Coecobrya phoenix, Brito & Lima & Zeppelini, 2019

Brito, Roniere A., Lima, Estevam C. A. & Zeppelini, Douglas, 2019, Three new species of Collembola (Arthropoda: Hexapoda) from Brazil, Zootaxa 4700 (4), pp. 401-430 : 418-422

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Coecobrya phoenix

sp. nov.

Coecobrya phoenix sp. nov.

Figs 30 View FIGURES 30–34 –53, Table 1 View TABLE 1 and 4 View TABLE 4

Diagnosis. Specimens eyeless; pigments and scales absent; dorsal cephalic chaetotaxy with three medial and six sutural macrochaetae; Th II with 2, 3, 3, 4, 9, 2 macrochaetae in Gr I–VI respectively; Th III with 8, 10, 3, 3 macrochaetae in Gr I–IV respectively; Abd I–III with 5, 3, 1 central macrochaetae, and Abd IV with four central macrochaetae; posterior side of collophore has two types of cheatae (‘l’ and ‘o’); manubrium with smooth chaetae.

Type material. Holotype female on slide, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Igarapé (44°16’59”W; 20°06’37”S), cave 3B, iron rock cave, 09.XI.2015, leg. R. Andrade. GoogleMaps Holotype deposited at CRFS-UEPB #12849. Paratype female, same data as holotype. Paratype deposited at MZUSP .

Additional materials. 1 male and 1 female, same data as holotype GoogleMaps #12850, #12851. 3 female, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Igarapé (44°16’58”W; 20°06’39”S), cave A09, iron rock cave, 03–04. II.2016, leg. Andrade team #12852, #12853, #12854 GoogleMaps . 1 female, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Matozinhos (44°05’30”W; 19°31’46”S) BM 050 , limestone cave, 15.VIII–08.IX.2016, leg. Spelayon team #12855 GoogleMaps . 3 female and 2 male, Brazil, São Paulo, Ribeira (48°57’29”W; 24°37’32”S) MTD 04 View Materials , marble rock cave, 26.VII–06.VIII.2016, leg. Carste team #11812, #12862, #12863, #12864, #12865 GoogleMaps . 5 female and 2 male, Brazil, São Paulo, Ribeira (48°57’29”W; 24°37’32”W) MTD 04 View Materials , marble rock cave, 08–20. III.2016, leg. Carste team #11894, #12856, #12857, #12858, #12859, #12860, #12861. All on slides deposited in CRFS-UEPB .

Description. Habitus typical to the genus ( Fig. 30 View FIGURES 30–34 ). Measurements found in Table 1 View TABLE 1 . Body pale, pigment and scale absent, densely covered by different types of chaetae ( Figs. 31–35 View FIGURES 30–34 View FIGURES 35–37 ).

Antennae ( Figs. 36–38 View FIGURES 35–37 View FIGURES 38–39 ). Ant. IV not annulated; apical papilla absent, dorsal face on apex with two chaetae types (‘m’, ‘n’) plus a subapical organite (type ‘u’) ( Fig. 36 View FIGURES 35–37 ); dorsal face on medial and basal parts with three chaetae types (‘f’, ‘m’, ‘n’) and two sensilla types (‘h’, ‘i’); ventral face with three types chaetae (‘f’, ‘m’, ‘n’). Ant. III dorsally covered by two chaetae types (‘f’, ‘n’), and 8 chaetae type ‘m’; apical organ with two sensilla (type ‘j’), and one guard mic (type ‘o’) ( Fig. 37 View FIGURES 35–37 ); apical internal face with two sensilla (type ‘h’) and 1 mes (type ‘l’); medial internal face with one mic (type ‘i’); medial external face with two sensilla (type ‘h’) and two mic (type ‘i’) almost the same size (~ 10µm). Ant. II dorsally covered by two chaetae types (‘f’, ‘n’) plus one mac (type ‘e’), one mes (type ‘l’) and one chaetae (type ‘m’); medial internal face with three sensilla (type ‘h’) and one mes (type ‘l’); medial external face with three sensilla (type ‘h’) and one mic (type ‘i’); ventral face with one mic (type ‘o’) and one chaetae (type ‘m’) at the base, four mes (type ‘l’) and one chaetae (type ‘m’) on the mid-apical portion. Ant. I covered by two chaetae types (‘f’, ‘n’); dorsal face with three mic (type ‘o’) at the base, six mac (type ‘e’), and three chaetae (type ‘m’) on the mid-apical portion.

