Leucania senescens, Möschler, 1890

Cocco, Jéssica, Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo, Casagrande, Mirna Martins, Specht, Alexandre & Foerster, Luís Amilton, 2019, First records of Leucania rawlinsi Adams and L. senescens M ̂ schler (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil: redescription, potential association with Bt maize, larval parasitoids, and spatial and, Zootaxa 4604 (3), pp. 441-460: 447-452

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4604.3.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E12290A8-D3D1-468B-A76F-B82822BF5503

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CFF411-DA4C-C30A-EEDF-8F02FCC7FC52

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Leucania senescens
status

 

Leucania senescens  M̂schler, 1890

( Figs 3–4View FIGURES 1–4, 7–8View FIGURES 5–8, 10View FIGURES 9–10, 12–17View FIGURES 11–12View FIGURE 13View FIGURE 14View FIGURE 15View FIGURE 16View FIGURE 17)

Leucania senescens  M̂schler, 1890. 142 [one male and one female syntype from Puerto Rico, ZMHU].—Gundlach, 1891: 172.— Hampson, 1905. 542 [syn. of L. latiuscula  ].— Poole, 1989. 586 [syn. of L. latiuscula  ].— Dickel, 1991. 2(1): p. 57, fig. 30 (male dorsal).—Minno, 1992. 75(3): 326.— Adams, 2001. 70(3): 195, fig. 1F female [dorsal], fig. 7A–B male genitalia, fig. 14A female genitalia [male syntype designated as lectotype].—Núñez, 2004. 34: 159.—Perez-Gelabert, 2008. 1831: 280.—Lafontaine & Schmidt, 2010. 40: 92.—Núñez & Barro, 2011. fig. 505 [male? adult, probably Leucania dorsalis Walker, 1856  ], p. 224, in: Núñez & Barro.—Núñez & Barro, 2012. 3384: 47.—Perez-Gelabert, 2015. 8: 73.

Cirphis latiuscula  ; Wolcott, 1923:161.— Draudt, 1924: 167 [in part].— Schaus, 1940: 186 [misidentification].

Diagnosis. Leucania senescens  is distinguished from most other American Leucania  by the presence of a large grayish black patch on tergum I and a smaller one on tergum II ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 5–8); forewing narrow; dorsal forewing ground color light brown with a darker shade within and beyond the discal cell; a white dot at the end of the discal cell and two postdiscal rows of black dots, the proximal between veins, the distal on veins; submarginal area with a dark brown triangular patch from the space between R 4 –R 5 to M 3 –CuA 1; and the hind wing hyaline white, slightly suffused with dark brown along the outer margin ( Figs 3–4View FIGURES 1–4). Leucania senescens  can be distinguished from superficially similar congeners by features of the male genitalia. It is characterized by a distinctive long, narrow valva; the distal margin of the sacculus with a distal short angled projection; a broad cucullus, almost as long as the remaining valva; the clasper short and robust, arranged with the short digitus in a small C-shaped aspect; the aedeagus with a simple vesica, without an appendix and bearing a row of about 200 slender cornuti and a large spike-like cornutus ( Fig. 10View FIGURES 9–10). The female genitalia of L. senescens  can be distinguished from those of other Leucania  species by its ductus bursae, very long, coiled appendix bursae, and the short-rounded corpus bursae ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 11–12).

Redescription. Head: Light brown. Compound eyes hairy. Labial palpi light brown, short. Antennae filiform, covered by light brown scales dorsally ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 5–8).

Thorax: Light brown; metathorax with two grayish black spots at center. Patagia light brown with three grayish dark bands, the distal widest. Tegulae light brown, black-tipped in some scales ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 5–8). Legs light brown, mesotibiae with one pair of distal spurs, metatibiae with two pairs, one distal and one at middle length.

Dorsal forewing: Length 13–16 mm in males (n = 36), 14–17 mm in females (n = 21). Ground color light brown, darker over cubitus; veins white; costal and anal areas light brown speckled with dark scales; darker shade within and beyond discal cell; two dark brown spots below discal cell; small white dot at end of discal cell; postdiscal area with two rows of dark dots, proximal between and distal over veins, sometimes linked to each other with a zigzag aspect; submarginal area with a somewhat triangular dark patch between R 3 –R 4 to M 3 –CuA 1; marginal area with dark dots at center of space between veins; fringe brown ( Figs 3–4View FIGURES 1–4).

