Brachymeria subrugosa Blanchard, 1942,

Aquino, Daniel Alejandro, Tavares, Marcelo Texeira, Balducci, Ezequiel, Baca, Verónica & Quinteros, Sara Quintana De, 2015, The microlepidopterous natural enemy Brachymeria subrugosa Blanchard, 1942 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae): identity, hosts and geographic distribution, Zootaxa 4013 (2), pp. 293-300: 294-299

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4013.2.10

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:DD8B8ECA-B3F5-4122-8D9C-E088D56B4546

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3507450

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CEFE24-8E2B-FF8A-FF00-FB7EFEFA57B6

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Brachymeria subrugosa Blanchard, 1942
status

 

Brachymeria subrugosa Blanchard, 1942 

( Figs 1–8View FIGURES 1 – 6View FIGURES 7 – 12. 7 – 8)

Trigonura annulipes  Costa Lima 1919: 57 –58 [preoccupied by Chalcis annulipes Walker 1834  , a junior synonym of Brachymeria annulata (Fabricius)  ]. Brasil: Maranhão.

Brachymeria subrugosa Blanchard 1942: 116  –117, Fig. 11View FIGURES 7 – 12. 7 – 8. Argentina: Charata. Syn. nov.

Brachymeria subrugosa: Parker, Berry & Guido 1953: 49  (hosts).

Brachymeria (Pseudobrachymeria) conica (Ashmead)  : Burks 1960: 270 –271 (part, misidentification, hosts); De Santis 1979: 64 (part, misidentification, hosts); Terán 1980: 292 (part, misidentification, hosts); De Santis 1989: 13 (part, catalogue).

Brachymeria (Brachymeria) subrugosa: De Santis 1967: 209  (catalogue); 1979: 62 (catalogue); 1980: 253 (catalogue).

Trigonura annulipes  Costa Lima: De Santis 1980: 249 (catalogue).

Brachymeria annulipes: Bouček 1992: 88  (combination).

Brachymeria subconica: Delvare 1993: 351  , 361, Figs 5–7View FIGURES 1 – 6View FIGURES 7 – 12. 7 – 8 (misidentification, key).

Diagnosis. Preorbital carinae present along upper third of orbit, curving in front of lateral ocelli to meet each other just on posterior margin of median ocellus ( Figs 1, 2View FIGURES 1 – 6); scrobal margin completely carinate and carinae touching lateral margin of median ocellus ( Figs 1, 2View FIGURES 1 – 6); area enclosed by scrobal margin and preorbital carinae flat to slightly concave; lower face with scrobal-orbital ruga delimiting upper and lower face, conspicuous and usually reaching orbit ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 1 – 6); torularclypeal ruga conspicuous and complete ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 1 – 6); interantennal projection as a short carina ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 1 – 6); fore wing with cubital fold glabrous and basal fold with a line of hairs ( Fig. 5View FIGURES 1 – 6); metafemur subelliptic, ventral margin with 8–10 teeth, the basal one small, the medial ones the largest, outer surface coriaceous with dense and small piliferous punctures ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 1 – 6); hypopygium at apex conspicuously emarginate ( Figs 7, 8View FIGURES 7 – 12. 7 – 8).

Redescription. FEMALE. Lectotype: 5.25 mm.

Color. Mainly black except as follows: eyes and ocelli brown; yellow on tegula, distal fifth of mesofemur, distal spot on external surface of metafemur, fore and mesotibiae, proximal and distal quarters of metatibia, and tarsi. Wings hyaline. Pilosity mainly white, brown on syntergum 7 + 8.

Head. Preorbital carinae present along upper third of orbit, the carinae curving in front of lateral ocelli and meeting each other just on posterior margin of median ocellus ( Figs 1, 2View FIGURES 1 – 6). Scrobal margin carinate, dorsally carinae touching lower margin of median ocellus, close or virtually tangent to median ocellus ( Figs 1, 2View FIGURES 1 – 6); area enclosed by scrobal margin and preorbital carinae flat. Frons dorsally and vertex usually with umbilicate foveae, interstices coriaceous, foveae at most 0.3 × median ocellar diameter; lower face with piliferous punctures, interstices coriaceous; scrobal-orbital ruga separating the lower face from frons, conspicuous and reaching orbit ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 1 – 6); a torular-clypeal ruga conspicuous and complete. Lower margin of torulus at lower eye level. Interantennal projection as a short carina ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 1 – 6). Malar carinae curving posteriorly towards genal carina. Mandibular formula 2: 3. Genal carina running towards lateral ocellus, upper portion not curving toward occiput. Antenna clavate, scape just reaching lower margin of median ocellus. Measurements: head height:width:length = 1.07: 1.68: 0.79; frontovertex = 0.82; DAO = 0.17; POL = 0.42; OOL = 0.10; malar space = 0.31; oral fossa = 0.42; eye height:width = 0.93: 0.69; antennal segments (length:width) = scape 0.65: 0.15; pedicel 0.10: 0.10; anellus 0.10: 0.3; Fu 1 0.16: 0.15; Fu 2 –Fu 3 0.15: 0.16; Fu 4 –Fu 6 0.13: 0.17; Fu 7 0.13: 0.18; clava 0.27: 0.18.

Mesosoma. Pronotum, mid lobe of mesoscutum and scutellum with umbilicate foveae, foveae diameter 0.3–0.4 × mid ocellar diameter; interstices coriaceous, as wide as 0.5 –1.0× diameter of foveae; scutellum with a smooth and slightly elevated medial stripe ( Fig. 4View FIGURES 1 – 6), usually inconspicuously coriaceous; lateral lobe of mesoscutum on inner half with shallow, scattered and smaller umbilicate foveae. Setation as long as 2 × diameter of foveae. Frenal carinae medially slightly emarginate. Epicnemial carina ventromedially straight. Fore wing with basal cell and cubital fold glabrous; basal fold with a line of setae ( Fig. 5View FIGURES 1 – 6); subcubital fold basally with line of fine setae. Metafemur subelliptic; on ventral margin with 8–10 teeth, the basal one small, the medial ones the largest; outer surface coriaceous with dense and small piliferous punctures ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 1 – 6). Measurements (length or length:width): mesosoma = 2.31; mesoscutum = 0.98: 1.64; scutellum = 1.00: 0.90; fore wing = 3.35: 1.42; submarginal vein = 1.69; marginal vein = 0.65; postmarginal vein = 0.17; stigmal vein = 0.08; metacoxa = 0.86: 0.62; metafemur = 1.93: 0.95.

Metasoma. Gaster acuminate ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 7 – 12. 7 – 8), at least 1.1 × as long as head plus mesosoma; Tg 1 smooth and shiny, except for a few fine dorsolateral punctures; Tg 2 –Tg 5 coriaceous with 1 or 2 lateral rows of piliferous punctures; Tg 6 coriaceous with shallow umbilicate foveae on side, dorsal foveae irregular; syntergum 7 + 8 coriaceous with piliferous punctures, 1.5 × as long as wide. Exerted part of ovipositor sheaths as long as high. Hypopygium at apex broadly emarginate ( Figs 7, 8View FIGURES 7 – 12. 7 – 8). Measurements (length or length:width): gaster = 3.65: 1.35; Gt 1 = 1.15; Gt 7 + 8 = 0.72: 0.33.

MALE. Length: 3.6–4.8 mm. Very similar to female, except area around median ocellus slightly concave; apex of gaster not acuminate.

Variation. Female: Body length 4.0– 7.2 mm; area around median ocellus flat to slightly concave; umbilicated foveae on former area sometimes shallow and irregular; scrobal-orbital ruga reaching orbits or not; Tg 7 + 8 from 1.3 –2.0× as long as wide.

Type material. Brachymeria subrugosa  : Lectotype (here designated), ♀, labelled ‘s/ A. argillaceae, Charata, Parker  , iii. 40 ’ ‘ Brachymeria subrugosa  sp.n., det. E. E. Blanchard’ ( MLPA). Blanchard (1942) described B. subrugosa  based on two syntypes.

The specimen here designated as lectotype was received on loan by one of the authors (MTT) from Manfredo A. Fritz (Institute of Entomology of Salta, Salta Argentina). The specimen labels data (date, place and host) agree with the original description, except for the collector (indicated as “Roberto G. Mallo” in original description, but as “Parker” on the lectotype label). In addition to the specimen agreeing with the original description, the typical Blanchard's identification label with his handwriting and the indication "sp. n." reinforce it as one of the original syntypes.

Trigonula annulipes  : holotype, ♀ (damaged on right side of mesoscutum and scutellum), labelled ‘ Trigonura annulata  C.L.’ ‘G. de Entom. Esc. Sup. Agri. – Nictheroy – E. Rio, No 3266 ’ ( UFRR).

Costa Lima (1919) mentioned that the holotype of B. annulipes  was deposited in the collection of Gabinete de Entomologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura (Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil), but that collection is now in the Costa Lima Collection at the Instituto de Biologia of Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil). The holotype has a red label written " Trigonura annulata  C.L." (Costa Lima's handwriting) and a Niterói cabinet label with the number 3266. In the former collection's record book, under that number is registered: " Hymenoptera  / Chalcididae  / Trigonura annulata  , C.L./box # 63 / Maranhão. ii. 919 / I removed it from inside a chrysalis of Pectinophora gossypiella  ". The type specimen was found into box # 63 and the record book data corroborates the original description. The specific epithet annulata  on the type label and in the book record clearly are mistakes.

Other studied material. USA. Texas: 1 ♀, 1 ♂, Victoria, ix. 1920, J. D. Mitchell col. ( USNM). MEXICO. 1 ♀, 28.iii. 1934, O. C. Morris col. ( USNM); 1 ♀, 10.ix. 1952 [without collecting data] ( USNM). Sinaloa: 1 ♀, 2,5 miles N. Mazatlan, 12.viii. 1970, J. S. & M. S. Wasbauer colls. ( EMEC). Nuevo Leon: 1 ♂, Villa del Carmen, 24.i. 1972, ex. webworm on pecan [sic.], J. J. Ortiz col. ( USNM); 1 ♀, Villa Garcia, iii. 1964, ex. Lespeyresia caryana, Guajardo  col. ( USNM). Colima: 1 ♀, 21 miles N. Manzanillo, 25.vii. 1970, M. S. & J. S.Wasbauer cols. ( EMEC). Veracruz: 1 ♀, Cotaxtla, 03.viii. 1958, ex. Stenomidae  pupa on Annona  fruits ( USNM). HONDURAS. 1 ♀, 1 ♂, 10.v. 1934, J. A. Ramos col. ( USNM); 1 ♀, Punta Castilla  , 29.iii. 1924 ( USNM). COSTA RICA. 1 ♀, [without collecting data] ( USNM). Guanacaste: 1 ♀, Playas del Coco, 05.viii. 1964, G. C. Eickwort col. ( SEMC). Cartago: 1 ♀, Turrialba, 10.ix. 1964 (M. G. Naumann) ( SEMC); 1 ♀, Turrialba, 11.vii. 1971, ex. Anadasmus  pupa, Becker col. ( MLPA); 1 ♀, Turrialba, 20.x. 1972, on Cedrella odorata  L., Grisjma col. ( MLPA); 1 ♀, 640 m [without collecting data] ex. H. grandella, V. O. Becker  col. ( MLPA). PANAMA. Canal Zone: 1 ♀, Las Cascadas, 01.v. 1911, on pyralid in cocoa poa [sic.] ( USNM); 1 ♀, Porto Bello, 09.iii. 1911, A. Brusck col. ( USNM). TRINIDAD Y TOBAGO. 1 ♀, Sagre Grande, 28.v. 1958, ex. Philornis  puparium, T. Aitken col. ( USNM). COLOMBIA. Cesar: 2 ♀, 2 ♂, San Alberto, 23.v. 1989, ex. pupae Stenoma cecropia, P. Genty  col. ( CIRAD). Tolina: 2 ♀, Armero, 26.i – 05.ii. 1977, E. L. Peyton & Suarez cols. ( USNM). VENEZUELA. Zulia: 1 ♀, Carasquero, 29–30.v. 1976, A. S. Menke & D. Vincent col. ( USNM); 1 ♀, Rosario, 14.vi. 1976, A. S. Menke & D. Vincent col. ( USNM); 1 ♀, Puerto de Cata, 10–11.vi. 1976, A. S. Menke & D. Vincent col. ( USNM). Aragua: 1 ♀, Ocumare de La Costa, 12.vi. 1976, A. S. Menke & D. Vincent cols. ( USNM); 1 ♀, Maracay, 24.ix. 1952, ex. Stenomidae  pupa on almond, F. Fernandez col. ( USNM). EQUADOR. Napo: 2 ♀, Coca, iv. 1985 e i. 86, G. Onore col. ( QCAZ). BRAZIL. 2 ♀, attacking material # 11045 [without collecting data] ( IBUS). Acre: 1 ♀, Rio Branco, 25.x –08.xi. 1991, F. Ramos e eq. col. ( MPEG). Amazonas: 1 ♀, Manaus, Reserva Ducke, 19.x. 1981, J. A. Rafael col. ( INPA); 1 ♀, idem, 05.xi. 1986, B. Klein col. ( INPA). Federal District: 1 ♀, Reserva Ecológica do IBGE, 06.x. 1978, Malaise trap ( IBGE). Mato Grosso: 1 ♀, Chapada dos Guimarães, 08– 13.ii. 1986, Malaise, I. Gorayeb col. ( MPEG). Pará: 1 ♀, Belém, 25.viii. 1935, ex. Gnorimoschema  sp ( FIOC); 1 ♀, Oriximiná, 07– 25.x. 1982, Malaise, J. A. Rafael & eq. cols. ( INPA); 1 ♀, Tucurui, Vila Brava, 27.vi. 1980, Nunes de Mello & eq. cols. ( INPA). Pernambuco: 1 ♀, Recife, 08.vii. 1935, J. A. Albuquerque col. ( IBUS). Espírito Santo: 2 ♀, Vitória, urban area, 03.vii.2004, 20.x – 5.xii.2004, 20° 17 ’ 27 ” S, 40 ° 17 ’ 30 ” W, R. Kawada col. ( UFES). Rio de Janeiro: 2 ♀, 1 ♂, Rio de Janeiro, viii. 1943, ex. Stenoma annonella, C. H. Ribbs  col. ( IBUS); 4 ♀, 1 ♂, Belfort Roxo, 11.ii. 1935, # 3191, ex. Cerconota anonella  pupa in sugar –apple [ Anonna squamosa  ], M. Marques col. ( IBUS); 2 ♀, 2 ♂, Guaratiba, 23.vi. 1942, # 6223, ex. Cerconota anonella  pupa, A. Silva col. ( IBUS); 1 ♀, Rio de Janeiro, Horto Florestal, vi. 1942, A. Silva col. ( IBUS); 1 ♀, 1 ♂, Rio de Janeiro, vii. 1925, ex. Cerconota anonella  pupa, J. Alves col. ( MNRJ); 2 ♀, 2 ♂, São Bento, i. 1943, ex. Cerconota anonella  pupa, L. Portela col. ( IBUS). São Paulo: 1 ♀, Campinas, ix. 1992, ex. Stenoma catenifer  pupa, H. Z. Firsher col. ( UFES). ARGENTINA. Salta: 1 ♀, 14 km S. Urundel, ex. Calpodes ethlius  pupae ( IFML); 1 ♀, Valle Morado, 18.ii. 2013, ex. H. grandella  on Cedrela balansae, E. Balducci  ( MLPA); Tucumán: 1 ♀, i. 1929 ( IFML); 1 ♀, San Miguel de Tucumán, x. 1973, parasite of Ceroplastes  sp on Tabebuia  [probably attacking eggs predator lepidoptera  ] ( IFML).

Biology. Brachymeria subrugosa  usually is a solitary, primary parasitoid of Lepidoptera  pupae, mainly microlepidoptera. It has also been recorded as hyperparasitoid of Lepidoptera  and Cassidini  ( Coleoptera  ) beetles through Tachinidae ( Parker, Berry & Guido 1953)  . The following host records for B. subconica  actually refer to B. subrugosa  : Melitara dentata (Grote) ( Burks 1960)  ; Anadasmus porinodes (Meyrick) ( De Santis 1979)  ; Stenomidae ( Terán 1980)  ; and Stenoma cecropia Meyrick ( Delvare 1993)  . Costa Lima (1945) mentioned that the specimens of B. pseudovata  , identified by Jamirez Gomes, were obtained from pupae of Cerconota annonella (Sepp)  ( Lepidoptera  : Oecophoridae  ), but this record corresponds to B. subrugosa  . Of the examined specimens, one female is point mounted with a puparium of Philornis  sp. ( Diptera  : Sarcophagidae  ) and one female of B. podagrica F. The  latter was obtained from inside the puparium that was opened, suggesting that both specimens developed from the same host. These data suggest that beyond lepidopterans B. subrugosa  may attack dipterans, not as a secondary parasitoid.

Distribution. USA * (Texas), Mexico *, Honduras *, Costa Rica *, Panama *, Trinidad and Tobago *, Colombia *, Venezuela *, Ecuador *, Argentina * (Salta and Tucumán), Brasil (Acre*, Amazonas*, Federal District*, Maranhão, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul*, Pará*, Rio de Janeiro*, Roraima* and São Paulo*) and Uruguay.

Hosts. LEPIDOPTERA  : Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)  ( Gelechiidae  ); Calpodes ethlius  * (Stoll) ( Hesperiidae  ); Megalopyge chacona  * (Schaus) ( Megalopygidae  ); Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (as primary and secondary host) ( Noctuidae  ); Anadasmus porinodes  * (Meyrick), Cerconota annonella * (Sepp)  , Stenoma cecropia  * Meyrick and S. catenifer * Walsingham  ( Oecophoridae  ); Hypsipyla grandella  * (Zeller), Melitara dentata  * (Grote) ( Pyralidae  ); Laspeyresia caryana  * ( Tortricidae  ). DIPTERA  : Eucelatoriopsis parkeri Sabrosky  and Patelloa  sp. ( Tachinidae  ). COLEOPTERA  (secondary host): Chelymorpha variabilis Boheman  ( Chrysomelidae  ).

Comments. Bouček (1992) pointed out that B. annulipes  (Costa Lima) was a junior homonym of Chalcis annulipes Walker, 1834  , a junior synonym under B. annulata (Fabricius)  , but he did not replace the former name. Once B. subrugosa Blanchard  is considered a synonym of B. annulipes  (Costa Lima), the former replaces the later one according to ICZN (1999) (Art. 60.2).

Brachymeria subrugosa  belongs to a species group that would agree with the subgenus Pseudobrachymeria Burks 1960  because it is extremely close to B. subconica  , the type species of that subgenus. Both species have a cross carina in front of the lateral ocelli (regarded here as an extension of the preorbital carinae) ( Figs 1, 2View FIGURES 1 – 6, 9View FIGURES 7 – 12. 7 – 8) in addition to the following: the preorbital carinae are absent at least along the lower half of orbit; the scrobal-ocular carinae are present ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 1 – 6); and the metafemur on the outer surface has dense pilliferous punctures and conspicuous coriaceous interstices ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 1 – 6). Brachymeria subrugosa  differs from B. subconica  by the following: the scrobal margin virtually reaches the lower margin of the median ocellus, whereas the upper scrobal margin is somewhat distant from the median ocellus in B. subconica  ( Fig. 9View FIGURES 7 – 12. 7 – 8); the fore wing has the cubital fold glabrous and the basal fold with a line of setae, whereas a line of setae are present on the cubital fold and 2–3 lines on the basal fold in B. subconica  ( Fig. 10View FIGURES 7 – 12. 7 – 8); and the hypopygium is broadly emarginate medially at its apex conversely to being narrowly emarginate in B. subconica  ( Figs 11, 12View FIGURES 7 – 12. 7 – 8). The geographic distribution of B. subconica  is similar to that of B. subrugosa  ( Paraguay, from south to north of Brazil, Ecuador, El Salvador and Mexico).

Specimens of B. subrugosa  have been frequently misidentified. One of the authors (MTT) found specimens identified as B. subconica  , B. pseudovata Blanchard  and B. producta (Olivier)  . Consequently, at least part of the following citations of B. subconica  refers to B. subrugosa: Burks (1960)  , De Santis (1980, 1989), Terán (1980), and Delvare (1993) (see the items Hosts and Studied material). The illustrations of B. subconica  provided by Delvare (1993) clearly refer to B. subrugosa  .

DAO

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

EMEC

Essig Museum of Entomology

SEMC

University of Kansas - Biodiversity Institute

CIRAD

Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement

QCAZ

Museo de Zoologia, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador

IBUS

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

MPEG

Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

FIOC

Fundacao Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

UFES

Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Chalcididae

Genus

Brachymeria

Loc

Brachymeria subrugosa Blanchard, 1942

Aquino, Daniel Alejandro, Tavares, Marcelo Texeira, Balducci, Ezequiel, Baca, Verónica & Quinteros, Sara Quintana De 2015
2015
Loc

Trigonura annulipes

De 1980: 249
1980
Loc

Brachymeria (Pseudobrachymeria) conica

De 1989: 13
Teran 1980: 292
De 1979: 64
Burks 1960: 270
1960
Loc

Trigonura annulipes

Costa 1919: 57
1919
Loc

Brachymeria subrugosa

Blanchard 1942: 116
Loc

Brachymeria subrugosa:

Parker 1953: 49
Loc

Brachymeria (Brachymeria) subrugosa: De Santis 1967 : 209

De 1967: 209
Loc

Brachymeria subconica:

Delvare 1993: 351