Head ( Figs. 38, 39 View FIGURES 38–39 ). Eyes absent. Dorsal chaetotaxy ( Fig. 38 View FIGURES 38–39 ) with three antennal mac (An2, 3a2 and 3a), An3 as mes; four anterior mac (A0, A2–3 and A5); three median mac (M1, M2 and M4); six sutural mac (S0–S4 and S6), S5 as mac; one post-sutural mac (Ps2); two post-occipital internal mac (Pi2–3); four post-occipital anterior mac (Pa1–3 and Pa5); two post-occipital medial mac (Pm1 and Pm3); three post-occipital posterior mac (Pp1, Pp3 and Pp5); four post-occipital external mac (Pe2, Pe4, Pe5 and Pe6). GrI with two mac (S5 and S6) ( Fig. 38 View FIGURES 38–39 ) and GrII with three (Pa1, Pi2 and Pi3) ( Fig. 38 View FIGURES 38–39 ).

Clypeal formula 2 (l1), 4 (f1–2), 3 (pf0–1) chaetae, f2 short and ciliate, others are smooth.

Labral chaetotaxy according to formula; a, m, p, pl with 4,5,5,4, respectively, all smooth and acuminate chaetae (type ‘l’), a1 and a2 curved and somewhat spine-like ( Fig 39 View FIGURES 38–39 ).

Outer maxillary lobe with one papillate chaeta, one basal chaetae, and three sublobal hairs.

Ventral chaetotaxy with numerous smooth and ciliated chaetae. Labial triangle chaetotaxy as m1rel1l2, all smooth chaetae, m2 (?) absent, r shorther than m1 and both smaller than the others ( Fig. 40 View FIGURES 40–41 ). Postlabial area with G1–G4, H1–H4 chaetae (type ‘l’), X and X4 (type ‘o’), X1 and X3 absent. Along cephalic groove with 3–4 smooth and 4–6 ciliate chaetae ( Fig. 40 View FIGURES 40–41 ).

Labial palp with five main papillae (A–E) plus one hypostomal papilla (H), with 0 5 0 4 4, 2 guard appendages, and a lateral process (l.p.) finger-shaped papilla E ( Fig. 41 View FIGURES 40–41 ), base of the palp with five proximal chaetae (type ‘l’).

Thorax chaetotaxy ( Fig. 42 View FIGURE 42 ). Th II with ms (S-microchaeta type ‘g’) and al and acc.p6 sensilla (type ‘m’); Gr I with two (m1, m 1i), Gr II with three (a5, m4, 4p), Gr III with three (p 1i, p1, 1a), Gr IV with four (1ip, ip2, 1p, 1p2), Gr V with nine (2a2, 2a, p2, 2p, 2p2, p3, 3p, p2e, 2ep) and Gr VI with two (p4, 4i) mac ( Fig. 42 View FIGURE 42 ). Th III with al and acc.p6 sensilla (type ‘m’)); Gr I–IV with 8,10,3,3 mac respectively ( Fig. 42 View FIGURE 42 ).

Abdomen chaetotaxy ( Figs. 43 View FIGURE 43 , 44 View FIGURE 44 ). Abd I with five medial mac (m2, m 2i, m3, m4, m4p), acc.p6 (type ‘m’) and a ms (type ‘g’). Abd II with three central mac (m3, m3ep, m3e) and one (m5) lateral mac (m3, m3ep, m3e, m5). Abd III with one central mac (m3) and three lateral mac (am6, pm6, p6). Abd IV about 3.5× the length of Abd III along dorsal midline, with as and ps sensilla (type ‘m’), 9–11 chaetae (type ‘k’, nine in holotype); four medial (I, A6, B4, M) and six lateral mac (D1–3, E2–4, F1) each side, nine posterior chaetae ( Fig. 44 View FIGURE 44 ). Abd V with three sensilla (type ‘m’); one anterior (a6), three medial (m1, m3, m5), and one posterior mac (p1) ( Fig. 44 View FIGURE 44 ). Abd VI with one anterior and posterior mac (a1, p1) ( Fig. 44 View FIGURE 44 ). S-chaetae formula from Th.II–Abd. V 2 + ms, 2/1+ ms,2, 2, 2+9–12 (type ‘k’).