Dorsal hindwing: White with pearly iridescence; costal area suffused by brown scales; submarginal area with veins from Rs to CuA 2 covered by brown scales; small marginal dark brown dots between veins from Rs to CuA 2; fringe brown from apex to CuA 2, then white ( Figs 3–4View FIGURES 1–4).

Abdomen: Narrow; brown dorsally with two grayish black spots over tergum I and II ( Figs 3–4View FIGURES 1–4, 8View FIGURES 5–8).

Male genitalia: Uncus slender, long and pointed, longer than tegumen, curved ventrally in basal third and near tip. Saccus triangular, about half as long as cucullus. Valva long and narrow; sacculus with a short, rounded projection at distal margin, and with three enlarged setae over margin; cucullus broad, almost as long as remaining valva and with about five spine-like setae over margin; sensory plate short and rounded; digitus short and narrow, arranged with clasper in a small C-shaped aspect; clasper wider than digitus, pointed, curved; ampulla digitiform, shorter than clasper; aedeagus with anterior half of distiphallus broad, narrowed distally; vesica simple, without appendix and bearing a row of about 200 thin and slightly sinuous cornuti, shorter proximally, and a large spike-like cornutus near distal vesica ( Fig. 10View FIGURES 9–10).

Female genitalia: Lamella postvaginalis rectangular, medially less sclerotized, fused with tergum VIII; anterior apophysis narrow, as long as posterior apophysis; ductus bursae narrow, uniformly sclerotized and corrugated, at least three times as long as corpus bursae; appendix bursae heavily sclerotized and corrugated, longer than ductus bursae, left turned and coiled, proximal area broad; corpus bursae oval-shaped, short, membranous and without signum. Papilla analis somewhat triangular, shorter than posterior apophysis, distal margin rounded; posterior apophysis narrow, straight, as long as anterior apophysis.

Global distribution. Leucania senescens  is a widespread species ranging from USA (Florida) to Central America and the Antilles ( Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Puerto Rico—type locality, Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent) to northeastern South America ( Dickel 1991; Adams 2001; Janzen & Hallwachs 2009). Material deposited in the visited collections confirm this species from Mexico (USNM), Costa Rica, and Panama (NHMUK, USNM) in Central America, and Colombia (MZUSP, NHMUK), Guyana (NHMUK, USNM), Surinam (USNM), French Guiana (USNM), Trinidad (NHMUK), Peru (NHMUK, USNM) and Bolivia (USNM) in South America.

Distribution in Brazil. A total of 828 Brazilian specimens of L. senescens  were examined, with 663 specimens from light traps ( Fig. 14View FIGURE 14). This material confirms L. senescens  for all Brazilian biomes except for the Caatinga and Pampa, with records from the following states (north to south): Roraima, Amazonas, Pará, Maranhṳo, Acre, Ron- dônia, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Ceará, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Sṳo Paulo, Paraná  , and Santa Catarina ( Fig. 13View FIGURE 13). The altitudinal distribution of L. senescens  in Brazil is from sea level to 1,850 m, with ca. 96% (798) from below 500 m.

Temporal distribution. Adults of L. senescens  were recorded throughout the year with the majority of specimens collected between February to August with a peak abundance in June ( Fig. 14View FIGURE 14).

Taxonomic comments. The wing pattern of L. senescens  is not particularly similar to other American species of Leucania  , which reduces misidentifications. The male genitalia of L. senescens  are also distinct, although some elements of the valva are present in other congeners such as L. latiuscula Herrich-Schäffer, 1868  . These species share the clasper and digitus, both short and arranged in a small C-shaped aspect, and a long cucullus. They differ in the width of the cucculus and valvulus, whose are respectively large and narrow in L. senescens  and narrow and large in L. latiuscula  . The simplified female genitalia of the two species provide no diagnostic characters.

M̂schler (1890) mentioned nine specimens in the original description of L. senescens  , all from Porto Rico, including both sexes. The type material is deposited at the ZMHU, and six of the nine specimens were found by DRD in October 2017, all bearing two labels, one pink handwritten: Type; and the second green handwritten: Portorico Mus. Krug. 87. The author emphasized variation in color pattern among specimens, which was justified by the fact that the six specimens actually represent three distinct species and only a male and a female bear an additional pale red label printed: type. These two specimens were interpreted by Adams (2001) as syntypes and the male—in fact the solely specimen of this species in the type series has been designated lectotype.

Analyzed material. BRAZIL— Acre: Rio Branco, 13–23. VI.2015, 5 ♁ and 1♀, 10–16. VII.2015, 2 ♀, 12. VIII.2015, 1 ♁, Fazolin leg. 3619, 3784, 3613, 3732, 3650, 3728, 3705, 3771, DZ 40.390* (EMBRAPA, DZUP); and the following specimens are preserved in alcohol 12–24. VI.2015, 65♁ and 50♀, 9–16. VII.2015, 14 ♁ and 23♀, 12–18. VIII.2015, 1 ♁ and 4♀, Fazolin leg. ( EMBRAPA)  . Amazonas: (Manaus to Óbidos ), 1♀, A. M. Moss leg. 0 10915173 ( NHMUK)  . Fonte Boa , VI.1906, 4 ♁ and 2♀, VII.1906, 3 ♁ and 4♀, VIII.1906, 2 ♀, IX.1906, 1 ♁, VIII.1907, 2 ♁, S. M. Klages leg. 0 10915154, 0 10915155, 0 10915156, 0 10915158, 0 10915157, 0 10915153, 0 10915165, 0 10915160, 0 10915162, 0 10915159, 0 10915161, 0 10915163, 0 10915164, 0 10915166, 0 10915167, 0 10915168, 0 10915169, 0 10915170 ( NHMUK)  . Manaus, IX.1906, 2 ♁, M. de Mathan leg., ( Rio Amazonas), 1♀ 0 10915174, 0 10915175, 0 10915172 ( NHMUK)  . São Paulo de Olivença , VI–VII.1935, 1♀, A. M. Moss leg. 0 10915171 ( NHMUK)  . Bahia: Camacan ( RPPN Serra Bonita ), 400–700m, 21–30. IX.1991, 1 ♁, 13–14. IV.1992, 2 ♁ and 1♀, 13–14. V.1992, 2 ♁, 800m, 9–20. IV.2005, 1 ♁, VI.20017, 1♁, VIII.2007, 1 ♁, IV.2008, 1 ♁, V. O. Be- cker leg. 83499, 3 specimens 84480, 84480, 136261, 137693, 138453, 140097 ( VOB, USNM)  . Luís Eduardo Magalhães , 778m, 15. VI.2015, 1 ♁, Castro leg. 3620 ( EMBRAPA)  . Ceará: 4♁, Diogenes leg. ( MNRJ)  . Espírito Santo: Alegre , 1♀ 0 10914987 ( NHMUK)  , 120m, 12. V.2015, 1 ♁, 11. VI.2015, 1 ♁, 12–16. VII.2015, 3 ♁ and 1♀, 15. VIII.2015, 2 ♁, 7. XII.2015, 1 ♁, Zanuncio Jr. leg. 3765, 3635, 2725*, 3733, 3715, 3725, 3716, 3710, 3702 ( EM- BRAPA)  ; and the following specimens are preserved in alcohol 10–13. VI.2015, 11 ♁, 12–16. VII.2015, 14 ♁ and 3♀, 14–15. VIII.2015, 3 ♁ and 2♀, 9–11. IX.2015, 7 ♁ and 2♀, 6–8. X.2015, 2 ♁ and 1♀, 5–6. I.2016, 6 ♁ and 2♀, 7. II.2016, 1 ♀, 4. III.2016, 1 ♁, 7. IV.2016, 3 ♁, Zanuncio