Pararrhopalites queirozi, Brito & Lima & Zeppelini, 2019

Brito, Roniere A., Lima, Estevam C. A. & Zeppelini, Douglas, 2019, Three new species of Collembola (Arthropoda: Hexapoda) from Brazil, Zootaxa 4700 (4), pp. 401-430 : 410-417

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Pararrhopalites queirozi

sp. nov.

Pararrhopalites queirozi sp. nov.

Figs 15–29 View FIGURES 15–18 View FIGURES 19–20 View FIGURES 21–23 View FIGURES 24–26 View FIGURES 27–29 , Table 1 View TABLE 1 and 3 View TABLE 3

Diagnosis. Trichobothria ABC form an obtuse angle, and AB> BC. Antenna about 1.7× larger than cephalic; Ant. IV with 13 whorls and eight sub-segments. Cephalic dorsum with 11 spines, two single chaetae form the B row. GI–III without tunica, all with a small inner tooth. Tip of Un III not reaching tip of corresponding unguis, all with corner tooth. Ventral tube and tenaculum with two chaetae each. Manubrium with 4 + 4 chaetae; dens with 4:2:2:1:1. Posterior dorsal complex in great abdomen with group of 11 chaetae below d –rows.

Type material. Holotype female on slide, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Matozinhos (44°05’33”W; 19°31’51”S), BM 65 , limestone cave, 07–20.XII.2016, leg. Spelayon team GoogleMaps . Holotype deposited at CRFS-UEPB #11965. Paratype female, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Matozinhos (44°05’49”W; 19°31’34”S), BM 138 , limestone cave, 07–20.XII.2016, leg. Spelayon team GoogleMaps . Paratype deposited at MZUSP .

Additional materials. Female, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Matozinhos (44°06’42”W; 19°30’52”S), ICMAT 13, limestone cave, 27–30.I.2014, leg. Marden et al. coll. #4616. Female, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Matozinhos (44°06’28.7”W; 19°31’41.5”S), ICMAT 05, limestone cave, 27–30.I.2014, leg. Marden et al. coll. #4608. Male, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Matozinhos (46°01’04”W; 19°30’50”S), ICMAT 13, limestone cave, 27–30.I.2014, leg. Marden et al. coll. #4615. Male, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Matozinhos (44°06’42”W; 19°30’52”S), ICMAT 13, limestone cave, 27– 30.I.2014, leg. Marden et al. coll. #4612. Female, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Vespasiano (43°55’20”W; 19°40’53.5”S), ICVL 003, limestone cave, 06–07.XII.2016, leg. Carste team coll. #11670. Female, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Pedro Leopoldo (44°00’59.5”W; 19°40’45.5”S), Caverna do desabamento, gneiss rock, 28. III– 10. IV.2014, leg. Carste team coll. #5823. Female, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Itabirito (43°55’58.8”W; 20°20’15”S), SSH 124/11A, SSH VL, 01–06.IX.2015, leg. Carste team coll. #8610. All deposited in CRFS-UEPB.

Description. Holotype body about 1.16 mm length. Other measures found in Table 1 View TABLE 1 . Coloration white in ethanol.

Antennae ( Figs. 15–18 View FIGURES 15–18 ). About 1.68× cephalic length. Mean length ratio Ant. I: II, III, IV = 1: 1.8, 3.0, 8.1. Ant. I with four normal chaetae, a bristle-like sensillum on anterior side, one chaetae in apical portion of posterior side ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 15–18 ). Ant. II with eight apical chaetae, two small and thin on posterior side, three external apical slightly spiny, and eight mid-basal chaetae ( Fig. 16 View FIGURES 15–18 ). Ant. III apical organ with two slender elongate sensilla inserted in a single pit; Aai chaetae slender, slightly curved and blunt, Api elongated larger than Ap, Ape bristle-like; Ai acuminated, slightly shorter than Ape and Ae. Ant. III mid-basal part with 14 chaetae ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 15–18 ). Ant. IV subdivided into eight, sub-segmentation sometimes incomplete in sub-segment BA. Sub-segment formula 1 + 6 + 1 = (A) + (M1–5 + BA) + (BM + BB), A apex with a capitate sense rod. Ant. IV bears 13 whorls of chaetae: three on apical sub-segments (A), six on median sub-segments (M1–M5 + BA), and four on basal sub-segments (BM1–BM3 + BB) ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 15–18 ).

Head ( Figs. 19, 20 View FIGURES 19–20 ). 1 + 1 unpigmented ocelli. Posterior cephalic chaetae slightly spines interposed between normal chaetae, posterior dorsal chaetotaxy A, B, C, D as 4,2,4,5, inter-antennal region with two α chaetae, three β microsensilla arranged in triangular shape and two chaetae; frontal cephalic chaetotaxy a to g respectively 6,10,10,8,8,10,8 chaetae, and three medial axial chaetae; 3 + 3 oval-organs structures ( Fig. 19 View FIGURES 19–20 ). Labral chaetotaxy according to formula a, m, p, pl with 4,5,5,6 chaetae respectively ( Fig. 20 View FIGURES 19–20 ).

Leg I ( Fig. 21 View FIGURES 21–23 ). Precoxae and coxa without chaetae. Trochanter with four anterior and one posterior chaetae. Femur with 14 chaetae, a4 turned perpendicularly towards the longitudinal axis of the segment. Tibiotarsus with 53 chaetae, whorl I with 6 normal chaetae, whorls II–V with 8 chaetae each, whorls III–V with 4 upper inter-whorls chaetae; region F with three primary FP chaetae (e, ae, pe), secondary chaetae FSa absent. Pretarsus with 1+1 chaetae. Unguis 5.96× shorter than tibiotarsus; without tunica and with a small inner mid-distal tooth. Unguiculus 1.83× shorter than unguis, apical filament exceeding unguis tip, with a clear corner tooth.

