Eucera (Eucera) aequata Vachal 1907,

Dorchin, Achik, 2019, Taxonomic revision of the aequata - group of the subgenus Eucera s. str. (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Eucerini), Zootaxa 4652 (3), pp. 457-472: 461-465

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Eucera (Eucera) aequata Vachal 1907


Eucera (Eucera) aequata Vachal 1907 

Eucera aequata Vachal 1907: 377  . ♂, Turkey, Adana. Lectotype ♂, by present designation (see below), MNHN.

Distribution: Israel, Syria, Cyprus, Turkey.

Note: The Lectotype designated here is a male specimen from Vachal’s collection in MNHN, labelled with the type locality and a date “ 12 v ” which not exactly matches that mentioned in the original description by Vachal (1907): “Trois ♂, d’Adana, 7-V ”. Other putative syntypes are unknown. For this reason, and because original types by Vachal typically were not marked with type labels ( Rasmussen 2012), D. B. Baker labeled this specimen as Neotype rather than Lectotype in 1990 but has not published his Neotype designation. It is however very unlikely that two independent series of specimens from the same locality and nearly the same date were deposited in Vachal’s collection and that one series was ignored in the species description. It is thus assumed here that this specimen is part of the original type series and that Vachal has made a mistake when reading the label. The Lectotype was examined via photographs including the dissected genitalia and S7 that despite being incomplete are diagnostic of E. aequata  (see Acknowledgements).

Pollen plants: Based on analyses of scopal pollen contents of seven females that were available for study this species is either mesolectic on Boraginaceae  and Fabaceae  , or polylectic with preference to Boraginaceae  . Six females that were collected in Israel and in Cyprus collected exclusively or mainly Echium- type pollen ( Boraginaceae  ) with a small amount (up to 6.2%) of Fabaceae  pollen. A seventh female that was collected on Echium angustifolium  in Israel had a mixed load with mainly pollen of the Vicia  - type ( Fabaceae  ) and 18% pollen of the Echium  - type. Floral records of females and males include Alkanna tinctoria  , Anchusa undulata  , and Echium angustifolium  (all Boraginaceae  ).

Diagnosis: This species is easily differentiated in the female sex from E. wattsi  sp. nov. by the combination of its larger size and lighter vestiture: the upper mesepisternum being light, greyish fulvous comparing to bright ferruginous in fresh specimens of the latter (compare Figs 4 and 6View FIGURES 1–12, respectively), and the apical fascia are lighter as mentioned in the key. The females further differentiate from those of the two other species by their smooth, almost impunctate scutellum ( Fig. 21View FIGURES 21–29) and marginal zone of T1 ( Fig. 24View FIGURES 21–29), and by the complete apical fascia of T3 that hide the tergite margin in fresh specimens (although this character cannot be evaluated without fresh specimens) ( Fig. 24View FIGURES 21–29) as indicated in the key. Finally, females are usually easily separated from those of the equally large E. dafnii  sp. nov. by the more densely punctate mesonotum (compare Figs 21 and 22View FIGURES 21–29, respectively); in some female specimens of E. aequata  a small area posteromedially on the mesonotum is more sparsely punctate with smooth puncture interspaces, but this area is never as conspicuous and almost impunctate as in E. dafnii  sp. nov.. Males can be differentiated by the characteristics mentioned in the key.

Material examined: Type material: Lectotype ♂ of E. aequata  , designated here, labelled as follows: 1. “ Adana 12 V ”; 2. “aequata ♂ Vach.” [hand written by Vachal]; 3. “MUSEUM PARIS COLL. J. VACHAL 1911”; 4. “NEO-[LECTO crossed with line]TYPE ♂ Eucera aequata Vach., 1907  [handwritten by Baker] D. B. Baker des. 1990”. This specimen is considered part of Vachal’s (1907) original type series and is recognised here as  Lectotype (see note above).

