Wilcoxia martinorum Wilcox,

Pollock, Darren A. & Reichert, Lisa A., 2019, Review of the Nearctic genus Wilcoxia James (Diptera: Asilidae: Stenopogoninae) with descriptions of three new species, Zootaxa 4695 (5), pp. 401-437: 420-426

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4695.5.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A6844BF7-1B08-40D8-AB38-37F1E93B434C

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CD87EE-0806-F054-FF48-F9C3FB6D966E

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Wilcoxia martinorum Wilcox
status

 

8. Wilcoxia martinorum Wilcox 

( Figs 15–16View FIGURES 13–16, 25View FIGURES 17–25, 36–37View FIGURES 30–37, 57View FIGURES 47–58, 66View FIGURES 65–66)

Wilcoxia martinorum Wilcox 1972: 43  . Type locality: “ California, Riverside Co., White Water”; Wood 1981: 560, Fig. 32View FIGURES 30–37 [anterior view of head]; Poole & Gentili 1996: 64.

Types. Holotype, male ( CAS), labeled: “White Water, Cal. XI-25 1947 // J. Wilcox Coll. // [blue label] HOLOTYPE ♂ Wilcoxia martinorum J. Wilcox  // California Academy of Sciences Type No. 11714 // ALLOTYPE IS STORED IN THE GENERAL COLLECTION”. The holotype was not examined (images studied at: http://researcharchive. calacademy.org/research/entomology/typesDB/default.asp). The allotype was examined. 

Derivation of specific epithet. Named after Charles and Dorothy Martin, who found individuals of this species “literally swarming on the hillside rocks near the entrance to White Water Canyon” ( Wilcox 1972: 44).

Diagnosis. This species may be separated from the other three members of the martinorum  group by the following characters: outer lateral surface of all femora more or less uniformly pollinose; tergite 1 with bare patch wider anteriorly than posteriorly; tergite 2 with medial bare patch isolated from lateral bare areas; wings hyaline; halter knob yellow, not contrasting yellow stem.

Description. Male ( Fig. 15View FIGURES 13–16). TL 5.5–7.8 mm; wing 4.8–6.5 mm.

Head ( Fig. 25View FIGURES 17–25) black, covered in pale grey tomentum, usually tinted brown on ocellar tubercle and frons, face (in profile) barely projecting beyond eye; hairs and setae of head white, usually with a slight amber cast; lower occipital hairs long, dense, “wispy”; ocellar tubercle with about 8 long setae and several long hairs (> length of scape + pedicel), white to amber in color; mystax ( Fig. 25View FIGURES 17–25) moderately dense, consisting of long setae (ca. length of antenna) and slightly shorter hairs, occupying almost entire face; setae and hairs white, bases perpendicular to plane of face; no distinct hairs on face separate from mystax; palpi and proboscis dark brown to black with white hairs; antennomeres brown to black, pollinose, scape and pedicel with very thin pollinosity medially; scape and pedicel with several long ventral setae (pedicel with one long, stout seta) and hairs and several short hairs dorsally; ratio of antennomere lengths (scape: pedicel: postpedicel: style + spine) = 6: 6: 18: 11.

Thorax black, covered in pale grey tomentum; scutum with divided median stripe, light to dark brown pollinose; acrostichal setae present, 5–6 per row; scutum surface uniform, without distinct non-pollinose or differently colored spots; scutum with sparse pile of long white hairs (length of postpedicel), densest presuturally but longer postsuturally; most specimens with 2 notopleural setae, 1 supraalar seta and 1 postalar seta; stoutest thoracic setae with amber cast; scutellum uniformly pale grey pollinose; 5–6 white to pale yellow marginal setae, longest setae greater in length than scutellum, perpendicular to plane of scutellum, subparallel to each other; very few short marginal hairs present; disc of scutellum with few shorter, partially appressed hairs; pleura pale grey pollinose; katatergite with about 20 long, fine white setae, tips “crinkly” (e.g., Fig. 43View FIGURES 41–46); wings hyaline; costa complete around entire wing margin; microtrichiae very sparse, scattered, in distal 1/3 of wing; halter with base brown and yellow, stem and knob yellow; legs ( Figs 15–16View FIGURES 13–16) uniformly brown to black, hair and setae white to slightly yellow; all femora pollinose, at least dorsally, front and middle femora with anteroproximal half non-pollinose; hind femur uniformly pollinose dorsally, but anteriorly confined to distal 1/3; femora dorsally with relatively dense, white appressed hairs (<femur width) and a few longer (about width of femur) erect white setae; ventrally with many longer, suberect white hairs (longest> femur width); tibiae with dense, short (<tibia width) appressed white hairs, ventrally with a few longer, more erect hairs, especially on front tibia; mesotibial spine light brown; protibiae without sigmoidal spine.

Abdomen ( Figs 15View FIGURES 13–16, 36View FIGURES 30–37) black; tergites 2–7 with “checkerboard” pattern of pale grey pollinosity and bare patches; tergites 1–7 densely pale grey pollinose, hairs white; tergites 1–7 with dorsocentral bare patch, on 2–7 extending from posterior margin to about midlength; tergite 1 with bare patch widest anteriorly; tergites 2–6 with anterolateral bare patch; sternites pale grey pollinose, with sparse, long fine white hairs, longest on anterior sternites.

Male genitalia ( Fig. 57View FIGURES 47–58). Apex of dorsal gonocoxite process deeply bifid, both lobes subequal in length, with carina on outer lobe; dorsal process extending past apex of ventral gonocoxite process; medial gonocoxite processes thin, acute, distinctly curved towards phallus; gonostylus relatively wide, angulate, apex truncate; phallus with indistinct, subapical denticle on lateral margins; lateral margins evenly narrowed to apex.

Female ( Fig. 16View FIGURES 13–16). TL 6.0–10.0 mm; wing 5.2–8.8 mm; with characters similar to male except for the following: frons and ocellar tubercle with brown tomentum; median stripe of scutum and much of dorsal pollinosity brown; tergites 7–8 thinly pollinose to bare ( Fig. 37View FIGURES 30–37).

Natural history. Specimens of W. martinorum  were said by Wilcox (1972: 44) to be “literally swarming on the hillside rocks near the entrance to White Water Canyon”. This behavior is shared (though perhaps not “swarming”) with individuals of W. apache  and W. forbesi  , which we have collected also only on rocks or stony/rocky substrate. Four paratypes (CAS) of W. martinorum  have associated prey items pointed on the same pins. Bulk index of the prey items ranged from 1.3–7.3; ratio of bulk index of predator:prey ranged from 2.6 (largest prey item) to 11.4 (smallest prey item) (average = 7.7). Prey items comprise HYMENOPTERA  ( Encyrtidae  : Bothriothorax cf. californicus  ) and DIPTERA  (2 Phoridae  ( Megaselia  sp.) and 1 Anthomyiidae  ). The latter specimens were called “borborids” [= Sphaeroceridae  ] by Wilcox (1972), but in fact they are Phoridae  , genus Megaselia  (Steve Gaimari and Brian Brown, pers. comms.). Wilcox (1972) mentioned a small winged termite (Isoptera) as a prey item also; this specimen was not seen. Specimens were collected from 10.x–2.ii.

Non-primary type material examined. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Arizona. Yuma Co. Telegraph Pass [32.667783, -114.315430], Gila Mts GoogleMaps  ., 6.i.1986, D. Lightfoot, ( NMSU, 1♂)  . California. Riverside Co. White Water [33.926128, -116.635048]GoogleMaps  , 23.xii.1947, J. Wilcox, Paratype, ( CAS, 44♂, 24♀; CNC, 2♂, 1♀; NMSU, 1♀; BME, 1♀ [UC BME P 0003966]); same localityGoogleMaps  , 25.xi.1947, J. Wilcox, Paratype, ( CAS, 20♂, 23♀; NMSU, 1♂; CNC, 1♂); same localityGoogleMaps  , 28.xi.1947, J. Wilcox, Paratype, ( CAS, 6♂, 4♀; CNC, 1♀); same localityGoogleMaps  , 3.xii.1947, J. Wilcox, Paratype, ( CAS, 3♂, 3♀)  ; same locality  , 10.xii.1962, J. Wilcox, Paratype, ( CAS, 1♂)  ; same locality  , 27.xii.1947, J. Wilcox, Paratype, ( CAS, 2♂, 2♀)  ; same locality  , 16.xii.1964, J. Wilcox, Paratype, ( CAS, 1♂, 1♀)  ; same locality  , 6.i.1948, A.F. Howland, Paratype, ( CAS, 1♀)  ; same locality  , 13.xi.1966, E. Fisher, Paratype, ( EMFC, 8♂, 5♀; USNM [ USNMENT 01457176View Materials], 1♂); same locality  , 16.xii.1962, E. Fisher, Paratype, ( EMFC, 4♀; WBEM, 1♂; USNM [ USNMENT 01457177View Materials], 1♀); same locality, 1500 ft.  , 29.xi.1978, E.M. Fisher, ( EMFC, 8♂, 5♀)  ; 3 mi. N. Whitewater [33.969801, -116.634963], 1600 ft., 13.xi.1979, E.M. Fisher, ( EMFC, 1♂, 1♀)  ; Palm Springs [33.831958, -116.546514], P.H. Arnaud, Paratype, 7.i.54, ( CAS, 10♂, 10♀)  ; same locality and collector, Paratypes  , 8.i.1954, ( CAS, 4♂, 3♀)  ; 2.i.1954, ( CAS, 7♂, 7♀)  ; 3.i.1954, ( CAS, 14♂, 10♀)  ; 1.i.1954, ( CAS, 2♂, 2♀)  ; 5.i.1954, ( CAS, 1♀)  , 6.i.1954, ( CAS, 3♂, 1♀)  , 10.i.1954, ( CAS, 1♀)  , 11.i.1954, ( CAS, 1♂)  , 21.i.1953, ( CAS, 2♂, 1♀)  , 29.xii.1953, ( CAS, 11♂, 8♀; EMFC, 2♂, 1♀)  , 30.xii.1953, ( CAS, 8♂, 10♀; EMFC, 1♀)  , 31.xii.1953, ( CAS, 4♂, 3♀)  ; same locality  , 21.i.1953, J. Wilcox, Paratype, ( CAS, 5♂)  ; Palm Springs, Chino Canyon [33.863946, -116.571141], P.H. Arnaud, coll. on rock, Paratype, 22.xii.1950, ( CAS, 6♂, 3♀)  , 24.xii.1950, ( CAS, 1♀)  , 25.xii.1950, ( CAS, 2♂, 4♀)  , 26.xii.1950, ( CAS, 1♂, 2♀)  , 27.xii.1950, ( CAS, 2♀)  ; same locality  , 23.xii.1950, P.H. Arnaud, coll. nr. rock wall, ( CAS, 2♂, 4♀)  ; 1 mi. W. Palm Springs [33.828159, -116.563264], 12.i.1977, E.M. Fisher, ( EMFC, 3♂)  ; Palm Desert, 10.x.1964, E. Fisher, ( EMFC, 2♂)  ; P.L. Boyd Des. Res. Center 3.5 mi. S. Palm Desert, marker #57, Mal- aise trap, 18-22.xi.1969, S. Frommer & R. Worley, ( UCRC, 1♀ [ UCRC ENT 21094View Materials]; 3.5 mi. S. Palm Desert (P.L. Boyd Des. Res. Center) [33.633179, -116.399856], Malaise trapGoogleMaps  , 25-27.x.1978, ( UCRC, 1♂ [ UCRC ENT 152970View Materials])  , 8-12.i.1979, ( UCRC, 1♂ [ UCRC ENT 76690View Materials]); Deep Cyn. Des. Res. Center Sec. 17, R6E, T6S, 116°22’36”W, 33°38’19”N [33.638911, -116.376667], 10 year Malaise trap study, J.D. Pinto & S.I. FrommerGoogleMaps  , 21-24.xi.1979, ( UCRC, 1♂ [ UCRC ENT 153339View Materials])  , 24-26.xi.1979, ( UCRC, 1♂ [ UCRC ENT 153399View Materials])  , 26-28.xi.1979, ( UCRC, 1♂ [ UCRC ENT 153530View Materials])  , 28-31.xii.1979, ( UCRC, 1♂ [ UCRC ENT 153569View Materials], 1♀ [ UCRC ENT 153571View Materials])  , 1-4.ii.1980, ( UCRC, 1♂ [ UCRC ENT 153328View Materials]); 8 mi. N. Jct. Horsethief Cr. & Deep Cr., Sec. 6; T7S, R6E [33.590700, - 116.401865], elev. 2960 ft.GoogleMaps  , 27.x-3.xi.1973, A.B. Tabet, Malaise, ( UCRC, 1♂ [ UCRC ENT 152594View Materials]); Palm Desert , Philip L. Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Center, 33°38’52.3N, 116°22’36.0W [33.647861, -116.376667], 940 ft.GoogleMaps  , 27.i-2.ii.2007, P.H. & M.M. Arnaud, malaise trap, ( USNM, 6♂ [USNMENT 01457183, 01457184, 01457185, 01457187, 01457188, 01457189], 1♀ [ USNM 01457186View Materials]); Palm Desert, Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Cen- ter, 33°38’53.2”N, 116°22’38.5”W [33.648111, -116.377361], ca 250mGoogleMaps  , 20-26.ii.2006, P.H. & M.M. Arnaud, malaise trap, ( USNM, 2♂ [USNMENT 01457190, 01457191]); Palm Desert, Philip L. Boyd Deep Canyon Research Center [33.647927, -116.376534]GoogleMaps  , 15.ii.1995, P.H. & M.M. Arnaud, ( USNM, 1♂ [USNMENT 01457182]); Mag- nesia Falls Cyn. [33.719804, -116.420504, est.]GoogleMaps  , 15.xi.1978, E.M. Fisher, ( EMFC, 2♀)  . San Bernardino Co. Vidal [34.118958, -114.510178], 12.x.1987, ( UCRC, 1♀ [ UCRC ENT 80350View Materials]). San Diego Co. 5 mi. S. Oasis [33.395074, -116.098033]GoogleMaps  , 13.xi.1947, J. Wilcox, Paratype, ( CAS, 1♂, 1♀)  ; same locality, Paratype  , 17.xi.1947, ( CAS, 5♂, 7♀)  ; 10 mi. S. Oasis [33.315356, -116.095741], 10.xii.1962, J. Wilcox, Paratype, ( CAS, 3♀)  .

Distribution ( Fig. 66View FIGURES 65–66). When the paratypes of W. martinorum  that now are designated as W. flavipennis  , n. sp. were removed from the original type series, the distribution of W. martinorum  became much narrower than when described by Wilcox (1972). Most specimens of W. martinorum  form a fairly tight cluster in several southern California counties (esp. Riverside). Elevations of collecting localities range from 433 to 3772 feet.

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

UCRC

University of California, Riverside

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Asilidae

Genus

Wilcoxia

Loc

Wilcoxia martinorum Wilcox

Pollock, Darren A. & Reichert, Lisa A. 2019
2019
Loc

Poole, R. W. & Gentili, P. 1996: 64
Wood, G. C. 1981: 560
Wilcox, J. 1972: 43