Hoplitomeryx kriegsmani , Van Der Geer, Alexandra A. E., 2014

Van Der Geer, Alexandra A. E., 2014, Systematic revision of the family Hoplitomerycidae Leinders, 1984 (Artiodactyla: Cervoidea), with the description of a new genus and four new species, Zootaxa 3847 (1), pp. 1-32: 26

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Hoplitomeryx kriegsmani

sp. nov.

Hoplitomeryx kriegsmani  sp. nov.

Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 J– M

Hoplitomeryx Leinders, 1984  , size 4 —Van der Geer 2005: p. 331, 332; Van der Geer 2008: p. 153, 154, fig. 4, 5. Hoplitomeryx Leinders, 1984  , size 3 —Van der Geer 2005 (partim): p. 331 [ RGMAbout RGM 178.516].

Holotype. Left metacarpal RGMAbout RGM 178.516.

Paratypes. Humerus fragment (trochanter major  ) RGMAbout RGM 425.254, anterior first phalanx RGMAbout RGM 178.503 ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 C, D), anterior second phalanges RGMAbout RGM 260.876, RGMAbout RGM 425.259, RGMAbout RGM 260.875 and RGMAbout RGM 260.862, metacarpal fragment RGMAbout RGM 425.322, tibia RGMAbout RGM 335.882 + 425.328 ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 A), third cervical vertebra RGMAbout RGM 425.311.

Referred specimens. See Appendix III, and fig. 6 C.

Diagnosis. A very large-sized, very slender hoplitomerycid. Estimated body mass is 103.4 kg. The tibia has a straight shaft. The trochlea of the astragal is non-parallel sided.

Differential diagnosis. Larger and more slender than all other hoplitomerycid species. About five times the body mass of the smallest species, Hoplitomeryx devosi  . The tibia has a straight shaft, unlike the other hoplitomerycid species. Metacarpal length is three times the metacarpal length of H. devosi  and one and half times that of H. macpheei  .

Derivation of name. Named after Leo Kriegsman of Naturalis Biodiversity Center, head of the Department of Geology, for his support of and interest in the study of the evolution of vertebrates on islands.

Preservation and deposition. Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden ( the Netherlands) (formerly Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie ( RGMAbout RGM)).

Type locality and horizon. Late Miocene (Middle or Late Turolian, MN 12-13) fissure filling with code San Giovannino in an abandoned limestone quarry near the farm of San Giovannino south of the provincial road between Poggio Imperiale and Apricena (Province of Foggia, Apulia, Italy).

Studied localities. Fissure fillings with codes Chirò 2, 2N, 7 a, 4, 32 and D 1, Falcone 2 B, Nazario 2 B and 4, Pizzicoli 1, 2 and 12, San Giovannino. All localities are located in the north-western portion of the Gargano Peninsula, Apulia, south-eastern Italy. Probable other locality: fissure filling with code Chirò 31 in the limestone quarry Chirò along the provincial road between Poggio Imperiale and Lessina (Province of Foggia, Apulia, Italy).

Description of holotype. RGMAbout RGM 178.516 is an incomplete ruminant metacarpal. It lacks the lower distal part and the proximal articulation above the point where the internal and external tubercle on the mid-palmar groove meet. The distal end includes the complete distal nutritional foramen within the palmar groove. The palmar groove for the M. interosseus palmaris is only present proximally. The sideward and backward bending of the specimen is a post-mortem defect.

Measurements. Holotype: maximal length = 190 mm, proximal depth ( DAPP) = 17.5 mm, proximal width (DTP) = 30.1 mm. Distal depth ( DAPD) and distal width (DTD) cannot be estimated for the holotype, but are available from referred specimen RGMAbout RGM 263.945: DAPD = 22,1 mm, DTD = 36.6 mm. For measurements of all referred specimens, see Appendix III (linear measurements) and Appendix I and II (body mass estimations).

Remarks. The holotype might be subadult. A couple of very large juvenile referred specimens (see Appendix III) have a similar size and likely represent subadult stages of this species as well. There is not sufficient information available on the ontogeny of Hoplitomeryx  , especially the extend of its growing period, to assign these juveniles to an even larger species. Leinders (1984) already indicated the presence of (very) large, juvenile skull fragments (e.g. RGMAbout RGM 260.933, ear region type III). These skull fragments can, however, not be properly assigned to either this size or to H. macpheei  due to the very fragmentated nature of the cranial material. Tibia RGMAbout RGM 335.882 + 425.328 might belong to the same individual as astragal RGMAbout RGM 260.863. The largest specimens of Hoplitomeryx  have about twice the body mass of the largest Scontromeryx  .


National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis














Hoplitomeryx kriegsmani

Van Der Geer, Alexandra A. E. 2014



Leinders 1984



Leinders 1984