Hapalotremus martinorum, Cavallo & Ferretti, 2014
Cavallo, Patricio E. & Ferretti, Nelson E., 2014, The first Hapalotremus Simon, 1903 (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from Argentina: description and natural history of Hapalotremus martinorum sp. nov., Journal of Natural History 49 (15), pp. 873-887 : 876-879
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Holotype: male: ARGENTINA: Salta province (25°09.513' S, 65°36.704' W), 20 April 2011, Patricio E. Cavallo, Martin Hüsser and Martin Gamache legs. Found southwest of Salta, near provincial route 33, adjacent to Escoipe River at an altitude of 1496 m, ( MLP 19152) GoogleMaps . Paratype female ( MLP 19153): same data as holotype GoogleMaps .
The specific epithet is a patronym in honour of Martin Hüsser ( Switzerland) and Martin Gamache ( Canada), who participated in the collection and discovery of this new species.
Males and females of Hapalotremus martinorum sp. nov. differ from all other congeners by the colour pattern of live specimens with distinct greenish pubescence between the patella and tarsi of the legs, also on the lateral faces of the abdomen, and by the reddish setae of the urticating setae patch on the dorsal abdomen ( Figure 1 View Figure 1 ). From H. albipes by the smaller size of adult males and females; males by the palpal bulb morphology with the thickened and less curved embolus having a blunt subapical keel and less-developed apical keel, and less curved metatarsus I ( Figure 2A, B, E View Figure 2 ). Females of H. martinorum differ from H. albipes Simon 1903 by the shape of the spermathecae, with the lateral expansions in the base being wider than apical portion; the upper edge is also more rounded ( Figure 3B, C View Figure 3 ). Hapalotremus martinorum sp. nov. resembles H. major ( Chamberlin 1916) by the reddish setae on the abdomen dorsum but differs from this species by the smaller size and by the male palpal bulb morphology, with thickened and less curved embolus ( Figure 2A, B View Figure 2 ).
Male (holotype, MLP 19152). Colour in life: legs and palps femora dark, patella to tarsi with lighter pubescence. Carapace ochre, light brown, with margins bearing long pinkish setae. Lateral sides of abdomen with light green pubescence and yellowishreddish setae on dorsum ( Figure 1B View Figure 1 ). Total length (not including chelicerae or spinnerets) 15.9. Cephalothorax 8.3 long, 7.8 wide. Abdomen 7.5 long, 4.0 wide. Urticating setae type III present, posterior dorsal circular patch. Spinnerets: PMS, 1 long, 0.4 wide; PLS, 0.6 basal, 0.6 middle, 0.3 domed distal. Eyes: tubercle length 0.65, width 0.8. Clypeus 0.3. Anterior eyes row procurved, posterior row recurved. Eyes sizes and inter-distances: AME 0.11, ALE 0.21, PME 0.10, PLE 0.13, AME– AME 0.16, AME–ALE 0.07, PME–PME 0.39, PME–PLE 0.06, ALE–PLE 0.10. Fovea: deep straight, 0.8 long. Labium: length 1.1, width 1.25, with 13 cuspules ( Figure 2D View Figure 2 ). Maxillae: each with 69 and 79 cuspules spread over internal face ( Figure 2D View Figure 2 ). Sternum: length 3.5, width 3.
Chelicerae with 13 large teeth on promargin and 16 small teeth on retromargin. Length of legs and palpal segments in Table 1. Tarsi I–IV fully scopulated divided by rows of setae increasing in width from legs I to IV ( Figure 2F View Figure 2 ). Metatarsi I one-half apical scopulated, II one-third apical scopulated, III one-half apical scopulated, IV one-quarter apical scopulated.
Spination. Femora and patellae of I–IV and palp, 0. Tibiae: palp 0; I 1 V, 1–1–1 R, 1 P; II 2–2–2 V, 1–1 P; III 1–1–2 V, 1–1 R, 1–1 P; IV 1–1–1–1–2 V, 1–1–1–1 R, 1– 1–1– 1 P. Metatarsi: I 2 V ; II 1–1 – 2 V , 1 P, 1 D; III 1–1–3 V, 1–1–1 R, 1 P, 1–1–1 D; IV 1–1–1–2 V, 1–1–1–1–1–1 R, 1–1– 1 P. Tarsi I–IV, palps 0 .
Tibia I with ventral apophysis, the PB bearing a long stiff black thorn on inner side, slightly curved at tip and of similar size to the spur, RB with a long spine inserted on inner side at the middle of the spur ( Figure 2C View Figure 2 ). Metatarsus I moderately curved ( Figure 2E View Figure 2 ). Male palpal bulb with embolus subcylindrical, curved 70° to the retrolateral side. Prolateral keels present, the subapical keel (SA) conspicuous and blunt, the PS forming the embolus edge distally and pronounced; PI less-developed, apical keel not pronounced, R absent ( Figure 2A, B View Figure 2 ).
Female (paratype, MLP 19153). Colour in life: colour pattern as in male, but patella to tarsi with very light green pubescence, carapace dark, and reddish setae on dorsum more evident than male ( Figure 1A View Figure 1 ). Total length (not including chelicerae or spinnerets) 25.1. Cephalothorax 9.4 long, 8.6 wide. Abdomen 15 long, 10.8 wide. Urticating setae type III present, posterior dorsal circular patch. Spinnerets: PMS, 1 long, 0.7 wide; PLS, 1 basal, 1 middle, 0.6 domed distal. Eyes: tubercle length 1.5, width 1. Clypeus 0.4. Anterior eyes row procurved, posterior row recurved. Eyes sizes and inter-distances: AME 0.15, ALE 0.41, PME 0.19, PLE 0.32, AME–AME 0.36, AME–ALE 0.09, PME–PME 0.69, PME–PLE 0.07, ALE–PLE 0.15. Fovea: deep straight, 1.3 long. Labium: length 1.5, width 2, with 28 cuspules (Figure 9). Maxillae: with 95 and 106 cuspules spread over internal face ( Figure 3A View Figure 3 ). Sternum: length 4.4, width 4.
Chelicerae with 12 large teeth on promargin and 13 small teeth on retromargin. Length of legs and palpal segments in Table 2. Tarsi I–IV fully scopulated divided by rows of setae increasing in width from legs I to IV. Metatarsi I one-half apical scopulated, II one-third apical scopulated, III one-quarter apical scopulated, IV one-quarter apical scopulated.
Spination. Femora and patellae of II–IV, 0. Femora: palp 1 D; I 1 D. Tibiae: palp 0; I 1 V; II 1–1 P; III 1 R, 1 P; IV 1 V. Metatarsi: I 1–3 V; II 1–1–3 V; III 2 V, 1– 1–1 R, 1- 1–1 P; IV 1 D, 1–1–1–2 V, 1–1–1 P, 1 R. Tarsi I–IV, palps 0. Single spermathecal receptaculum with their lateral extensions in the base, being wider than apical portion, and the upper edge more rounded ( Figure 3B View Figure 3 ).
Known only from the type locality ( Figure 4 View Figure 4 ).
Hapalotremus martinorum sp. nov. was found inhabiting high cloud forest in the Yungas eco-region. This region comprises a hotspot of biodiversity in northern Argentina. The mean annual precipitation in this area is above 1000 mm; the mean temperature during April (autumn in southern hemisphere, when specimens were captured) is about 16.4°C and the relative humidity during this month is about 82.4% in the area. Individuals were found at 1496 m above sea level next to the Escoipe River and provincial Route 33 ( Figure 5A, B View Figure 5 ). The nearest locality to the point where spiders were found is Las Ánimas, at approximately 45 km from Salta city. Hapalotremus martinorum sp. nov. is a fossorial theraphosid that occupies short burrows or crevices under stones ( Figure 5C View Figure 5 ). Usually, the stones where individuals were found are covered with mosses and small ferns. This species could inhabit similar habitats as other theraphosids of the high cloud forests, as indicated by Pérez-Miles and Weinmann (2009) for species of Cyriocosmus Simon, 1903 .
Museo de La Plata
Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium
Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile
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