Leg II ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 21–23 ). Epicoxae and precoxae with one chaetae each, coxa with two primary chaetae. Trochanter with four chaetae, three anterior and one posterior; femur with 12 chaetae. Tibiotarsus with 53 chaetae: whorl I with 6, whorls II–V with 8, 9, 8, 7, inter-whorls II–V with 0, 4, 4, 4, whorl V Vp chaetae absent; FSa absent. Unguis 6.49× shorter than the tibiotarsus, without tunica, with one small inner medial tooth. Unguiculus 2.14× shorter than unguis, subapical filament exceeds unguis tip, with a small corner tooth.

Leg III ( Fig. 23 View FIGURES 21–23 ). Epicoxae with three and precoxae with one distal chaeta, coxa with four chaetae. Trochanter with five anterior chaetae, a curved metatrochanteral spine. Femur with 11 chaetae. Tibiotarsus with 55 chaetae: whorl I with 6, whorls II–V with 7, 8, 8, 8, inter-whorls II–V with 4, 4, 3, 4, FSa absent. Unguis 7.15× shorter than the tibiotarsus, without tunica, with a small inner medial tooth. Unguiculus 2.20× shorter than unguis, subapical filament shorter than unguis tip, with corner tooth.

Lengths ratio of tibiotarsi I: II, III = 1: 1.04, 1.25. Ratio cephalic: tibiotarsus I = 1.67.

Ventral tube 1 + 1 apical anterior chaetae. Rami tenaculum tridentate, corpus two apical chaetae.

Furca ( Figs. 24–26 View FIGURES 24–26 ). Manubrium presents 4 + 4 posterior chaetae. Dens (31 chaetae): posterior Ie, Ii and Ipi heavily spiny, IIpi–IVpi and Ipe chaetae somewhat spiny ( Fig. 24 View FIGURES 24–26 ); anterior chaetotaxy as 4:2:2:1:1, i chaetae present, all simple ( Fig. 25 View FIGURES 24–26 ). Mucro both lamellae serrated ( Fig. 26 View FIGURES 24–26 ). Dens 2× as large as mucro.

Great abdomen ( Fig. 27 View FIGURES 27–29 ). Th and Abd I spines short and spearhead-like, dorsal posterior abdominal chaetae normal, smooth and acuminate. Trichobothrial complex: ABC form an obtuse angle (= 156°), AB greater than BC (AB = 120.5, BC = 93.2, AC = 207.8, all in m) ( Fig. 27 View FIGURES 27–29 ). Single p chaetae of p -row on Abd I closer to trichobothrium C than to B; a1 posterior, above of trichobothrium A, b1 slightly posterior, below and closer to trichobothrium B than to C; c1 chaetae above c2, both anterior and below trichobothrium C. Central dorsal complex with two chaetae arranged in vertical line. Posterior lateral complex with 3 + 4 chaetae and posterior dorsal complex with dI = 9, dII = 9 and dIII = 8, next to it a grouping of 11 chaetae. Furca base complex with 12 chaetae. Ventral complex with two chaetae.

Small abdomen ( Fig. 27–29 View FIGURES 27–29 ). Female. Fifth segment with three chaetae, trichobothrium D in row a, and one chaetae p ( Fig. 27 View FIGURES 27–29 ). Genital field with 3 + 3 chaetae close to anterior margin of genital opening. Sixth segment with as2, as3 slightly elongated and thick; ms, mi, mps and mpi chaetae normal, smooth and acuminated; sub-anal appendage strongly fringed (unilaterally) ( Fig. 28 View FIGURES 27–29 ). Male. Chaetotaxy of Abd VI differs from female by the absence of as4 chaetae, pi3 present, two additional chaetae between ai5 and mi5. Total chaetae number is equal.

Etymology. The species is named after Gabriel C. Queiroz as recognition to his remarkable contributions to the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro and Collembola studies.

Distribution and habitat. Good’s Biogeographic zone 27 ( Good 1974; Culik & Zeppelini 2003). The climate according to Köppen’s system is ‘Aw’ ( Köppen 1936; Shear 1966, Sá Junior et al. 2012), tropical climate with temperature above 18°C in dry winter and wet summers. Populations of new species were found in four neighboring cities in Minas Gerais state, inserted in dark zone of limestone and gneiss rock cave, including specimens collected in SSH. There is no record to the species in surface environment, suggesting that the species is restricted to subterranean environment, nevertheless, it seems that the species dwells in subterranean spaces and crevices, and eventually occupy caves, rather than be evolved and restricted to caves as a troglobite.

Remarks. Pararrhopalites queirozi sp. nov. is a moderately troglomorphic species with reduced eyes and absent pigmentation that occupy underground shallow spaces, crevices and caves. The new species is similar to P. wallacei ( Palacios-Vargas & Zeppelini, 1995) and P. sideroicus Zeppelini & Brito, 2014 by presenting 1 + 1 eyes, but differs from first in the anterior dens chaetotaxy (4:2:2:1:1 vs 3:2:2:1:1) and from both by the number of subsegments in Ant. IV (8 in new species and 11 in other two species). Pararrhopalites queirozi sp. nov. can be distinguished from P. papaveroi ( Zeppelini & Palacios-Vargas, 1999) and P. ubiquum Zeppelini, Lima & Brito, 2018 (in: Zeppelini et al. 2018b) which are eyeless, and from P. palaciosi Zeppelini & Brito, 2014 that presents 8+8. The new species also differs from all other Brazilian Pararrhopalites by presenting fringed female subanal appendages. Head and Abd VI chaetotaxy are also quite different among species. Morphological characters and distribution of the Brazilian Pararrhopalites in Table 3 View TABLE 3 .


Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo