sparse black setae apically. Antennae with scape and pedicel apically and styles mostly reddish; black setose. Frons setae mostly or entirely white, sometimes 1–3 setae black. Ocellar tubercle setae black. Occiput mostly white setose, postocular bristles thin, usually pale, 1–3 bristles black.

Thorax: Pronotum gray or brownish-yellow tomentose, setae and bristles yellowish or white. Scutum with median stripe and lateral spots brown tomentose, dark brownish-yellow or yellowish-brown laterally; vestiture mostly black, sparse setae laterally; anterior setae about as long as scape; 4 lateral and 2 dorsocentral bristles stout. Scutellum yellowish-gray tomentose, usually yellowish setose, sometimes sparse black setae, setae longer than scape and pedicel combined; usually 2–3 black marginal bristles, 2 stout. Pleura mostly gray tomentose or brownish anteriorly, pale brownish-gray posteriorly; vestiture pale. Halter yellow.

Wing ( Fig. 91View FIGURES 89–96): Slightly brownish, costal cell darker brown; costal margin slightly dilated, base whitish setose. Crossvein r-m at apical 1/3 of cell d. Base of cell r4 narrow, usually with short R4 recurrent vein, about 1/2 as long as cell base, sometimes absent.

Legs: Black except yellow tibiae, apices black; setae mostly whitish, yellowish below tibiae, bristles black; femoral bristles usually pale, 1–3 black below metathoracic femora, rarely 5–6. Metathoracic tibiae apically normal. Tarsi black, bristles black, setae yellowish ventrally.

Abdomen: Black, usually tergites 2–4 dark brown tomentose, mostly white setose, sparse blackish setae dorsally, wide sides white tomentose, white setose; usually tergites 5–7, sometimes 4 entirely or apex of 4 white tomentose; sternites 1–7 white tomentose, white setose; setae erect and long on sternites 1–3 and apical margin of 7.

Terminalia ( Figs. 27–30View FIGURES 27–32): Black, mostly black setose, pale setae dorsally, rarely basally; inflated apically, about 1.5 times wider than median width. Epandrium 2.3–2.7 times longer than wide, with broad shoulders apically, mound-like dorsal process, and dorsoposterior ear-like process. Gonostylus narrow, blade-like apically, notched posteriorly. Aedeagus with apex hooked, flanges immediately below, pointed apically with curved anterior margin. Gonocoxa wide, abruptly and strongly narrow apically, posterior margin unusually narrow; setae black, dense, shorter basally, longer along posterior margin.

Female. Measurements, body 14.3–15.9 mm; wing 10.0– 10.6 mm. Head: Face with scattered black bristles medially, stout yellow bristles, sometimes black, along oral margin. Palpi pale, often sparse black setae apically. Postocular bristles usually yellowish or white. Thorax: Pronotal bristles mostly or entirely yellow. Anterior scutal setae short, less than 1/2 as long as scape. Scutellar setae yellowish and short 1/3–1/2 as long as scape; 2 stout marginal bristles, yellow or black. Wing: R4 recurrent vein as long or longer than diameter of cell r4 basally. Legs: Fore femur with row of stout bristles ventrally. Metathoracic femora with mostly pale anteroventral bristles, 3–5 bristles sometimes black. Abdomen: Tergites 2–7 brownish-yellow tomentose dorsally, appears dark brown in lateral view, wide sides white. Setae mostly white; tergites 3–6 brown setose dorsally; sternites 1–3 with sparse, long, erect setae, progressively shorter beyond. Abdominal segment 7 black, brown tomentose dorsally, mostly atomentose or shiny laterally, base of sternite 8 narrowly whitish tomentose; setae black. Terminalia ( Figs. 31–32View FIGURES 27–32): 3.1–4.8 mm, 8.4–10.0 times longer than wide at middle. Spermathecae obovate, slightly longer than wide, gradually tapered to narrow, rounded apex. Cercus about 1/ 3 as long as tergite 9, latter mostly membranous dorsally.

Specimens examined. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Round label with green borders and word type ~ round white label with St / Domingo ~ round label with red margin and the words holotype ~ white label with Erax fortis Walk.  (holotype ♂, BMNH); RD-229 ~ 2 km road to San / Juan, near bridge on Viajama / river, Azua Prov., 294 m, 18o / 35.245’N 70o58.085’W, 20.iv. / 2004, D. Perez, B. Hierro, R. Bastardo. (d) (3 ♂, 2 ♀, NMNH); RD-241 Entrance to Boca / Vieja Marina, Near Biyeya  / beach, Azua Prov., 23.iv. / 2004, D. Perez, B. Hierro (n) (2 ♂, MHND); Azua Prov., Monte Río 18o / 24.119’N 70o42.671’W, 18 m, / 16.viii.2006, D. Perez, R. Bastardo (1 ♂, 1 ♀, NMNH); Prov. Barahona, 5km / NW of Barahona, Agr. / Exp. Sta. 29–30. iv.78 ~ G.B. Fairchild / R.E. Woodruff Insect Flight Trap ~ Efferia  / nigrimystaceus  / Macq. / det. J. Wilcox 80 (1 ♂, 1 ♀, FSCA); Rd-135 ~ 7 km Rd. to Caseta 1, / Parque Nacional Sierra de / Bahoruco, Independencia Prov., / 18o17.711’N / 71o34.335’W, / 777 m, 3.vii.2003, D. Perez / R. Bastardo, B. Hierro (day) (2 ♀, NMNH); RD- 187 Near Uvero, Rd. to / Playa Buen Hombre, 200 m, / 7.xii.2003, D. Perez, R. Bas- / tardo, A. Marmolejos (2 ♂, 2 ♀, MHND); Independencia Prov., Puerto / Escondido, canal on western / end of town, 18o19.442’N / 71o34.485’W, 415 m, 13.viii. / 2006, D. Perez, R. Bastardo, B. Hierro (1 ♀, NMNH); Independencia Prov., Puerto / Escondido, 18o19.372’N 71o / 34.014’W, 427 m, 12.viii. / 2006, D. Perez, R. Bastardo, B. Hierro (1 ♀, NMNH) RD-224 5 km on road to / Botoncillo, Monte Cristi Prov., / [18o]46.220’N 71 o 24.001’W, 16.iv. / 2004, D. Perez, B. Hierro (d/n) (2 ♂, 2 ♀, NMNH); Monte Cristi, 5 km / NNE Botoncillo / 50 m, 19-46N, 71- 24W ~ 29–30 November 1992 / R. Davidson, M. Kingler / S. Thompson, J. Rawlins / Arid thornscrub (1 ♀, CMNH); Pr. [Prov.] / Monte Cristi, 10 km. N. / Villa Elisa, 1.x.1985 ~ L.A. Stange / coll. (1 ♂, FSCA); RD- 186 Rd. to Playa Buen / Hombre, Monte Cristi Prov., / 132 m, 19o46.213’N 71o23. / 996’W, 6–7.xii.2003, D. / Perez, R. Bastardo, A. Mar- / molejos. (1 ♀, MHND); Peravia Prov., Bahía, ~ 5 km / W of Baní, 18o17.460’N / 70o23.090’W, 90 m, 8.viii. / 2006, D. Perez, R. Bastardo (1 ♂, 2 ♀, NMNH); Peravia, 2 km E Los / Ranchitos, 10 km SSE / San Jose de Ocoa / 700 m, 18-28N, 70-28W ~ 4 October 1991 / R. Davidson, C. Young, / S. Thompson, J. Rawlins / Semiarid woodland ~ Carnegie Museum / Specimen Number / CMNH- 306,920 (1 ♀, CMNH); Peravia Prov., Arroyo Grande / bridge dividing Honduras / Angostura, 18o21.383’N 70o / 25.993’W, 230 m, 8.viii.2006, / D. Perez, R. Bastardo (1 ♂, NMNH); RD-238 1 km SE Bastida, / foothills near canal of Yaque / del Sur river, San Juan Prov., / 23.iv.2004, D. Perez, B. Hierro (2 ♂, 1 ♀, MHND); RD-233 few kms E Valle- / juelo, San Juan Prov., 704 m, / 18o40.122’N 71o18.446’W, / 21.iv.2004, D. Perez, B. / Hierro, R. Bastardo. (d) (1 ♂, 1 ♀, NMNH); RD-243 Babosico, on way to / Jánico, Santiago Prov., 515 m / 19o20.955’N 70o47.503’W, 27 / iv.2004, D. Perez, B. Hierro, / R. Bastardo (1 ♂, NMNH); 12087, no data (1 ♂, IIBZ); 12088 no data (1♂, IIBZ). HAITI: Port-au-Prince [Ouest dept.] / Haiti 8–11.iv.1922 ~ About 300 ft. alt., / F. 4660 ~ C.H. Curran / Collection / Acc. 31144 (1 ♂, NMNH); Port-au- Prince / 5–11.iii.1922 ~ About 300 ft. alt. / F. 4642 ~ Erax  styllatus F. / Det. C.H. Curran (1 ♂, NMNH); Portau-Prince / Haiti 8–11.iv.1922 ~ About 300 ft. alt. / F. 4660 (1 ♂, NMNH); Carrefour, Haiti / iv.8.1922 / F. 4659 (1 ♂, NMNH); Port-au-Prince / Haiti 15–23.i.1922. ~ About 300 ft. alt. / F. 4618 (1 ♂, NMNH); Bois Caradeux / Coll. E.M. Ducasse ~ Port-au-Prince, / HAITI. 7–10.ix.1934 ~ S.W. Bromley / Collection / 1955 (12 ♂, 4 ♀, NMNH); same data except label Erax haitensis Macquart  / Det. S.W. Pritchard 1936 (1 ♂, NMNH); Acc. 1052-25 / Port-au-Prince / Haiti, v.1925 G.N. Wolcott / Coll. ~ A. E. Bromley Collection 1955 (3 ♀, NMNH); Acc. 1055-25 / Port-au-Prince / Haiti, v.1925 G.N. Wolcott / Coll. ~ S.W. Bromley Collection 1955 (3 ♂, NMNH); S.W. Bromley / Collection / 1955 (1 ♂, 2 ♀, NMNH); Haiti ~ Erax  sp. ~ A.E. Pritchard / Collection / 1958 (1 ♂, NMNH).

Distribution. Dominican Republic: Azua, Barahona, Independencia, Monte Cristi, Peravia, San Juan and Santiago provinces; Haiti: Ouest department. Captured from sea level to 704 meters in elevation during January, March – May, and July –December.

Remarks. Efferia fortis  is distinguished by the mostly whitish or yellowish vestiture and tomentum of the head, pale pronotal bristles, the pale femoral setae and bristles, and the combined characters of the terminalia ( Figs. 27–32View FIGURES 27–32). The male is further distinguished by the slightly dilated costal margin of the wing, the strongly inflated terminalia with broad apical shoulders, the aedeagal tubes are strongly hooked with the apices near the wide flanges immediately below the apex, forming a claw-like appendage, and the abruptly apically narrowed gonocoxa. The female is distinguished by the unusually short setae on the anterior margin of the scutum, the pale scutellum setae, and the black setose tergite 7 with mostly atomentose sides.

The male type of Efferia  (= Erax  ) fortis  is in the BMNH. The specimen is mounted on a short pin which penetrates a rectangular sheet of plastic. The plastic sheet is mounted on a longer insect pin and bears 5 labels. The type is in fair condition with only the flagellum and style, right prothoracic leg and left prothoracic tarsus missing. The right mesothoracic leg is glued to the sheet of plastic below the specimen.

NMNH

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

FSCA

Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology

CMNH

The Cleveland Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Asilidae

Genus

Efferia

Loc

Efferia fortis (Walker)

Aubrey G. Scarbrough & Daniel E. Perez-Gelabert 2009
2009
Loc

Efferia fortis

Martin & Papavero 1970: 56
1970
Loc

Efferia rufitibia

, Martin & Papavero 1970: 56
1970
Loc

Nerax fortis

Hull 1962: 479
1962
Loc

Nerax rufitibia

Hull 1962: 479
1962
Loc

Neophoneus flavitibia

Aldrich 1905: 273
1905
Loc

Neophoneus

Williston 1890
1890
Loc

Neophoneus flavotibius

Bigot 1879: 21
1879
Loc

Phoneus flavotibius

Bigot 1878: 239
1878
Loc

Erax fortis

Walker 1855: 623
1855
Loc

Erax rufitibia

Macquart 1848: 187
1848