Jr. leg. ( EMBRAPA)  . Domingos Martins , 950m, 8–10. IX.2015, 1 ♁ and 1♀, 4. IV.2016, 1 ♀, Zanuncio Jr. leg. 3630, 3653, 4369 ( EMBRAPA)  ; and the following specimens are preserved in alcohol 15. VI.2015, 1 ♁, 13. VII.2015, 1 ♁, 17. VIII.2015, 1 ♁, 9. IX.2015, 1 ♁, Zanuncio Jr. leg. (EMBRA- PA). Linhares, 40m, 20–29. III.1992, 1 ♁, V. O. Becker leg. 80992 ( VOB)  . Santa Leopoldina (Tirol)  , 650m, 8– 20. XII.1996, 1 ♁, 10.VI–10. VII.1997, 3 ♁, 1–30. VI.1999, 1 ♁, H. Thöny leg. ( CHT)  , 800m, 20. V.1997, 1 ♁, H. Thöny & A. Moser leg. ( CLAM)  . Maranhão: Açailândia , 150m, 19–27. XI.1990, 1 ♁ and 1♀, V. O. Becker & G. S. Dubois leg. USNM, 76751 ( USNM, VOB)  . Mato Grosso: Conquista D’Oeste , 2. I.2017, 2 ♁, J. P. Santos & L. Queiroz- Santos leg. DZ 40.506, 40.507 ( DZUP)  . Nortelândia , 13. V.2015, 1 ♁, J. Cocco leg. DZ 33.203* ( DZUP)  . Poconé (60 Km S, Pantanal ), 22.V.1998, V. O. Becker leg. 116566 ( VOB)  . Sinop , 11. VI.2015, 1 ♁ and 1♀, 15. VII.2015, 2 ♁, Filipiake, Rodrigues & Pitta leg. 3638, 3720, 3709, 3602 ( EMBRAPA)  ; and the following specimens are preserved in alcohol 10–14. VI.2015, 11 ♁ and 10♀, 14–15. VII.2015, 2 ♀, 10–12. VIII.2015, 5 ♁ and 2♀, 2–5. II.2016, 5 ♁ and 3♀, 2–4. III.2015, 4 ♁ and 1♀, 4–7. IV.2016, 8 ♁ and 4♀, 4. V.2016, 2 ♁ and 1♀, Filipiake, Rodrigues & Pitta leg. ( EMBRAPA)  . Mato Grosso do Sul: Chapadão do Sul , 804m, 13. VI.2015, 1 ♀, 11. VII.2015, 1 ♀, 15. VIII.2015, 1 ♁, 3. IV.2016, 1 ♁, Taira leg. 4372*, 4370, 4374, 4373 ( EMBRAPA)  ; and the following specimens are preserved in alcohol 14. VI.2015, 1 ♀, 13. VII.2015, 1 ♀, 4. IV.2016, 1 ♁, 2–5. V.2016, 14 ♁, Taira leg. ( EMBRAPA)  . Miranda, 120m, 13. VI.2015, 1 ♀, 11. VII.2015, 1 ♀, 3–4. II.2016, 3 ♁ and 3♀, 31. V.2016, 1 ♁, 1–3. VI.2016, 3 ♁ and 6♀, Specht, W. Camargo & Concone leg. 3618, 3622, 3712, 3700, 3692, 3735, 3636, 3708, 3679, 3682, 3639, 3664, 3719, 3707, 3616, 3755, 3649, 3724 ( EMBRAPA)  ; and the following specimens are preserved in alcohol 12–17. VI.2015, 4 ♁, 11–14. VII.2015, 5 ♁ and 2♀ plus 8 specimens, 31.I–4. II.2016, 23 ♁ and 6♀ plus 69 specimens, 30.V–3. VI.2016, 26 ♁ and 3♀, Specht, W. Camargo & Concone leg. ( EMBRAPA)  . Minas Gerais: Teófilo Otoni ( São Jacinto ), 1♁ and 3♀, F. Birch leg. 0 10915183, 0 10915184, 0 10915185, 0 10915186 ( NHMUK)  . Poté , 500m, 10–25. V.1997, 1 ♁, H. Th ̂ny leg. ( CHT)  . Pará: 1♀, Goeldi leg., 3♁ and 3♀, A. M. Moss leg. 0 10914984, 0 10915176, 0 10915178, 0 10915180, 0 10915177, 0 10915179, 0 10915181 ( NHMUK)  . Marabá , 50m, 9. I.1977, 4 ♁ and 1♀, V. O. Becker leg. 20855*, 20856 ( VOB)  . Mojuí dos Campos , 12–13. VI.2015, 1 ♁ and 3♀, Coradini & Teston leg. 3628, 3759, 4375, 3674 ( EMBRAPA)  ; and the following specimens are preserved in alcohol 10–14. VI.2015, 94 specimens, 9–12. VII.2015, 9 specimens, 10. VIII.2015, 4 specimens, 8. II.2016, 2 specimens, 7–11. III.2016, 15 specimens, 6. IV.2016, 2 specimens, 5. V.2016, 3 specimens, Coradini & Teston leg. ( EMBRAPA)  . Santarém , 10. VI.2015, 1 ♁ and 1♀, Coradini & Teston leg. 3701, 3626 ( EMBRAPA)  . Paraná: Guaraqueçaba  ( RPPN Salto Morato ), 30m, 16–19. XI.2017, 1 ♁, LABLEP leg. DZ 40.200* ( DZUP)  . Londrina , 19. VI.2015, 1 ♁, 9. VII.2015, 1 ♀, Sosa–Gomez leg. 4371, 4368, ( EMBRAPA)  . Rio de Janeiro: Cachoeira de Macacu , 150–300m, 6–8. IX.2002, 1 ♀, Soares & Moser leg. ( CLAM)  . Nova Friburgo , 1♀, 0 10915187 ( NHMUK)  . Rio de Janeiro ( Campo Grande ), 15. VII.1941, 4 ♁, D. Mendes leg. ( MNRJ), (Gávea)  , 1♁, ( Deodoro ), 4. IX.1934, 1 ♁, Zikán leg. ( MNRJ)  . Teresópolis , 4. IX.1958, 1 ♁, E. P. Wiltshire leg. 0 10915188 ( NHMUK)  . Rondônia: Cacaulândia , 1–20. XI.1999, 1 ♁ and 1♀, H. Thöny leg. ( CHT)  , 200m, 15–20. IV.1996, 1 ♁, 13–31.XII.1997, V. O. Becker leg. ( VOB), (Fazenda Rancho Grande)  , 350m, 1–26.III.1999, 37♁ and 20♀, H. Thöny leg. ( CHT)  . Vilhena , 600m, 9. XII.1997, 2 ♁, V. O. Becker leg. 111494 ( VOB)  . Roraima: Alto Alegre , 11–14. VII.2015, 1 ♁ and 3♀, Morais leg. 3723, 3615, 3642, 3713 ( EMBRAPA)  ; and the following specimens are preserved in alcohol 19–20. VI.2015, 19 ♁ and 2♀, 10–13. VII.2015, 8 ♁ and 6♀, Morais leg. ( EMBRAPA)  . Santa Catarina: 1♀ 0 10915189 ( NHMUK)  . Barra Velha ( Litoral ), 10m, 23. VIII.2002, 1 ♀, A. Moser leg. 38*( CLAM)  . Corupá [Hansa Humboldt], 60m, VII.1936, 1 ♁ and 1♀, A. Maller leg. 0 10915192, 0 10915191 ( NHMUK)  . Joinville , 1♁, Schmidt leg. ( MNRJ)  . São Bento do Sul, 800m, 1–30. VI.1998, 1 ♁, 500m, 1–30. VI.1999, 1 ♁, H. Thöny leg. ( CHT)  . Timbó , IV.1935, 1 ♁, IX.1935, 1 ♀, X.1935, 1 ♁, Pohl leg. ( MZUSP)  . São Paulo: Campos do Jordão (PE, mirante pau arcado), 1815m, 18–19. V.2015, 1 ♁, Quintero, Silva & Moraes leg. ( MZUSP *)  . São Paulo, 1♀, Rogers leg. 0 10915190 ( NHMUK)  .

VI

Mykotektet, National Veterinary Institute

NHMUK

Natural History Museum, London

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

CHT

Cheltenham College

DZUP

Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure

MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Noctuidae

Genus

Leucania

Loc

Leucania senescens

Cocco, Jéssica, Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo, Casagrande, Mirna Martins, Specht, Alexandre & Foerster, Luís Amilton 2019
2019
Loc

Cirphis latiuscula

Schaus, W. 1940: 186
Draudt, M. 1924: 167
Wolcott, G. N. 1923: 161
1923