Legs ( Figs. 45–48 View FIGURES 45–48 ). External face of coxa I, II and III with two pseudopores. Meta-trochanteral organ with 18–23 smooth spine-like chaetae ( Fig. 45 View FIGURES 45–48 ). Femur I, II and III covered by type ‘p’ mes, presented one proximal type ‘l’ mes and 2 type ‘q’. Femur II and III with 5 type ‘o’ mic ( Fig. 46 View FIGURES 45–48 ). Tibiotarsi with types ‘o’, ‘p’, ‘t’, ‘l’, ‘s’, a row with 5 ‘r’, and 2 ‘q’ chaetae ( Fig. 47 View FIGURES 45–48 ). Tibiotarsus I without types ‘o’ and ‘l’ chaetae. Unguis with one unaired and one basal paired inner tooth, and one unpaired median tooth externally. Unguiculus with a large outer tooth smooth edges ( Figs. 47–48 View FIGURES 45–48 ). Leg I tenent hair acuminate (type ‘v’), II and III clavate (type ‘t’).

Collophore ( Figs. 49–51 View FIGURES 49–52 ). Posterior side with 3 + 3 chaetae (type ‘l’) and 2 + 2 mic (type ‘o’) ( Fig. 49 View FIGURES 49–52 ); lateral flap with 6–9 + 6–9 chaetae (type ‘l’) ( Fig. 50 View FIGURES 49–52 ); anterior side with 4 + 4 chaetae (type ‘p’) ( Fig. 51 View FIGURES 49–52 ).

Furca ( Figs. 52 View FIGURES 49–52 , 53). Tenaculum with four teeth of decreasing size from the basal to the distal one of each ramus, with a postero-basal chaetae bent distally (type ‘x’). Manubrium dorsally covered with ciliated (type ‘p’) and 5–7 smooth (type ‘l’) chaetae, manubrial plate with two chaetae (type ‘p’) and two pseudopore ( Fig. 52 View FIGURES 49–52 ), distal part of manubrium ventral with 9 chaetae (type ‘p’). Dens annulated and covered with chaetae (type ‘p’) on both sides, basal dens with 1 + 1 chaetae (type ‘l’), distal smooth part of dens with same length of mucro. Mucro falcate with basal spine almost reaching mucro apex, distal smooth part of dens with same than mucro length (Fig. 53).

Etymology. The species was named “ phoenix ” in condolence with the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro— URFJ, which like the mythological bird, will rise from the ashes.

Distribution and habitat. Good’s Biogeographic zone 27 ( Good 1974; Culik & Zeppelini 2003). The climate according to Köppen’s system ( Köppen 1936; Shear 1966; Sá Junior et al. 2012) in localities varies from ‘Cwa’ (Igarapé), ‘Aw’ (Matozinhos) to ‘Af’ (Ribeira). The new species was found in different cities with caves inserted in three distinct lithologies. There was no record in CRFS/UEPB of the species in an epigean environment or in SSH.

Remarks. Coecobrya phoenix sp. nov. moderately troglomorphic species and shares characteristics such as absence of eyes and pigment, mucronal basal spine long reaching at least near apex of apical tooth with some species of tenebricosa- group. Most species of this group have ciliate chaetae in dorsal manubrium, such as C. anaguilae Cipola & Bellini, 2016 . The only species indicated by Cipola & Bellini, 2016 that present manubrium with dorsal smooth chaetae, unguis apical teeth absent, outer tooth on unguiculus at most slightly broader than unguiculus itself, tibiotarsus with rows of ciliate inner differentiated chaetae, Abd III with 3 + 3 lateral macrochaetae and Abd IV with 4 + 4 central to C. tenebricosa ( Folsom, 1902) and C. aitorererere Bernard, Soto-Adames & Wynne, 2015 as observed in the new species. However, C. phoenix sp. nov. differs from C. tenebricosa by thorax III, group I with 8+8 macrochaetae versus 13 + 13 and C. aitorererere by thorax II, group IV with 4 + 4 versus 2 + 2. Other morphological differences among the compared species are presented in Table 4 View TABLE 4 .


Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo