Jaliscoa hunteri (Crawford),

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2013, Revision of the species of Jaliscoa Bouček within a review of the identity, relationships and membership of Jaliscoa, Catolaccus Thomson, Eurydinoteloides Girault, Lyrcus Walker and Trimeromic, Zootaxa 3612 (1), pp. 1-85: 35-47

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3612.1.1

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:FEE56A44-B572-4A95-BC11-2FA9D1187AF8

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CD8781-FFC1-FFA7-75E4-B66DFB18FEA7

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scientific name

Jaliscoa hunteri (Crawford)
status

n. comb.

Jaliscoa hunteri (Crawford)  n. comb.

Figs 85–96View FIGURES 85 – 90View FIGURES 91 – 96

Catolaccus hunteri Crawford, 1908: 160  . Holotype (Ƥ, USNM, examined). Type data: Texas, Mineola, bred from Anthonomus grandis Boh. 

Catolaccus townsendi Crawford, 1912: 172  –173. Holotype (Ƥ, USNM, examined). Type data: Peru, Department of Piura, 795 ° 3 e, C. H.T. Townsend, ex Anthonomus vestitus  . Synonymy under C. hunteri  by Gahan, 1951: 175. Reestablished as valid species by Burks, 1954: 11. Re-established syn.

Zatropis hunteri  ; Crawford, 1921: 171.

Heterolaccus hunteri  ; Burks, 1954: 9.

Heterolaccus townsendi  ; Burks, 1954: 11.

Pteromalus hunteri  ; De Santis, 1979: 148.

Pteromalus townsendi  ; De Santis, 1979: 151. Catolaccus hunteri  ; Burks, 1979: 806.

Description. FEMALE (habitus: Figs 89View FIGURES 85 – 90, 91View FIGURES 91 – 96). Length = 1.9–4.6 mm. Head. Face ( Fig. 85View FIGURES 85 – 90) with clypeus more or less uniformly, longitudinally, finely striate to strigose, and finely, obliquely, coriaceous-alutaceous for at least half distance to eye and then meshlike coriaceous or only very shallowly coriaceous-reticulate adjacent to eye, but with parascrobal region vertically striate-alutaceous, scrobal depression meshlike reticulate, and supraclypeal region meshlike reticulate to partly coriaceous ( Fig. 88View FIGURES 85 – 90); malar space without malar sulcus ( Fig. 88View FIGURES 85 – 90), though sometimes with line of finer sculpture extending between lower orbit and oral margin at posterior limit of malar depression, and 0.37–0.57× eye height ( Fig. 85View FIGURES 85 – 90) and 0.61–0.97× eye width. Antenna ( Fig. 85View FIGURES 85 – 90) with scape yellowish or with up to about apical two-thirds brown, and pedicel and flagellum variably yellowish-brown to dark brown.

Mesosoma. Tegula yellow to brown. Pronotum with collar abruptly angled relative to collum ( Fig. 91View FIGURES 91 – 96), but not raised or carinate anteriorly, and laterally shallowly sinuate ( Fig. 90View FIGURES 85 – 90). Mesopectus ( Fig. 92View FIGURES 91 – 96) with short, horizontal ridge or at least abrupt angulation at level of base of mesocoxa, but carinate anterior margin of femoral depression not continuous ventrally anterior to mesocoxa and setal line extending close to anterior angle of mesocoxa. Fore wing with 1–6 setae within costal cell ventroapically; disc varying from uniformly setose beyond broad, oblique speculum extending to about middle of marginal vein or middle of stigmal vein ( Fig. 93View FIGURES 91 – 96), to essentially glabrous to or beyond level of stigmal vein ( Fig. 94View FIGURES 91 – 96), though sometimes with variably large setal region that does not extend posteriorly to medial fold proximal to stigma or stigmal vein; admarginal area with 7–19 setae usually arranged in 1 or 2 irregular rows; marginal fringe usually complete though sometimes absent; smv: mv: pmv: stv about: 3.3–4.3: 2.1–3.1: 1.3–2.0: 1.0. Legs ( Fig. 91View FIGURES 91 – 96) with femora brown and more northern specimens usually with noticeably darker, variably broad orange to dark brown band on at least meso- and/or metatibiae, though southern specimens usually with tibiae more uniformly yellowish-white to white. Propodeum ( Figs 95, 96View FIGURES 91 – 96) with callus uniformly convex, without oblique carina lateral of spiracle; plical carina variable, sometimes with a complete, sinuate carina between basal plical depression and nucha ( Fig. 96View FIGURES 91 – 96), but usually less evident as a fine, raised line partly between plical depression and nucha and/or only a short carina within nuchal furrow, and sometimes completely absent; plical region with median carina extending to nucha, but more or less uniformly convex or with variably developed transverse angulation or ridge recurved anteromesally from plical depression so as to delineate transverse, depressed anterior panel at most as long as posterior panel and at least slightly shorter than nucha.

Metasoma. Gaster ( Figs 89View FIGURES 85 – 90, 91View FIGURES 91 – 96) usually not contrasting conspicuously in color with mesosoma, variably dark brown to almost black with metallic lustres dorsobasally on Gt 1 and basolaterally on other terga, though sometimes more reddish- or orangey-brown with limited metallic lustres; lanceolate, length about 2.2–2.9× as long as wide (typically more elongate-slender in air-dried specimens with collapsed gaster); Gt 2 and Gt 3 with posterior margins variably distinctly emarginate, but at most with very short, white, mediolongitudinal line posteriorly (though critical-point dried specimen with inflated gaster usually with one or more of Gt 2 –Gt 4 impressed mediolongitudinally); syntergum at least about as long as wide and with about apical half setose; cercus conical but short, not distinctly digitiform.

MALE ( Fig. 86View FIGURES 85 – 90). Similar to female except as follows: gaster with large, subbasal, yellowish region; fore wing with up to 9 setae ventroapically in costal cell, disc always extensively setose except for oblique speculum extending to base of stigmal vein, and marginal vein sometimes only about 2 x as long as stigmal vein.

Type information. Crawford (1908) listed only Mineola (Ƥ) and Waco (3), Texas, as localities when he described C. hunteri  , but specimens in the USNM from Palestine, Terrell and Waco, Texas, as well as Alexandria, Forbing and Marksville, Louisiana, are labelled as paratypes. Burks (1975) stated that the two female paralectotypes of Eurydinoteloides orontas (Walker 1847)  were not conspecific with the lectotype. I examined all three type specimens and one that bears a Burks identification label with “ Catolaccus  ” is a small J. hunteri  female, which I labelled as such.

Material examined. NEARCTIC. USA. ARIZONA: Cochise  Co., Douglas— 22.XI. 58, J.A. Russell, on Sphaeralcea  (1 USNM); 7 mi. NE, 27.VIII. 79, C.W. Melton (1 UCRC). nr Tombstone, 22.VIII. 93, M. Sharkey (2 CNC). Maricopa  Co., Theba, 10 mi. W, 12.V. 53, Asclepias subulata, Schlinger & Bechtel  (1 EMEC). Navajo Co., Winslow, 23 mi. W, 3.VII. 53, E.S. Ross (3 CASC). Pima  Co., Organ Pipe Cactus Nat'l Monument, Williams Spring, 15.II. 70, P.H. Arnaud Jr. (1 CASC). Tucson, 14.I. 32, T.P. Cassidy, ex Anthonomus grandis thurberiae  larvae and pupae (1 USNM). Pinal Co., Stanfield, 7.VIII. 66, A. Stoner, on Sphaeralcea  (1 USNM). Santa Cruz Co., Patagonia— 31 º32.52'N 110 º46.03'W, 13–20.VIII. 95, B. Brown & E. Wilk (1 CNC); 4.5 mi. N, 12.VIII. 83 (1 CNC). Sycamore Canyon— 8, 18.V. 83, R.S. Anderson (1 BMNH, 1 CNC); Peña Blanca, 9 mi. W, 12.VIII. 83, R. Anderson (2 CNC). Yavapai Co., Ash Fork, 17.VI, Barber & Schwarz (1 USNM). Campe Verde, 4.6 mi. N, 17.V. 83, R.S. Anderson (1 CNC). ARKANSAS: Clark Co., Arkadelphia, C.E. Hood, par. A. grandis  —em. 16.VIII.09 (1 USNM); 10.VIII.09, em. 15.VIII.09 (1 USNM); 14.IX.08, em. 19.IX.08, em. 22.X.08 (2 USNM). Gurdon, 29.IX. 10, bred on cotton square (3 USNM). Hempstead Co., Hope, VII. 58, J.H. Black, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM). Lee Co., Thomasville, 20.IV. 10, W.D. Pierce (1 USNM). Little River Co., Ashdown, 19.IX.08, em. 21.IX.08, par. A. grandis, C.E. Hood  (1 USNM). Miller Co., Fouke, 27.VII.08, em. 6.VIII.08, C.E. Hood, par. A. grandis  (2 USNM). Texarkana— 30.IX. 10, bred on cotton square (1 USNM); 18.VIII.09, C.E. Hood, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM). Ouachita Co., Camden, 10.IX.08, em. 17.IX.08, par. A. grandis, C.E. Hood  , par. A. grandis  (4 USNM). Sevier Co., DeQueen, 23.IX.08, C.E. Hood, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM). CALIFORNIA: Contra Costa Co., Martinez, IX. 36, R.C. Dickson (1 UCRC). Imperial  Co., Glamis, 3.5 mi. NW, Algodones Dunes, 13.IV. 68, R. Hobza, assoc. with Sphaeracelia (3 UCRC). Holtville, 12.XI. 65 —Pineda, Sphaeracia (1 USNM); 12.XI. 65, ex Sphaeralcea orcuttii, Flock & Pineda  (1 CSCA). Inyo  Co., Eureka Valley Dunes, 4.V. 77, J.D. Pinto (1 UCRC). Mariposa Spring, 36 °09' 33 "N 117 ° 40 '06"W, 1950m, 18.VII. 99, M. Gates (1 UCRC). Kern Co., nr Frazier Park, 8.VII. 82, em. 19–23.VII. 82, W.H. Cross, ex Sphaeralcea  (11 MEMS). Red Rock Cyn., 4.VII. 54, Chemsak, Linsley & Martins (1 EMEC). Los Angeles Co., Claremont, Baker (1 USNM). Littlerock Recreation Area, 34 °28.27'N 118 °1.27'W, 1100m, 10.VI. 98, J.M. Heraty (1 UCRC). Orange Co., Garden Grove—VII. 24, em. VIII. 24, ex Anthonomus eugenii  (2 USNM); VII. 28 (2 UCRC); 8.VII. 28, A.C. Davis, par. A. eugenii  , ex buds containing larvae (2 USNM). Huntington Beach, 9.VI. 85, H. Andersen (1 UCRC). Riverside Co., Blythe— 29.III. 73, C. Goodpasture (1 USNM); 18 mi. W, 7.VI. 65, J.T. Doyan (1 EMEC). Deep Canyon, 9.X. 63, M.E. Irwin (1 UCRC). Desert Center, 5 mi. N, 28.V. 55, C.D. MacNeil (1 EMEC). Lake Skinner—Shipley Reserve, 33 ° 36 'N 117 ° 1 'W, 469m, 15.VI. 98, Redak Lab. (1 UCRC); NE end, 33 ° 36 ' 7 "N 117 ° 2 ' 5 "W, 7–21.V. 96, J.D. Pinto (1 UCRC). Riverside— 18.V. 38, Timberlake, Solanum douglasii  (1 UCRC); Box Springs Canyon, 375m, 15.I. 96, M. Gates (1 UCRC). Temecula Canyon, Santa Margarita, 18.V. 68 (1 UCRC). Wiley's Well Road at Hwy I- 10, 8.X. 2000, G.R. Ballmer, on Sphaeralcea emoryi  (1 UCRC). San Bernardino Co., 8.V. 85, J.D. Pinto (3 CNC, Photo 2011 – 157). Apple Valley, 20.V. 55, W.R.M. Mason (1 CNC). Bear Valley, 13.IV. 79, J. LaSalle, on Eriogonum fasciculatum  (1 UCRC). Granite Pass, 4000m, 27.IV. 68, R. Hobza, on Sphaeralcea  sp. (1 UCRC). Hodge, 1 mi. N, 13.VI. 79, J. LaSalle (1 UCRC). Lucerne Valley, 16.5 mi. N, 2.V. 85, J.D. Pinto (1 CNC). Oak Glen, 34 º 2 'N 116 º 57 'W, 1500m, 3–17.V. 85 (2 CNC), 27.VI – 5.VII. 85 (1 UCRC), R.E. Wagner. Phelan, 6mi. E, Baldy Mesa, 22.V. 81, M.E. Schauff, sweeping Larrea divaricata  (2 USNM). NW Pioneertown, T 1 N R 4 E S 12, 1280m, 3.V. 94, M. Cooperband (1 UCRC). Santa Barbara Co., Cuyama, 18 mi. WNW, CT 11 N 1228 W, 1–7.III. 88 W.E. Wahl (1 CNC). San Diego Co., Bonsall, 1 mi. W, 8.VIII. 79, G. Gordh (1 UCRC). DELEWARE: Sussex Co., 27.VI. 39, J.M. Amos, cut strawberry buds (1 USNM). DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Washington, par. A. nigrinus— 3.VII.06, 14.VII.06 (1 USNM); 06.VII.06, em. 16.VII.06 (1 USNM); 24.VII.07, em. 2.VIII.07 (2 USNM). FLORIDA: Alachua Co., Gainesville— 28.VIII. 76, Z. Boucek (1 BMNH); 22.III – 2. IV. 88, 30. IV – 11.V. 88, D. Wahl (2 CNC); IFAS, 16.IX. 87, L. Masner (1 CNC, Photo 2011 - 9); Doyle Conner Bldg., 28.VII – 1.VIII. 75, 22– 28.IX. 75, E.E. Grissell (2 FSCA). University of Florida lab, IV. 2003, J.M. Leavengood Jr. (29 FSCA). Duval Co., Jacksonville—Ashmead (1 USNM); 11.X.05, C.R. Jones, on Isopappus divaricatas  (1 USNM); 11.X.05, em. 16.X.05, W.D. Pierce, par. Anthonomus disjunctus  (1 USNM); Florida: St. John’s Bluff (paralectotype of Pteromalus orontas Walker, BMNH  ). Leon Co., Tallahassee, 26.V. 80, ex fruit Prunus serotina, G.B. Marshall  (5 CASC). Tall Timbers Res. Sta., 3.VIII. 71, D.L. Harris (1 FSCA). Miami-Dade Co., Homestead, T.R.E.C., 13, 15–20.III. 87, V. Gupta (2 CNC). Monroe Co., Key West, 3.X. 12, E.A. Schwarz, ex cecid gall on Eugenia buxifolia  (1 USNM). Seminole Co., Astor Farms, 2.5 mi. N, Bald Cypress Swamp, 27.IV. 2000, S. Fullerton & T. Sims (1 UCFC). GEORGIA: McIntosh Co., Sapelo Island, 9.V – 26.VI. 87, BRC Hym Team (1 CNC). Spalding Co., 6.X. 56, J.E. Roberts (1 USNM). Tift Co., Tifton, 27.X. 36, 3, 4.XI. 36, P.A. Glick, collected on cotton (3 USNM). HAWAII: IV. 35, parasite on pepper weevil (18, UCRC). Hawaii Co., Kapulena, Hamakua District, 5.VII. 89, H.E. Andersen (3 UCRC). Honolulu Co., Honolulu, IV. 35, Fullaway, ex pepper weevil (9 UCRC). Waipio, Oahu Peninsula, 4.V. 66, J.W. Beardsley (1 UCRC). ILLINOIS: Champaign Co., U. of Illinois, South Farms, 23, 28.VI. 81 (2 BMNH), 23–24.VI. 81, 2.VII. 81 (6 INHS), 19.V. 85, 16.VI. 85 (8 INHS), 18.VI. 87, (4 INHS), S. Heydon. Effingham Co., Effingham, 3 mi. NW, 7.VII. 80, S.L. Heydon (1 INHS). Gallatin Co., Swaneetown, 2 mi. SSE, 4.VI. 81, S.L. Heydon (1 INHS). Mason Co., Sandridge State Forest (Park), 6.VII. 80, S.L. Heydon (2 INHS). McHenry Co., Algonquin, 26.V. 1896 (1 USNM). McLean Co., Le Roy, 5 mi. NNW, Morraine View St. Pk., 10.IX. 83, S.L. Heydon (1 INHS). Wabash Co., Maud, 2.5 mi. S, 4.VI. 81, S.L. Heydon (1 INHS). White Co., Emma, 3.VI. 81, S.L. Heydon (1 INHS). INDIANA: Henry Co., New Lisbon, 2 mi. S, 14.VII. 81, S.L. Heydon (2 INHS). KANSAS: Douglas Co., Breidenthal Reserve, 14.V. 79, R.J. McGinley (1 USNM). Lawrence, 4.VIII. 79, R.J. McGinley (1 USNM). Lincoln Co., Crab Orchard, VI. 60, Gibson, ex Prionomerus calceatus  (1 USNM). Shawnee Co., Topeka, IX.03, Croton capitatus  (2 USNM). LOUISIANA: Avoyelles Par., Mansura, C.E. Hood— 10.XII.09, em. 13.XII.09, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM); 13.XII.09, em. 14.XII.09, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM); 21.XII.09, bred cotton boll (1 USNM); 9.I. 10, 4.II. 10, in spanish moss (4 USNM). Marksville, 10.VIII.07, par. A. grandis— em. 17.VIII.07 (1 USNM + 1 USNM C. hunteri  paratype), em. 23.VIII.07 (1 USNM). Caddo Par., Forbing  , 07.VII.07, em. 10 VII.07, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM C. hunteri  paratype). Shreveport— 1907 (1 MEMS); 2000 ' (on plane), 3.X. 56, P.A. Glick (1 USNM). Shreveport, H.S. Smith, par. A. grandis  — 22, 30.VII.07, em. 6, 7, 19.VIII.07 (3 USNM); 5.VIII.08, em. 22.X.08 (1 USNM); 22.IX.08 (1 USNM); 5.X.08, em. 22, 23.X.08 (6 USNM); 29.X.08, em. 9.XI.08 (11 USNM), em. 13.XI.08 (3 USNM); 27, 29.X.08 (12 USNM). Shreveport, E.S. Tucker, par. A. grandis  — 9.VIII.08 (3 USNM); 8.IX.08, (1 USNM); 19.X.08, em. 14, 18, 19.XI.08 (7 USNM). Calcasieu Par., Orange, 29.IX.06, em. 18.X.08, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM). Cameron Par., Johnsons Bayou, 6.IX.06, par. A. albopilosus  (1 USNM). Concordia Par.  , Shaw— 25.VIII. 10, G.D. Smith, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM); 9.VIII. 14 (1 MEMS). Vidalia, 15.IX.08, em. 21.IX.08, W.D. Pierce & H.S. Smith, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM). De Soto Par., Mansfield, 24.VIII.06, em. 27.VIII.06, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM). East Baton Rouge Par., Baton Rouge, 5.VI. 50, C.E. Smith, ex leaf miner on Magnolia  (3 USNM). East Carroll Par., Lake Providence, 25.VIII. 14 (1 MEMS). Lafayette Par., Lafayette, 19.III.08, em. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.IV.08, par. A. nebulosus  (38 USNM). Lincoln Par., Ruston— 30.X.08, H.S. Smith, par. A. grandis  (2 USNM), X. 31, W.D. Pierce / W.A. Hooker, on Heterotheca subaxillaris  (3 USNM). Madison Par., Milliken's Bend, 27.VIII. 14 (2 MEMS). Tallulah—(18 MEMS); 193 (13 USNM); 28.VIII. 14 (1 MEMS); 3, 4, 21.VIII. 32 (4 MEMS); 3.IX.09 (1 USNM); 9.V. 57, P.A. Glick (1 USNM); [?], V.I. Safro (1 USNM). Tallulah, bred cotton square— 7, 12, 13.VIII.09, em. 6.IX.09 (3 USNM); 11, 14, 15.IX.09, 8, 17, 20.XI.09 (12 USNM). Tallulah, par. A. grandis  — 17, 18.IX. 13 (2 USNM); 31.VIII. 10, em. 31.VIII. 10 (1 USNM); 1.VII. 10 (1 USNM), 7.VII.09, em. 14.VII.09, R.A. Cushman (1 USNM); 31.VII. 11, 11, 17, 19, 21, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29, 31.VIII. 11, 5, 14.IX. 11, H. Pinkus (32 USNM). Ouachita Par., Monroe, par. A. grandis  — 24, 31.X.08, H.S. Smith (3 USNM); 21.I.09, R.A. Cushman (1 USNM). Pointe Coupee Par., Livonia, 26.VII. 10, G.D. Smith, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM). Rapides Par., Alexandria, 8.VIII.07, em. 16.VIII.07 (1 USNM C. hunteri  paratype), 2.VIII.07, 24.VIII.07, 11.IX.07, em. 9.VIII.07, 12.VIII.07, 6.IX.07, 11.IX.07, par. A. grandis  (7 USNM). Glenmora, 22, 23.VIII.07, em. 26, 27, 30, 31.VIII.07, par. A. grandis  (6 USNM). Red River Par., East Point, 7.X.07, em. 21, 22, 25.X.07, par. A. grandis  (4 USNM). Sabine Par., Many, 23.VIII.06, em. 4.IX.06, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM). St. Landry Par, Opelousas, G.R. Pilate (5 USNM). Tensas Par., Newellton, 17.XI.09, bred cotton sqaure (2 USNM). Union Par., Monroe, bred cotton sqaure— 16.VIII.09, em. 19.VIII.09 (2 USNM); 12.VIII.08, 16.IX.09 (2 USNM). Monroe, par. A. grandis  — 11.X.08, em. 21.IX.08, W.D. Pierce (1 USNM); 24.V.08, 8, 9, 24, 31.X.08, H.S. Smith (32 USNM); 31.X.08, em. 10.XI.08, H.S. Smith (5 USNM). Vernon Par., Leesville, 29.IX.06, par. A. albopilosus  (6 USNM). M ARYLAND: Anne Arundel Co., Sherwood forest, 13.VI. 71, W.H. Cross, swept from Robinia pseudoacacia  (1 MEMS). South River, 12.IV. 39, W.H. Anderson, ex seed capsule Labelia sp. infested with Miarus hispidulus  (3 USNM). Prince George’s Co., Oxon Hill, 8.IX. 71, G.F. Hevel (1 USNM). MICHIGAN: Washtenaw Co., 30.VII. 72, D.P. Cowan (1 EMEC). MINNESOTA: Freeborn Co., Geneva, 25.VI. 96, H.E. Andersen (1 UCRC). MISSISSIPPI: Adams Co., Natchez, 15.VII.09, em. 23.VII.09, C.E. Hood, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM). Natchez, H.S. Smith, par. A. grandis  — 16.IX.08, em. 18.IX.08 (1 USNM); 13.X.08, em. 9.XI.08 (1 USNM); 16.X.08, em. 8, 9.XI.08 (5 USNM); 21.X.08, em. 9, 10, 23.XI.08 (7 USNM); 11.XI.08, em. 23.XI.08 (7 USNM); 12, 18, 23.XI.08, bred cotton square (5 USNM); 16, 21, 23.X.08, 11, 12, 14, 17, 18, 24.XI.08, bred on cotton square (38 USNM). Amite Co., Gloster, H.S. Smith— 18.IX.08, bred Croton  seed (2 USNM); 14.X.08, em. 21, 22.X.08, 2, 9.XI.08, par. A. grandis  (6 USNM). Bolivar Co., Boyle, 19 km W, Hwy 446, Dahomey Nat'l Wildlife Refuge, 9–25.V. 98, N.M. Schiff (1 UCDC). Scott, 30.VI. 16, em. 7–12.VII. 16, T.C. Barber, par. A. grandis  (2 MEMS). Carroll Co., Slaton Field, 18.VII. 66, W.H. Cross, cultivated cotton (2 MEMS). Claiborne Co., Port Gibson— 19.VIII. 10, G.D. Smith, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM); 27.VIII. 14, 3.IX. 14 (3 MEMS). Coahoma Co., Boone, 27.VII. 60 (1 USNM). Jefferson Co., 25.VIII. 70, W.L. McGovern (1 MEMS). Jones Co., Ellisville, 21.VIII. 22, par. A. grandis  (2 USNM). Oktibbeha Co., 14.X. 65, em. 25.X. 65, T.L. Chestnut, em. from Croton  (7 MEMS). Agr. Coll.— 19.VI. 14, R.N. Lobdell, bred cotton square (5 MEMS); 14.VI. 17, W.D. Pierce (1 USNM); 2.VIII. 65, em. 25.X. 65, T.L. Chestnut, em. from bolls, many with boll weevil stages (2 MEMS). Lab. Colony, 15.X. 65, T.L. Chestnut, reared from boll weevil in artificial diet (2 MEMS). Starkville— 2.VIII. 65, 26.VIII. 65, T.L. Chestnut, em. from fallen cotton squares and bolls, many with boll weevil stages (2 MEMS); 1.5 mi. SW, 12.VII. 67, em. 30.VII. 67, W.L. McGovern, em. from boll weevil infested cotton squares (1 MEMS); 1 mi. W, 3.VIII. 68, W.H. Cross, em. from boll weevil infested cotton squares (1 MEMS); 3 mi. W, 28.IX. 67, W.H. Cross & W.L. McGovern, em. from Croton lindheimeri  (5 MEMS); 7 mi. WSW, 5.VIII. 71, W.H. Cross, swept from Croton lindheimeri  (4 MEMS). Sturgis, 5 mi. NNE, IX. 71, dead 21.VII. 72, W.L. McGovern (17 MEMS). Perry Co., Beaumont, 4.VIII. 11, W.D. Pierce (1 USNM). Sharkey Co., Rolling Fork, 21.VIII. 14 (1 MEMS). MISSOURI: New Madrid Co., Morehouse, 5 mi. E, 36 º 50 'N 89 º 41 'W, 17.IX. 89, G.F. Hevel (1 USNM). St. Clair Co., Taberville, ~ 3 mi. N, Taberville Prairie, 29.VI. 99, M. Gates (2 UCRC). Wayne Co., Williamsville, VI. 87, J.T. Becker (1 CNC, Photo 2011 - 8). NEW JERSEY: Atlantic Co., Egg Harbor, 3.VI, ex Anthonomus signatus  (2 USNM). Burlington Co., Whitesbog, 8.VII. 36, L.J. Bottimer (1 USNM). NEW MEXICO: Catron Co., Alma, 0.5 mi S, 3.VIII. 29, V.E. Romney, Salsola pestifer  (1 USNM). Omega, 18.VIII. 51, E.L. Kessel (1 CASC). Doña Ana Co., Mesilla, 27.VI. 1895, Cockerell (1 USNM). Mesilla Park, C.N. Ainslie (1 USNM). Hidalgo Co., Animas, 9.3 mi. W, 4400 ', 26-30.VII. 82, G. Gibson (5 CNC, Photo 2011 - 158). Lordsburg, 15 mi. NE, 25.VIII. 82, J. LaSalle (1 CNC). Road Forks, 16 mi. S, 28.VIII. 79, J. LaSalle (2 UCRC). Peloncillo Mts, Post Office Cyn, 14.VIII. 65, M.E. Irwin (1 UCRC). Rio Arriba Co., Tres Piedras, 5.4 mi. N, Hwy 285, 8250 ', 18.VI. 82, G. Gibson (1 CNC). Torrance Co., Estancia, 12.VII. 67, Burke, Brachycerus ornatus  (1 USNM). NEW YORK: Otsego Co., Oneonta, 1900 ', 18.VIII. 35, H.K. Townes (1 AEI). NEVADA  : Clark Co., Willow Creek campground, Charleston Mts., 1.VII. 54, J.S. MacSwain (1 EMEC). Nye Co., Mercury, BYU-AEC- NTS, 18.VI. 65, 30.VII. 62, 11, 23.VIII. 65, 30.VIII. 65 (7 USNM). Tonopah, 15 mi. W, 7.VII. 80, JC&EM Hall (1 USNM). NORTH CAROLINA: Columbus Co., Chadbourn, E.G. Smyth— 21.V. 10, bred from A. signatus  (8 USNM); 4.IV, collected on blackberry (1 USNM). Duplin Co., Tin City, 7.X. 34, sweeping weeds (4 USNM). OHIO: Deleware Co., Delaware, R.B. Neiswander, ex Orchestes pallicornis  — 1.VI. 34, em. 10, 11.VI. 34 (5 USNM); 28.V. 34, em. 8, 9.VI. 34 (4 USNM); 6.VI. 34, em. 14.VI. 34 (1 USNM). Union Co., Milford Centre, 28, 29, 30.VI. 29, 2, 4, 8.VII. 29, H.F. Dietz, ex O. pallicornis Say  (11 USNM). OKLAHOMA: Garvin Co., Pauls Valley, VIII. 21, bred cotton square (1 USNM). SOUTH CAROLINA: Charleston Co., Sullivans Island, 20.IX. 63, N.L.H. Krauss (1 USNM). Florence Co., Florence—(4 MEMS); 10.VII. 26, em. 26.VII. 26 (2 MEMS); 15, 16.VII. 26, em. 24.VII. 26 (9 MEMS); 16–26.VII. 26, em. 3.VIII. 26 (4 MEMS); 22.VII. 26, em. 1–7.VII. 26 (3 MEMS); 22.VII. 26, em. 1.VIII. 26 (1 MEMS); 22–23.VII. 26, em. 20–27.VII. 26 (3 MEMS); 23.VII. 26, em. 26–30.VII. 26 (7 MEMS); 26.VII. 26, em. 4–5.VIII. 26 (8 MEMS); 28.VII. 26, em. 11.VIII. 26 (1 MEMS); 6.VIII. 24, E.W. Dunham (9 MEMS). Greenwood Co., Kirksey, 24.VI. 57, W.R.M. Mason (1 CNC). Williamsburg Co., Andrews, 19.V. 62, R.D.

Eikenbary (1 USNM). TENNESSEE: Knox Co., 9.VIII. 82, Liriomyza  sp. on cotton (1 USNM). Knoxville, Jct. I- 40 & 11 E, 24.VII. 86, J.D. Pinto (1 CNC). Sevier Co., Twin Creeks, 35 º41.10'N 83 º29.94'W, 23.V – 5.VI. 2001, Parker (1 CLEV). TEXAS: Anderson Co., Palestine, 10.VIII.06, em. 14 VIII.08 (1 USNM + 1 USNM C. hunteri  paratype), 20.VIII.08 (2 USNM), par. A. grandis  . Austin Co., Stephen F. Austin State Park, 21.II. 65, J.C. Schaffner (1 TAMU). Bee Co., Beeville— 1.XI. 1895, em. 19, 20, 23, 27.XII. 1895 (7 USNM); 9.XI. 1895, em. 23, 29.XI. 1895 (2 USNM); em. 10.III. 1896 (1 USNM). Bexar Co., San Antonio, 18, 19.X.05, 17.XI.05, F.C. Pratt (3 USNM). Brazos Co., Bryan, Hensel Park, 24.VI. 86, J. Heraty (1 TAMU, 1 UCRC). College Station—IX, Banks (1 USNM); 16.V.07, em. 23.V.07, par. Anthonomus  (1 USNM), 16.V.07, em. 26.V.07, par. A. aeneolus  (2 USNM); 13.VII. 70, D.B. Gates, par. A. aeneolus  (1 USNM); 9.X. 70, D.B. Gates, ex larvae A. aenelous  (1 TAMU); 23.IV. 71, 11.V. 71, D.B. Gates, ex larvae A. convictus  (13 TAMU); VII. 79, A.J. O'Neil, ex A. grandis  (13 USNM); Lick Creek Park, 7–17.IV. 1987, Hearty & Woolley (1 TAMU); 10 mi. W, 13.VII. 70, D.B. Gates, ex larva A. aeneolus  (6 TAMU). nr College Station, TAMU Range Sci. Area, 18.VI. 78, S.J. Merritt, Cassia  sp. (3 TAMU). Turk Ranch Rd., 0.9 mi. SE Jct. Duck Pond Rd., 18.IX. 76, S.J. Merritt (3 TAMU). Brewster Co., Big Bend Nat'l Park—Basin, 5-6000 ', 10.VIII. 75, S. Peck (3 CNC); Cottonwood Campsite, 2300 ', 13–14.VII. 82, G. Gibson (33 CNC, Photo 2011 - 87); Croton Spring  , 29 º 20 'N 103 º 20 'W, 9.IX. 1993, E.E. Grissell & R.F. Denno (1 USNM); Grapevine Hills Campground, 3300 ', 23–27.V. 82, G. Gibson (1 CNC); Green Gulch, 5000 ', 2.V. 59, W.R.M. Mason (1 CNC); Headquarters, 14.V. 59, J.F. McAlpine (3 CNC); Lost Mine Trail, 5000 '- 6850 ', 15.VII. 83, G. Gibson (1 CNC, Photo 2011 - 38); lowlands desert, 19, 21.VII. 77, L. Masner (3 CNC); Oak Canyon Window Trail, 4.VII. 86, J. Heraty (2 TAMU); St. Elena Canyon, 9.V. 59, W.R.M. Mason (1 CNC). Big Bend Nat'l Park, Government Springs— 3000 ', 3.VII. 86, J. Heraty (2 TAMU, 3 UCRC); Grapevine Hills Rd., 1.IX. 71, E.E. Grissell & R.F. Denno (1 USNM); 3 mi. W Panther Jct., 31.VIII. 71, sweeping Sphaeralcea angustifolia, E.E. Grissell  (35 FSCA). Big Bend Nat'l Park, Government Springs, Panther Jct.—5.3 mi. W, 10–14.VII. 82, G. Gibson (1 CNC); 10.7 mi. W, 3650 ', 28.VI. 82, G. Gibson (1 CNC); 12.5 mi. SE, 2500 ', 10–16 VII. 82, G. Gibson (1 CNC). Brown Co., Brownwood, 21.V.07, em. 3.VI.07 (1 USNM). Caldwell Co., spring. 83, C. Cole (1 TAMU). Cameron Co., Brownsville— 18.VI. 1895, C.H.T. Townsend (3 USNM); 19.III.08, em. 5.IV.08, bred Mimosa  head (1 USNM); 1, 2.III.09, McMillan & Marsh, par. A. mexicanus  (2 USNM); 10.IV.09, C.E. Hood, bred Solanum elegans  bud (1 USNM); 22.I. 36, from cotton (1 USNM); 28.II. 36, 4, 6.III. 36, P.A. Glick (4 TAMU). Brownsville, par. A. grandis  —em. 18.VII. 1895 (1 USNM); 28.VII.06, em. 4, 6, 8.VIII.06 (3 USNM); 28.VIII.06, 29.IX.06, em. 15.X.06 (2 USNM); 5.IX.06, em. 12, 13, 17.X.06, C.R. Jones (4 USNM); 15.IX.06, em. 29.XI.06 (4 USNM), 29.IX.06, em. 15.X.06 (4 USNM). Olmito, XI. 21, M.M. High, par. A. eugenii  (2 USNM). Rancho Viejo/Olmito, 3–9.III. 96, D.F. Gumz (1 CNC, Photo 2011 - 7). Southpoint Nursery, 1 mi. S. Southmost Ranch, 5–6.VII. 82, G. Gibson (1 CNC). Cherokee Co., Jacksonville, 11.X.05, em. 16.X.05, W.D. Pierce, par. A. disjunctus  (1 USNM); 17.X. 10, E.S. Tucker, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM), Childress Co., Childress, 29.VII.09, V.I. Safro, bred Solanum elegans  bud (1 USNM). Collin Co., Farmersville, 27.VII. 82, D.A. Dean, ex cotton (1 TAMU). Colorado Co., Eagle Lake— 14.VIII.07, em. 22.VIII.07, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM); 21.III.08, em. 31.III.08, par. A. signatus  (1 USNM). Culberson Co., Pine Sprgs., 3.6 mi. S, Old Guadaloupe Pass, 5200 ', 20–22.VII. 82, G. Gibson (4 CNC). Dallas Co., Dallas— 24.V.06 (2 USNM), em. 30.V.06, 1, 2.VI.06, par. A. aeneolus  (3 USNM); 18.VI.06, bred Solanum torreyi  bud (4 USNM); 1.V.09, 9.VIII.09, W.D. Pierce (2 USNM); 1.V. 12, W.D. Pierce (1 USNM). Dallas, par. A. grandis  — 6.X.06 (1 USNM); 27.VII.07, em. 3.VIII.07 (1 USNM); 2.VIII.07, em. 9.VIII.07 (1 USNM); 2.VIII.07, R.A. Cushman (1 USNM); 8.VIII.07, em. 7.IX.07 (1 USNM); 22.VIII.07, em. 29.VIII.07 (1 USNM); 20.V.07, em. 4.VI.07 (1 USNM); 1, 4, 5.6,8 VIII.08, W.D. Pierce (8 USNM); 21.IX.08, F.C. Bishop (2 USNM); 12.X.08, em. 28.X.08 (1 USNM); 26.VII.09, em. 6.VIII.09, W.D. Pierce (1 USNM); 27.VII.09, W.D. Pierce (1 USNM); 27.VII.09, em. 30, 31.VII.09, em. 2.VIII.09, W.D. Pierce (5 USNM); 27.VII.09, em. 4.VIII.09, E.S. Tucker (1 USNM). Dallas, T.E. Holloway, bred Solanum torreyi  bud— 6.VII.09, em. 19.VII.09 (1 USNM); 16.VII.09 (1 USNM). DeWitt Co., Cuero, par. A. grandis  — 3.V.06 (1 USNM); 12.VIII.07, em. 17, 18.VIII.07 (3 USNM); 31.VIII.06, em. 11.IX.06 (1 US |NM). Duval Co., San Diego, 6.XII. 1894, par. of larva A. grandis  (1 USNM). Goliad Co., Fannin, 14.VIII. 63, N.L.H. Krauss (1 USNM). Goliad— 2. XI. 1895, em. em. 17, 18, 21, 27.XII. 1895 (7 USNM); 3.IX.06, em. 14.IX.06, par. A. grandis  (2 USNM); 3.IX.06, em. 10, 19.IX.06, C.R. Jones, par. A. grandis  (3 USNM). Gonzales Co., Rancho, 7.XII. 1895, Townsend, in fallen squares (1 USNM). Grayson Co., Denison, 17.VIII.07, em. 3.IX.07, par. A. grandis  (2 USNM). Grimes Co., Navasota, 7.XI. 59, W.R.M. Mason (2 CNC). Hidalgo Co., Weslaco, IV. 95, Greenberg, weevil parasite (2 TAMU). Hockley Co., Anton, 2 mi. S, 9.IX. 82, D.A. Dean, ex cotton (1 TAMU). Jim Wells Co., Ben Bolt— 16.VII. 54, J.G. Chillcott (1 CNC); 8 mi. W, La Copita Research Station, 20.V. 87, J.B. Woolley (1 TAMU). Karnes Co., Kenedy— 1.XI. 1895, em. 21.XII. 95 (1 USNM); 8.XI. 1895, em. 26, 27, 30.XI. 1895, 9.XII. 1895, 2.I. 1896 (6 USNM); em. 11.XII. 1895, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM); em. 16.I. 1896 (2 USNM); 19.VI.07, em. 26.VII.07, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM). Kaufman Co., Terrell, 12, 19.VIII.08, em. 21.VIII.08, par. A. grandis  (2 USNM C. hunteri  paratypes). Kerr Co., Hunt, 5 mi. W, Stumberg's Patio Ranch, 2000 ', 1–2.VII. 82, G. Gibson (1 CNC). Kimble Co., Junction, 24.IX.06, em. 11.X.06, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM). Roosevelt, 25.IX.06, em. 3.X.06, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM). Lamar Co., Paris— 14.XI.07, em. 21.XI.07, F.C. Bishopp, par. A. grandis  (2 USNM); 24.IX. 10, bred on cotton square (3 USNM). TX, Lavaca Co., Hallettayle, 27.IV.07, em. 13.V.07, par. A. aeneolus  (1 USNM). Maverick Co., Eagle Pass, A. aeneolus  — 11.VII. 1895, on Solanum elaegnifolium  (1 USNM); em. 6.VII. 1897, on Solanum  (5 USNM). McLennan Co., Waco, 16.IX. 65, em. 16.IX. 65, T.L. Chestnut, em. from bolls, many with boll weevil stages (2 MEMS). Waco, par. A. grandis  — 29.VIII.06, 12.X.06 (10 USNM); 2.VIII.07, em. 5.VIII.07 (1 USNM partype), em. 8, 12.VIII.07 (2 USNM). Nacogdoches Co., Nacogdoches, 15.X. 10, E.S. Tucker, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM). Navarro Co., 22.VI.07, em. 7.VII.07, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM). Nueces Co., Corpus Christi— 10.VII.06, em. 14, 16, 19.VII.06, W.E. Hindst, par. A. grandis  (6 USNM); 23.III.08, em. 18.IV.08, bred from Opuntia engelmannii  joint (1 USNM). Nueces, 28.IV. 1896, Marlatt (1 USNM). Polk Co., Romayor, 4 mi. N, 22.V. 84, J.B. Woolley (1 TAMU). Presidio Co., Presidio—L.W. Noble, reared from Sphaeralcea incana  (1 USNM); XI. 54, J.H. Russell, on Sphaeralcea  (3 USNM); 1.VIII. 67, em. from buds and flowers of Sphaeralcea angustifolia  (1 USNM); 35 mi. upriver, 14.VII. 67, em. 25.VII – 10.VIII. 67, W.H. Cross, from Sphaeralcea augustipennis  (1 MEMS); Slacks Brdg Farm, 3.XI. 61, em. 5.XI. 61, W.H. Cross, from fallen cotton squares (2 MEMS). Hot springs above Ruidosa, 1.VIII. 79, W.H. Cross, em. from buds, flowers and capsules of S. angustifolia  (26 MEMS). Shafter, Cibolo Creek, 6.IX. 1984, T. O. Robbins, prob. ex Epimechus canoides  on Baccaris sp. (2 USNM). Robertson Co., Calvert— 16.VIII.02, G.H. Harris, bred cotton sqaure (1 USNM); 5.VII.07, em. 12.VII.07, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM). 5.7 mi. N jct OSR & FM 1940, 26.VI. 77, S.J. Merritt, Cassia  sp. (2 TAMU). San Jacinto Co., Coldspring, 5 km S, Double Lake Campground, 22–24.V. 83, M. Kaulbars (2 CNC). San Patricio Co., Sharpsburg, 5.X (1 USNM). Welder Wildlife Refuge— 1.XI. 88, J. Heraty (3 TAMU, 2 UCRC); 28 º06.73'N 97 º25.0'W, 20m, II. 2004, S&J Peck (1 CNC). Shelby Co., Timpson, 21.X. 10, bred on cotton square (1 USNM). Stonewall Co., Old Glory, 5 mi. N, 12.VI. 69, D.S. Moody, leaf galls on Solanum  (1 MEMS). Tarrant Co., Arlington— 18.VII.07, em. 25.VII.07 (1 USNM); 1.VII.08, em. 11.VII.08 (4 USNM); 29.VII.07, em. 2, 3, 4.VIII.07, par. A. aeneolus  (6 USNM); 26.X.08, em. 12.XI.08, E.S. Tucker (2 USNM); bred on cotton square (1 USNM). Arlington, par. A. grandis  — 7.VII.07 (1 USNM); 18.VII.07, em. 1.VIII.07 (1 USNM); 6.VIII.07, em. 13.VIII.07 (1 USNM); 28.VIII.07, em. 6.IX.07 (2 USNM); 7.VII.08, em. 25.VII.08, C.E. Hood (3 USNM); 6.VIII.08, em. 14.VIII.08, F.C. Bishopp (2 USNM); 3.XI.08, em. 11.VII.08, C.E. Hood (1 USNM). Terrell Co., Terrell, 26.VIII.07, em. 29, 31.VIII.07, 4, 7.IX.07, par. A. grandis  (4 USNM). Travis Co., Austin— 20.IX. 78, P.D. Hurd, Gutierrezia glutinosa  (1 USNM); 11 mi. S, E.E. Grissell, taken on Parthenium hysterophorus  —(2 FSCA); Heep Farm, 2.VIII. 72 (1 TAMU). Trinity Co., Trinity— 30.VIII.06, 9.VIII.06, par. A. grandis  (3 USNM); 7.VII.07, em. 11, 12, 15, 18.VII.07, par. A. aeneolus  (22 USNM); 20.III.07, em. 30.III.07, par. A. signatus  (2 USNM). Val Verde Co., Devils River, 4.V.07, em. 22.V.07, par. Anthonomus  (1 USNM). Victoria  Co., Victoria— 22.III, E.A. Schwarz (1 USNM); 8.VII.07, Acacia, J.D. Mitchell  (1 USNM); 21.VII. 10, 30.IX. 10, bred on cotton square (3 USNM). Victoria  , par. A. grandis  — 9.VII. 1893, W.E. Hindst (1 USNM); II.02, E.A. Schwarz (1 USNM); 13.03[?], W.E. Hinds (1 USNM); 15.XI.03, A.W. Morrill (5 USNM); 26.VI.06, em. 30.VI.06 (1 USNM); 1.X.06, em. 10.IX.06 (1 USNM); 10, 14.VI.07, 11, 19.VII.07 (5 USNM); 10.VIII.07, em. 17.VIII.07 (1 USNM); 19.V.08, em. 28.V.08, J.D. Mitchell (1 USNM); 19.VI.08, em. 23, 28.VI.08, E.S. Tucker (2 USNM); 25.VI.08, em. 29.VI.08 (2 USNM). Walker Co., Ellis Prison Unit, 5.V. 80, D.A. Dean (1 TAMU). Ward Co., Barstow, 22.VII. 84, GF&JF Hevel (1 USNM). Monahans, 6.0 mi. NE, Monahans St. Park, 3000 ', 21–22.VI. 82, G. Gibson (1 CNC). Wood Co., Mineola—X.02, F.C. Bishop, Eupatorium serotinum  (1 USNM); 2.X.06, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM). UTAH: Barfield Co., Escalante, 30 mi. SE, Coyote Cyn., 26–29.V. 85, M.C. Whitmore (1 EMEC). Duchesne Co., Duchesne, 12 mi. N, 22.VII. 34, Timberlake, Malvastrum coccineum  (2 UCRC). VIRGINIA: 11.IX. 1880, par. A. grandis  (1 USNM). Buckingham Co., Dillwyn, 27.VI. 64, O. Peck (1 CNC). Essex Co., Dunnsville, 1 mi. SE, 37 º 52 'N 76 º 48 'W, 12–21.VI. 96, 3– 16.VII. 96, D.R. Smith (2 USNM). Fairfax Co., New Alexandria, 15.XI. 24, D.H. Blake, par. A. disjunctus  (1 USNM). Vienna, 28.VIII. 11, R.A. Cushman, par. A. nigrinus  (2 USNM). Louisa Co., Cuckoo, 4 mi. S, 3.VIII. 85, J. Kloke & D.R. Smith (1 USNM). Winchester Co., Winchester, 14, 17.VI. 64, O. Peck (2 CNC). WEST VIRGINIA: Monongalia Co., Coopers Rock State Forest, 22.VI. 64, O. Peck (1 CNC). Morgantown, 17.VI. 64, O. Peck (1 CNC).

NEOTROPICAL. COSTA RICA. Guanacaste, Canas, 24 km NW, Hacienda Comelco, Inter-Am Hwy, 50m, 4.II. 72, E.R. Heithaus, on flowers of Casearea sylvestris (1 CASC). CUBA. Santiago, Jardin Botanico, 6.XII. 95, L. Masner (1 UCDC). EL SALVADOR. San Salvador, 4.V. 58, O.L. Cartwright (1 USNM). GUATEMALA. XI. 34, Bianki [?], ex A. eugenii  (4 USNM). Champerico, Baker (1 USNM). Zacapa—Dpto. San Larenzo, 12.VII. 86, L. LeSage (4 CNC); nr Santa Cruz, XI. 86, M. Sharkey (1 CNC). HONDURAS. La Ceiba, 13.VI. 44, E.C. Becker (1 CNC). Zamorano, 19.X, W.P. Cockerell (1 USNM). MEXICO. Baja California Norte: El Rosario, 6 mi. NW nr. Consuelo, 18.IV. 65, D.Q. Cavagnaro, C.E. & E.S. Ross, & V.L. Vesterby (1 CASC). Palm Oasis, N of Catavina, 24.VIII. 94, S.L. Heydon, off Baccharis  (1 UCDC). Baja Calif. Sur: La Paz— 10 km N, 28.X. 83, J.D. Pinto (1 UCRC); 13 mi. W, 11.XI. 65, W. Ewart & R. Dickson, Tecoma stans  (1 UCRC). Las Barracas, 15.IV. 87, 11.V. 85, P. DeBach (2 UCRC). San Pedro, 15 km S, 23.X. 83, J.D. Pinto (1 UCRC). Chiapas: Municipio Tenejapa, below Paraje Yashanal, 3.VII. 90, R.W. Jones & D. Bavo, ex Hampea longipes  (ground buds) (1 TAMU). Revolution, 2 mi. SE, 23.III. 53, R.C. Bechtel & E.I. Schlinger (1 EMEC). Chihuahua: Juarez, 29.VI. 84, G. Gordh (1 UCRC). Coahuila: Los Lirios, 9 mi. W, 6000 ', 24.IX. 76, J.A. Chemsak, J. Powell & A&M Michelbacher (2 EMEC). Saltillo, 15 mi. S, 8.VII. 83, Kovarik, Harrison, & Schaffner (1 TAMU). Durango: Bermejillo, 25 mi. NE, 19.IV. 61, Howden & Martin (3 CNC). Guerrero: La Laguna, 1 mi. NE, 17.VII. 84, J.B. Wooley (1 TAMU). Tierra Colorada, 3 km N, 9.I. 80, C.D. Johnson, reared seeds, Heliocarpus palmeri  (1 TAMU). Hidalgo: Tlanchinol, 20 km NE, 13.VI. 83, M. Kaulbars (2 CNC). Jalisco: Puerto Vallarta, sea level, 31.XII. 70, P.H. & M. Arnaud (1 CASC). Mexico: Teotihuacan, Pyramid to the Sun, 27.XII. 70, P.H. & M. Arnaud, at flowers Cassia tomentosa  L. F. (2 CASC). Michoacan: Aquila, 49 mi. SE, 13.VII. 84, J.B. Wooley (3 TAMU). Lazaro Cardenas, 100 km N, 7. VIII. 84, G. Gordh (1 UCRC). Morelos: Zacatepec, INIA (INIFAP) station, Jesus Cabral M.— XII. 71, emer. from boll weevil infested bolls, cult. cotton (2 MEMS); 17.XII. 71, sweep sample in cult. cotton (1 MEMS). Nuevo León: Bustamante, Santo Thomas, 18.V. 84, Gordh, Sierra & Rodriguez (2 UCRC). Galeana, Cerro Potosi, 2347  m, 4.VI. 83, M. Kaulbars (1 CNC). Municipio Cienega de Flores, Hacienda La Amistad, 10.VII. 83, A. Gonzalez H. (1 UCRC). Municipio El Carmen, El Carmen— 10.VII. 83, A. Gonzalez H. (9 UCRC); 10.VII. 83, G. Gordh (5 UCRC); Hacinda Bernabe Villarreal, 10.VII. 83, A. Gonzalez H. (3 UCRC). Municipio Escobedo, Hacinda El Canada, 12.VII. 83, G. Gordh (4 UCRC). Municipio Guadalupe, Rincón de la Sierra, 11.VII. 83, A. Gonzalez H. (2 UCRC). Municipio Santiago, El Cercado, Hacienda Las 3 Blanquitas, 9.VII. 83, A. Gonzalez H. (2 UCRC). San Juan, Río San Juan, 14.VII. 83, A. Gonzalez H. (6 UCRC). Oaxaca: Tehuantepec, 4.IX. 74, D.J. Calvert, A. grandis Boheman  , on Cienfuegosia rosei  (5 FSCA). Tuxtepec, 6 mi. S, 200 ', 26.VI. 83, R. Anderson (2 CNC). Querétaro: Querétaro, 46 mi. N on Hwy 57, 12.X. 67, em. by 3.XI. 67, W.H. Cross, em. from Sphaeralcea angustifolia  (1 MEMS). Quintana Roo: Akumal-Tulum, 18–20.IX. 85, P. Krauter & D. Hutchinson, ex Anthonomus hunteri Burke & Cate  , on Hampea trilobata (Standley)  , Bracon  comp vouchers, lab reared (2 TAMU). Quintana Roo + Yucatan: S Tulum to N Coba (Q.R.) + Xalau & Yalcoba to Nueva X-can (Yucatan), 28.X – 1.XI. 86, P.C. Krauter & J.R.Cate, ex Anthonomus hunteri  , on Hampea trilobata  (2 TAMU). Sinaloa: La Concha, 11 mi. N, nr microondas sta. La Muralla 2, 25.X. 82, J.T. Huber (1 UCRC). Sonora: Agua Prieta, 45 km E, 31 ° 19 ' 30 N 109 °05' 30 W, 7.IV.07, R.L. Minckley, ex Sphaeralcea laxa  (1 UCRC). Alamos, 1 mi. W, 26.XII. 76, em. by 3.I. 77, C.D. Johnson, reared from seeds Sida aggregata  (1 TAMU). Caborca, 4.5 mi. W, 20.I. 63, em. 30.I. 63, W.H. Cross, pupa from boll weevil cell in cotton boll (4 MEMS). Hwy 15, +/- 2296.7 km., 17.XI. 69, W.H. Cross, from cultured cotton— 2 nd gen. (1 MEMS). Los Chirriones, 18.XI. 69, W.H. Cross, em. from cultured cotton bolls—em. 21.XI. 69 (2 MEMS); em. 20.XI – 2.XII. 69 (1 MEMS); em. 28.XII. 69 (1 MEMS); em. 30.XII. 69 (23 MEMS). Magdalena, Hwy +/- 2299 km S, 31.X. 65, W.H. Cross, cultured cotton (10 MEMS, 2 USNM). S Santa Ana, 31.X. 65, W.H. Cross, emerged from fallen cotton squares and bolls, many with boll weevil stages (1 MEMS). San Jose de Guaymas, 10.IV, L. O. Howard (1 USNM). Tabasco, Yucatan, Quintana Roo: XI. 83, P. Stansly & R. Fisher, Anthonomus  spp., on Hampea  spp., Catolaccus hunteri  vouchers, lab reared (6 USNM). Tamaulipas: Ciudad Victoria  , 6 mi. N, 17.XI. 48, E.S. Ross (1 CASC). Municipio Gomez Farias, 23 °02' 51 N 99 °09' 20 W, 14.II. 2001, D. Yanega (1 UCRC). Tampico, 6.XII, F.C. Bishopp (1 USNM). Veracruz: Cardel—13.3 km, N, Hwy 180, 27.X. 67, em. by 14.XI. 67, W.H. Cross, em. from mallow (1 MEMS); 3 mi. N, by Rio Actopan, 31.X. 82, J.T. Huber & A. Gonzalez (1 UCRC). Martinez de la Torre, 3.5 mi. SE on Misantla Rd, 27.X. 67, W.H. Cross—em. from male Hampea rovirosae  (4 MEMS); em. from boll weevil infested buds of male Hampea  sp. (2 MEMS). Veracruz— 1959, N.L. Krauss (3 USNM); 1.II. 57, R. & K. Dreisbach (1 USNM); 19.II. 68, O. Peck (1 CNC); III. 61, N.L.H. Krauss (1 USNM); 4.VI. 67, M.J. LuRefahr, A. grandis  , Hampea  buds (1 USNM). Yucatan: Celestún— 24.IV. 84, 29.XII. 83, R.W. Fisher, on Gossypium hir  . (2 TAMU); 15, 19.XII. 81, D.W. Williams, ex wild cotton square (7 TAMU); 15 mi. E, 28.IX. 81, 1, 15.X. 81, 13.XII. 81, D.W. Williams, on Hampea trilobata  (7 TAMU); 40 km E, 8.VIII. 84, ex Anthonomus  spp., on Hampea  spp. (2 TAMU). Rancho, km 33, 1984, VIII. 84, 1, 3, 5.X. 84, R.W. Fisher, on Hampea trilobata  (12 TAMU). Sisal, 5.I. 84, R.W. Fisher, on Gossypium hir  . (1 TAMU). Zacatecas: Fresnillo, 9 mi. S, 9.VII. 54, E.G. Linsley, J.W. MacSwain & R.F. Smith, Sphaeralcea augustifolia  (1 EMEC). Veracruz: Catemaco, 5 km NE, Lago de Catemaco, 29.II. 80, C.D. Johnson, reared seeds, Mimosa albida  (1 TAMU). NICARAGUA. Chinandega, Baker (1 USNM). Jinotega, VII. 89, T. Reinboldt (1 CNC). PANAMA. Canal Zone, Corazal, 1.III. 12, A. Busck (1 USNM). PERU. C.H.T. Townsend (6 USNM). Cañete, V –VI. 41, P. Berry, from caged cotton buds (152 CNC, USNM). Dept. Piura, 795, C.H.T. Townsend—(1 USNM + 4 USNM C. townsendi  paratypes); 795 º 3 e, VII –II (Holotype and 4 USNM C. townsendi  paratypes); from weevil squares (1 USNM). Lambayeque, 3.X. 70, M. Torres (1 USNM). Piura, P. Berry—cotton balls (15); 2.VI. 41, A. vestitus  (40 USNM); 20.IX. 41, cotton buds (28 CNC plus 2 capsules of unmounted specimens in USNM). Piura, 17.VII. 40, E.J. Hambleton (2 USNM). TOBAGO. Goldsborough, 17–24.III. 94, 17.II – 26.V. 94, M.J. Sommeijer, ex neglected citrus orchard bordering on primary forest (2 USNM). URUGUAY. Montevideo, Parasite Lab— 24.VIII. 42, A. vestitus  (1 USNM); 25.VIII. 45 (7 USNM); 30.VIII. 44, P. Berry (3 USNM). VENEZUELA Aragua—Cumboto, ~ 90m, 12.I. 96, M. Sharkey (2 CNC); Maracay, 26.XI. 67, G.I. Stage (2 USNM). Lara, 1 km E Barquisimento, 27.XII. 85, P. Kovarik & R. Jones (1 TAMU). Zulia, Dtto. Maracaibo, Jardin Botanico, II. 82 —Eleodoro L. (2 USNM); Rubio & E. Inciarte (2 USNM). Zulia, Los Angeles del Tucuco, 15–16.IV. 81, E.E. Grissell (2 USNM).

Distribution. Map 4. Specimens examined from Hawaii result from the intentional introduction of J. hunteri  from Guatemala in 1934 and 1937 for biocontrol of the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Clausen 1978)  . Cross and Mitchell (1969) previously compared the then known distributions of J. hunteri  and J. grandis  .

MAP 4. Distribution of Jaliscoa hunteri (Crawford)  and Jaliscoa vulgaris (Ashmead)  .

Biology. Noyes (2012) listed three species of Bruchidae  , 20 species of Curculionidae  ( Coleoptera  ) and one species of Gelechiidae  ( Lepidoptera  ), Pectinophora  (= Platyedra  ) gossypiella (Saunders)  , as hosts. The latter record is based on Rude (1937), who reared J. hunteri  from cotton blooms and squares along with the boll weevil, A. grandis  , and the pink bollworm, P. gossypiella  . Based on numbers of each species reared he suggested that J. hunteri  was probably a parasitoid of both cotton pests; however, there has never been a documented rearing of J. hunteri  from P. gossypiella  . There is an extensive literature of J. hunteri  as a primary ectoparasitoid of the larvae of boll weevil and the pepper weevil, A. eugenii Cano  , among other listed hosts (see references in Noyes (2012), including Rodríguez-Leyva et al. (2000 )).

Based on material examined, anomalous rearing records include a Cecidomyiidae  ( Diptera  ) gall on Eugenia buxifolia  , Liriomyza  sp. ( Diptera  : Agromyzidae  ) on cotton, and a leafminer on Magnolia  . New host records include— Curculionidae  : Anthonomus convictus Gates, A. hunteri Burke & Cate, A.  mexicanus Boheman; Brachycerus ornatus Westwood  ; Epimechus canoides Fall  (?); Miarus hispidus Bovie  (?).

New plant associates include— Asteraceae  : Baccharis  sp. Cactaceae  : Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck.  Campanulaceae  : Labelia sp. Euphorbiaceae  : Croton lindeimeri (Engelman & Gray)  . Fabaceae  : Mimosa albida Humbolt & Bonpland ex Wildenow.  Magnoliaceae  : Magnolia  sp. Malvaceae  : Cienfuegosia rosei Fryxell  ; Hampea longipes  Miranda, H. rovirosae Standley, H.  trilobata Standley; Heliocarpus palmeri S. Watson  ; Sida aggregata C. Presl  ; Sphaeralcea angustifolia (Cavanilles)  , S. laxa Wooton & Standley, S.  orcuttii Rose. Myrtaceae  : Eugenia foetida Persoon  (= E. buxifolia  ). Rosaceae  : Fragaria  × ananassa Duchesne; Prunus serotina Ehrhart.  Solanaceae  : Solanum elaeagnifolium Cavanilles, S.  elegans Dunal, S. torreyi A. Gray. 

Discussion. Gahan (1951) originally synonymized J. townsendi  under J. hunteri  . Burks (1954: 11) resurrected the name because he considered that there “are small but consistent differences” between the two, although he also stated that it “may eventually be shown that the two are geographical subspecies, rather than species”. Burks (1954: 12) also recognized J. vulgaris  , although stating “longer series of specimens might show that this is a subspecies of the hunteri  complex”. He differentiated females of both J. townsendi  and J. vulgaris  from J. hunteri  by the upper surface of the fore wing being setose around the apex of the stigmal vein compared to asetose, and the “lateral folds of the propodeum” (= plicae) being interrupted in the middle compared to complete in J. hunteri  . For the sake of discussion, I designate specimens identified as J. hunteri  , J. townsendi  and J. vulgaris  as the hunteri  -complex. Most females of the hunteri  -complex from the Neotropical region, or at least south of Mexico, have the fore wings comparatively extensively setose, including the type series of J. townsendi  and J. vulgaris  ( Fig. 110View FIGURES 105 – 110). The fore wings have a marginal fringe and typically are setose beyond an oblique speculum that extends to about the middle of the marginal vein or even beyond to about the middle of the stigmal vein. Most females from north of Mexico have the fore wings essentially glabrous to or beyond the apex of the stigmal vein, including sometimes entirely lacking a marginal fringe ( Fig. 94View FIGURES 91 – 96). However, there appears to be all intermediates between the two extremes and some females from north of Mexico have as extensively setose fore wings ( Fig. 93View FIGURES 91 – 96) as typical southern females ( Fig. 110View FIGURES 105 – 110). There is considerable variation as to the presence, extent, and colour of the setae basal to the stigmal vein and how far the setae extend posteriorly to the medial fold. Even the type series of J. hunteri  has a few inconspicuous whitish setae extending in a band behind and basal to the stigma. A longitudinal geographical gradient is also apparent for leg color. Females of the hunteri  -complex from more southern localities typically have all the tibiae yellowish-white to white, whereas females from more northern localities, including those with extensively setose wings, typically have at least the meso- and/or metatibiae banded by an obviously darker orange to brown region subbasally to mesally ( Fig. 91View FIGURES 91 – 96). There is also considerable variation in development of plical carinae, though this does not appear to be along a geographical gradient. Most individuals of the hunteri  -complex, including the type series of J. hunteri  , J. townsendi  and J. vulgaris  , have plical carinae developed at least as short carinae within the nuchal furrow ( Fig. 109View FIGURES 105 – 110: arrow) and sometimes as variably distinctly differentiated lines extending between the nucha and anterolateral plical depressions ( Figs 95, 96View FIGURES 91 – 96). However, the different states of all three characters—fore wing setal pattern, tibial colour, and propodeal plical carinae are present in all combinations in females and thus do not appear to support presence of separate species. I presently interpret observed variation to reflect a single highly variable species that extends from the United States through Central and South America and the Caribbean. Molecular analyses could provide additional evidence, though genetic variation should also be expected over such a large geographical range. The very few individuals of J. vulgaris  known from St. Vincent share an unusually short malar space ( Figs 105–107View FIGURES 105 – 110) relative to most other hunteri  -group individuals from continental America ( Fig. 88View FIGURES 85 – 90). The malar space of females of the type series of J. vulgaris  is 0.58–0.61× the width of an eye. The malar space is usually obviously greater than 0.6× the width of an eye for continental specimens of J. hunteri  , though a female from Tobago (Map 4) I assign to J. hunteri  has the malar space only about 0.66× the width of the eye. Relative length of the malar space may well represent yet another variable, but continuous feature that is partly correlated with small body size or populational differences across its range. However, length of the malar space of the type series of J. vulgaris  is somewhat anomalous relative to most continental specimens. Because of the implications synonymy of J. hunteri  under J. vulgaris  would have for the extensive biological literature of this economically important weevil parasitoid, I prefer to retain both names as valid until species status of the hunteri  -complex can be examined further through molecular analyses.

Jaliscoa nudipennis Bou  č ek Figs 97–104View FIGURES 97 – 104

Jaliscoa nudipennis Bouček, 1993: 1282  . Holotype (Ƥ, USNM, examined). Type data: Mexico, Jalisco, 6 km N of Autlan. Mine Road, 7 July 1984, J.B. Woolley.

Description. FEMALE (habitus: Figs 97, 99View FIGURES 97 – 104). Length = 1.9–3.0 mm. Head. Face ( Fig. 98View FIGURES 97 – 104) with clypeus variably extensively meshlike coriaceous to coriaceous-reticulate at least dorsomedially (usually more longitudinally striate or striate-alutaceous laterally), and with supraclypeal region sometimes partly meshlike coriaceous immediately above clypeus and often with limited, obliquely aligned sculpture lateral of clypeus to about dorsal level of clypeus, but face otherwise almost uniformly reticulate or more coriaceous-reticulate ventrally, but scrobal depression and parascrobal region both distinctly reticulate even if reticulations more or less aligned vertically on parascrobal region at least dorsally; malar space without a malar sulcus, and 0.47–0.60× eye height ( Fig. 98View FIGURES 97 – 104) and 0.69– 83 × eye width. Antenna ( Figs 97, 99View FIGURES 97 – 104) with at least scape, pedicel and anelli yellow to yellowish-orange, the flagellum often somewhat darker, at least distally, but at most brownish-yellow.

Mesosoma. Tegula yellow. Pronotum sometimes more or less distinctly carinate, but at least with abruptly angulate or raised ridge differentiating collar from collum, and margin incised laterally so as to be variably distinctly emarginate ( Fig. 100View FIGURES 97 – 104). Mesopectus with at most slight, horizontal undulation across femoral depression at level of mesocoxa, but with carinate anterior margin of femoral depression ( Figs 101, 102View FIGURES 97 – 104: arrows) continuous ventrally anterior to mesocoxa so as to differentiate variably conspicuous mesosternal shelf, and with setal line obviously separated from anterior angle of mesocoxa ( Fig. 102View FIGURES 97 – 104). Fore wing ( Fig. 104View FIGURES 97 – 104) with costal cell completely bare; disc (excluding admarginal setae) completely bare to level of base of marginal vein and glabrous to at least level of apex of stigmal vein anterior to medial fold (membrane usually with variably distinct spots representing remains of setal pores), and medial fold often with row of setae on ventral surface; dorsal surface sometimes with row of very short setae on cubital fold and sometimes with very short setae posterior to cubital fold; surface distal to stigmal vein variably distinctly setose, at least on ventral surface; admarginal area with 6–17 setae arranged in 1, 2 or distally 3 irregular rows; marginal fringe absent from postmarginal vein to about middle of apical margin of wing, but present along posteroapical margin; smv: mv: pmv: stv about 3.0–3.6: 2.0–2.5: 1.0–1.3 (base of marginal vein measured from abrupt angle between marginal vein and parastigma because often with slender band of membrane continuous from costal cell anterior to marginal vein along part or entire length). Legs ( Fig. 97View FIGURES 97 – 104) beyond coxae, and sometimes coxae partly, yellow to yellowish-orange. Propodeum with oblique carina on callus ( Fig. 103View FIGURES 97 – 104: arrow 2) extending posterolaterally from spiracle toward and sometimes continuous with vertical, posterolateral carina ( Fig. 103View FIGURES 97 – 104: arrow 1) on callus above mesocoxa; with complete plical carina extending posteriorly to within nuchal furrow; plical region of at least larger individuals with distinct, carinate costula evenly recurved anteromesally from about midlength of plical carina, hence with quite large, obviously meshlikereticulate, depressed anterior panel that is distinctly longer laterally than medially, and with median carina anterior to and posterior of costula, though smaller individuals sometimes lacking or with only partial, indistinct costula, and with weak median carina sometimes developed only anteriorly, but then median length of plical region at least about 1.75× length of nucha.

Metasoma. Gaster ( Figs 97, 99View FIGURES 97 – 104) usually with at least venter contrasting conspicuously in colour from mesosoma, sometimes more or less uniformly dark brown with metallic blue to purple lustre laterally, but usually yellowish-orange at least ventrally and sometimes extensively yellowish-orange (usually dark brown dorsally over at least about apical half and with at least slight metallic lustre laterally when brown); ovate-lanceolate, length only about 1.8–2.0× as long as wide (excluding specimens with a strongly collapsed and compressed gaster) and with Gt 2 –Gt 4 having mediolongitudinal furrow or line of weakness ( Fig. 99View FIGURES 97 – 104) and medially emarginate posterior margins; syntergum short, transverse-triangular or at most as long as wide and setose only along extreme posterior margin (often not visible because largely overlain by penultimate tergum); cercus distinctly peglike (digitiform).

MALE. Unknown.

Type information. The holotype was stated as deposited in TAMU, but subsequently was transferred to the USNM. Data given in the original description stated that the holotype was collected “ 6 km N of Autlan”, whereas it is given as “4.2 m. N Autlan” on the specimen label.

Material examined. NEOTROPICAL. BRAZIL. Amazonas: Manaus, ca. 60 km N, Hwy ZF 2, km 20.7, 0 2 º 30 'S 60 º 15 'W, 16.VIII. 79, Terra firme, Canopy fogging project, Adis, Erwin & Montgomery, et al. (4 Ƥ USNM). Bahia: Encruzilhada  , 980m, X. 74, M. Alvarenga (1 Ƥ CNC). CUBA. Camaguey, 19.VI. 50, Berg & Link, on Citrus sinensis leaf (1 Ƥ USNM). GUATEMALA. Zacapa, Dpto San Larenzo, 12.VII. 86, L. LeSage (2 Ƥ CNC). HONDURAS. La Ceiba, 10.VI. 49, L. Becker (1 Ƥ CNC). MEXICO. Jalisco: Autlan, 4.2 mi. N, Mine Road, 7.VIII. 84, J.B. Woolley 84 /023 (Holotype, USNM). Oaxaca: Salina Cruz  , 27 mi. SW, 14.VII. 87, P. Kovarik & J. Schaffner (1 Ƥ TAMU). Totolapan, 10 mi. E, 4000 ’, 20.VII. 87, P. Kovarik & J. Schaffner (1 Ƥ TAMU). VENEZUELA. Aragua, H. Pittier Nat. Park, Portachuelo Pass— 1100m, 10 º 21 'N 67 º 41 'W, 14.V. 98, J. Ashe, R. Brooks & R. Hanley (73 Ƥ CNC, Photos 2011 - 25, 26, 32, 35, 36, 106); 1000m, 13.IV. 94, L. Masner (1 Ƥ CNC). Aragua—Rancho Grande Nat. Pk, 18.VIII- 3.IX. 92, L. Masner (1 Ƥ CNC); 900m, 12.V. 79, G. Gordh (5 Ƥ UCRC).

Distribution. Map 5.

MAP 5. Distribution of Jaliscoa nudipennis Bouček. 

Biology. Hosts and biology unknown, but undoubtedly a parasitoid of Curculionidae  ( Coleoptera  ) based on known host associations for other Jaliscoa  species.

Discussion. Several features more readily differentiate females of J. nudipennis  from the other recognized species of Jaliscoa  than these are from each other. However, some of the colour features are unreliable for some specimens and not all of the differential features may be visible or obvious because of the condition of air-dried specimens and/or the method of mounting. Perhaps the most easily observed and stable feature is the unique, oblique carina that extends posterolaterally from the propodeal spiracle ( Fig. 103View FIGURES 97 – 104: arrow 2). Also unique is the presence of a carinately margined mesosternal shelf ( Figs 101, 102View FIGURES 97 – 104), though this sometimes is not obvious depending on how the specimen is mounted, and a mediolongitudinally furrowed Gt 2 –Gt 4 ( Fig. 99View FIGURES 97 – 104), though this is not always apparent if the specimen is air-dried and the gaster is completely collapsed. Other differential features such as clypeal sculpture ( Fig. 98View FIGURES 97 – 104) and most gastral features represent more subtle differences.