Additional material: ISRAEL: 2♂, Be’eri , 20.4.1987, E. Shney-Dor leg.  ; ♂, Bene Ziyyon NR, 35 m, 32°13’16’’N / 34°51’25’’E, 13.3.2010, A. Dorchin leg.GoogleMaps  ; 3♂, Bene Ziyyon 1.2 km NW, 30 m, 32°13’27’’N / 34°51’22’’E, 13.3.2010, A. Dorchin leg.GoogleMaps  ; ♂, Bene Ziyyon 1.3 km NW, 25 m, 32°13’31’’N / 34°51’23’’E, 13.3.2010, A. Dorchin leg.GoogleMaps  ; 2♂, Bet Hanan 1.7 km E, 14 m, 31°55’53’’N / 34°45’31’’E, at Vicia hybrida  , 2.4.2010, A. Dorchin leg.GoogleMaps  ; ♀, ‘ En Vered : 29.4.2013, Z. Amar leg.  ; ♀, Geva’ot HaKurkar NP, 50 m, 31°56’08’’N / 34°47’10’’E, at Echium  an- gustifolium, 7.4.2010, A. Dorchin leg.GoogleMaps  ; ♀, Geva’ot HaKurkar NP, 2.4.2008, A. Dorchin leg.  ; ♂, Tel Yizhaq S NR, 20 m, 32°14’34’’N / 34°51’53’’E, at Anchusa undulata  , 14.3.2011, A. Dorchin leg.GoogleMaps  ; ♂, Haruzim NR, 35 m, 32°13’47’’N / 34°51’35’’E, at Trifolium dichroanthum  , 19.3.2010, A. Dorchin leg.GoogleMaps  ; ♂, Nahal Hazav, Bitronot Ruhama , 31°32’N / 34°42’E, 5.4.2005, A. Freidberg leg.GoogleMaps  ; ♂, Tel Yizhaq S NR, 20 m, 32°14’34’’N / 34°51’53’’E, 15.3.2011, A. Dorchin leg.GoogleMaps  ; 4♂, Tel Yizhaq S NR, 20 m, 32°14’34’’N / 34°51’53’’E, at Anchusa undulata  , 17.3.2011, A. Dorchin leg.GoogleMaps  ; ♀, Tel Yizhaq S NR, 20 m, 32°14’34’’N / 34°51’53’’E, 21.5.2011, A. Dorchin leg.GoogleMaps  ; ♂, Rehovot S, 17 m, 1.3.2011, A. Dorchin leg.  ; ♀, Yaqum , 32°15’N / 34°85’E, at Echium angustifolium  , 9.4.2010, S. Watts leg.  ; ♀, Yaqum , 17 m, 32°15’19’’N / 34°50’40’’E, at Echium angustifolium  , 9.4.2010, A. Dorchin leg.GoogleMaps  ; ♀, Yaqum , 32°15’N / 34°85’E, at Echium angustifolium  , 2.5.2011, S. Watts leg.  ; ♂, Yaqum , at Alkanna tinctoria  , 2.2.2010, S. Watts leg.  SYRIA: ♀, 10.5.1952, Seidenstücker leg.  CYPRUS: ♀, Limassol, 15.4.1929  , GAM leg.; ♀ 2♂, Acrotiri , 34.600657°/32.971419°, 21.4.2017, A.Varnava leg.  ; ♀, Acrotiri , 34.600657°/32.971419°, 28.4.2019, A.Varnava leg.  ; ♂, Acrotiri , 34.600657°/32.971419°, 3.3.2018, A.Varnava leg.  ; ♂, Acrotiri , 34.600657°/32.971419°, 30.3.2018, A.Varnava leg.  ; 2♂, Acrotiri , 34.600657°/32.971419°, 4.7.2017, A.Varnava leg.  ; ♀, Acrotiri , 34.600657°/32.971419°, 5.5.2017, A.Varnava leg.  ; ♀, Acrotiri , 34.600657°/32.971419°, 5.8.2016, A.Varnava leg.  TURKEY: ♀, Hakkari, Oramar 5 km N, 1500 m, 16.6.1984, K. Warnke leg.  ; ♀, Tuzlagözü ( Baykan ), 4.6.1998, Ma. Halada leg. 

Description: Female: body length 14–16 mm; forewing length 9–10 mm; head 1.25 times broader than long on average; inner margins of compound eye weakly diverging below, such that ratio of upper to lower interocular distance equals 1.09 ( Fig. 13View FIGURES 13–20); vertex short, ocelloccipital distance about equal to lateral ocellus diameter; clypeus protuberant, produced in front of anterior tangent of compound eye by between 2/3 and full eye width in profile; galea long, 1.8 times as long as compound eye in profile; maxillary palpus about as long as mandible width at base; clypeoocular distance moderately long, about as long as malar distance and about 1/3 as long as mandible width at base; malar area nonlinear, distance from upper mandibular articulation to compound eye greater than distance from lower mandibular articulation.

Integument colour black and shiny on most body parts with inconspicuous metallic reflection; metanotum, mesepisternum, and metepisternum finely shagreened; tarsal segments 2–5 of all legs ferruginous. Surface overall with dense to confluent shallow punctures, with no interspaces on mesonotum except small, sometimes inconspicuous, smooth area posteromedially with smaller and sparser punctures ( Fig. 21View FIGURES 21–29); scutellum smooth almost impunctate medially, posteriorly with only week interrupted ridges formed by margins of weakly defined punctures ( Fig. 21View FIGURES 21–29); propodeum largely smooth except shortly rugosopunctate on upper portion; T1 with asymmetrical punctures, produced on one side, forming transverse ridges on disc, becoming striopunctate immediately before margin; margin wide and smooth, occupying most of area of marginal zone, not clearly defined due to irregular punctation along boundary of disc and marginal zone ( Fig. 24View FIGURES 21–29); discs of following tergites striopunctate, that of T2 with small more or less uniform punctures and interspaces up to two puncture diameters wide, and following tergites with progressively denser punctures.

Vestiture comparatively light, brown-ferruginous medially on mesonotum, fulvous laterally as on preoccipital ridge, propodeum and T1, and mesepisternum and metepisternum greyish fulvous ( Fig. 21View FIGURES 21–29); mesosoma with unbranched undulating golden hairs posteromedially on ventral side between ordinary branched pale hairs on both sides; apical fascia of T2–4 cream-white contrasting with light ferruginous golden hairs medially on prepygidial fimbria and darker ferruginous hairs laterally on T6 ( Fig. 24View FIGURES 21–29); apical fascia of T2–4 complete in fresh specimens, progressively narrower medially to the anterior, with apical margin of T2 inconspicuously exposed, and that of T3 and T4 completely hidden by overlaying hairs in fresh specimens ( Fig. 24View FIGURES 21–29); tibia and tarsi with ferruginous to dark fulvous hairs on dorsal side of fore leg, lighter fulvous on middle and hind legs, scopal hairs pale fulvous strongly contrasting with ferruginous hairs on ventral side of basitarsus; stipes basally with long, strongly branched hairs comparable to genal hairs, anteriorly with modified hairs: dense, long apically curved unbranched hairs, thickened along lower margin of stipes.

Male: as female except for the following. Body length 12.5–16.0 mm; forewing length 8.7–9.7 mm; inner margins of compound eye parallel sided ( Fig. 16View FIGURES 13–20); vertex depressed between compound eye and lateral ocellus, short, ocelloccipital distance about as long as diameter of lateral ocellus or slightly shorter; maxillary palpus slightly longer than mandible width at base; clypeoocular distance shorter than in female, about 2/3 malar distance and 1/6 of mandible width at base; antenna comparatively short ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 1–12), 3.3 times longer than compound eye on average; second flagellar segment 2.6 times longer than first on average; distal flagellar segments weakly crenate; pygidial plate apically rounded, with marginal carina complete and conspicuously lower preapically ( Fig. 27View FIGURES 21–29); S6 simple, flattened, without carinae and anterolateral marginal projections, with indistinct blunt anterolateral angle ( Fig. 30View FIGURES 30–43) suggesting the converging lateral ends of anterolateral carinae of other Eucera  s. str.; S7 with posterior lobe of lateral process heavily sclerotized, erect, with apex blunt and slightly curved, rising posteriorly almost on same longitudinal axis of anterior lobe; anterior lobe rounded except for blunt posterolateral angle ( Fig. 33View FIGURES 30–43); S8 with apicomedial ventral process inconspicuous, indicated merely by posteromedial longitudinal sutures ( Fig. 36View FIGURES 30–43); S8 shallowly emarginated between rounded apical lobes ( Fig. 36View FIGURES 30–43); genitalia robust, posterodorsal projection of gonocoxa elongated, heavily sclerotized ( Fig. 39View FIGURES 30–43); gonostylus simple, strongly laterally compressed, curved in lateral view (cf. Fig. 42View FIGURES 30–43) and weakly expanded apically in dorsal view, with conspicuous branched setae on external surface of basal portion ( Fig. 39View FIGURES 30–43); penis valve with anterior processes curved mesally above spatha in dorsal view, and with conspicuous basomedial lobe below spatha as seen in posterior and dorsal view ( Fig. 39View FIGURES 30–43); lateromedial spine of penis valve inconspicuous ( Fig. 39View FIGURES 30–43).

Integument colour overall black with stronger golden-green metallic reflection than in female ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 1–12); tarsal segments (2–)4–5 ferruginous or tarsal segments 2 and 3 darker in some specimens; mesosoma finely shagreen, only head and metasoma shinier. Surface of mesosoma areolate, uniformly punctured with almost no interspaces between punctures, except small, sometimes inconspicuous, smooth area posteromedially on mesonotum with smaller and sparser punctures; scutellum shiny and with irregular, confluent, or sparser punctures anteromedially; T1 with punctation similar to female but punctures more clearly discerned, and marginal zone sparsely striopunctate except for narrow smooth band along margin; T2 much like T1, following tergites striopunctate with smaller and denser punctures.

Vestiture uniform with dark to light fulvous, erect hairs; T(3–)4–5 with apical bands formed by merely less erect hairs of the same colour ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 1–12); hairs medially on T6 and T7, including pygidial plate, fulvous to bright ferruginous in fresh specimens ( Fig. 27View FIGURES 21–29). Stipes with long branched hairs basally as in female but with sparser and shorter modified hairs anteriorly, mixed with ordinary branched hairs along lower margin of stipes.














Eucera (Eucera) aequata Vachal 1907

Dorchin, Achik 2019

Eucera aequata

Vachal, J. 1907: 377