Pisodonophis sangjuensis , Ji, Hwan-Sung & Kim, Jin-Koo, 2011

Ji, Hwan-Sung & Kim, Jin-Koo, 2011, A new species of snake eel, Pisodonophis sangjuensis (Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae) from Korea, Zootaxa 2758, pp. 57-68: 59-66

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.276775

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C4E216DB-0F05-430F-9934-C4F811B66D19

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/FAC4BEAA-AFB5-4ACF-B565-02B05F17F209

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:FAC4BEAA-AFB5-4ACF-B565-02B05F17F209

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Pisodonophis sangjuensis
status

sp. nov.

Pisodonophis sangjuensis  sp. nov.

(New English name: Korean Snake eel, New Korean Name: Sang-ju-mul-baem) ( Figs 2–4View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3. AView FIGURE 4)

Holotype. PKU 3693, 601 mm TL, female, Sangju, South Sea of Korea (N 34 ° 37 ʹ0 4 ʺ, E 128 °06ʹ 18 ʺ), caught by trawl at 40 m, 5 June, 2010.

Paratypes. PKU 840, 502 mm TL, female, South Sea of Korea (N 33 ° 44 ʹ0 7 ʺ, E 128 ° 21 ʹ 43 ʺ), caught by trawl at 100 m, 25 Sep., 2008; PKU 3483 –PKU 3484, 395 – 431 mm TL, male, South Sea of Korea (N 34 ° 56 ʹ0 0ʺ, E 127 ° 47 ʹ0 1 ʺ), caught by set net at 2 m, 27 Nov., 2009; PKU 3864, 532 mm TL, female, South Sea of Korea (N 33 °00ʹ 37 ʺ, E 127 °04ʹ 19 ʺ), caught by trawl at 90 m, 4 Apr., 2005; PKU 3865 –PKU 3872, 336 – 495 mm TL, South Sea of Korea (N 34 ° 20 ʹ 30 ʺ, E 127 ° 43 ʹ 19 ʺ), caught by trawl at 60 m, 8 Nov., 2005; PKU 3873, 373 mm TL, male, South Sea of Korea (N 33 °01ʹ 23 ʺ, E 125 ° 46 ʹ 17 ʺ), caught by trawl at 100 m, 17 Apr., 2006; PKU 3874 –PKU 3876, 460 – 521 mm TL, male, South Sea of Korea (N 34 ° 16 ʹ 29 ʺ, E 127 ° 52 ʹ 21 ʺ), caught by trawl at 50 m, 14 Jun., 2006; PKU 3877, 490 mm TL, female, South Sea of Korea (N 32 ° 16 ʹ 13 ʺ, E 125 ° 57 ʹ 15 ʺ), caught by trawl at 105–110 m, 29 Apr., 2007; PKU 3878 –PKU 3879, 450 – 625 mm TL, South Sea of Korea (N 34 ° 48 ʹ 53 ʺ, E 128 ° 26 ʹ 46 ʺ), caught by trawl at 50 m, 22 Jun., 2007; PKU 3880, 448 mm TL, male, South Sea of Korea (N 34 ° 36 ʹ0 2 ʺ, E 128 ° 15 ʹ 24 ʺ), caught by trawl at 30 m, 8 Sep., 2007; PKU 4213, 595 mm TL, female, South Sea of Korea (N 34 ° 37 ʹ0 4 ʺ, E 128 °06ʹ 18 ʺ), caught by trawl at 40 m, 4 Sep., 2010.

Diagnosis. Dorsal-fin origin above the middle of the pectoral fin; pectoral fin rounded, not elongated, 2.6–3.5 times in head length (HL); snout slightly acute, 4.9–6.5 times in HL; upper jaw slightly longer than lower jaw, 3.4– 3.7 times in HL; fleshy protrusions before and behind the posterior nostril. Cephalic-sensory pores minute and inconspicuous; supraorbital pores 1 + 4, infraorbital pores 4 + 2, preoperculomandibular pores 3 + 5, supratemporal pores 1 + 4. Teeth conical, pointed, regular single row on both jaws, two regular rows anteriorly but 2–3 irregular rows posteriorly on vomer. Prevomerine and vomerine teeth are slightly separated from each other. Mean vertebral formula 14 / 50 / 147: 13–14 before the dorsal fin, 48–51 before the anal fin, and 143–153 in total.

Counts and measurements (in mm) of the holotype. Total length 601.0; head 55.3; trunk 161.6; tail 384.0; predorsal distance 64.3; pectoral fin length 19.3; pectoral fin base 6.3; body depth at gill openings 18.6; body width at gill openings 2.7; body depth at anus 20.6; body width at anus 18.3; snout 9.5; tip of snout to rictus 16.6; tip of lower jaw to rictus 12.8; eye diameter 4.9; interorbital distance 8.2; gill opening height 5.3; isthmus width 11.9; 13 predorsal vertebrae/ 50 preanal vertebrae/ 153 total vertebrae.

Description. Body elongate and cylindrical, and slightly tapering toward the tail ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2). Caudal fin absent. Body depth at gill opening 30.3 –37.0 times in TL. Head+trunk 2.6–2.7 times in TL; head length 10.1–10.8 times in TL and 2.8–2.9 times in trunk (Table 2). Snout slightly acute. Upper jaw slightly longer than lower jaw. Eye diameter 2.8–3.6 times in upper jaw length and 8.8–12.3 times in HL. Anterior nostrils tubular, on lateral surface of the upper lip. Posterior nostrils at the edge of upper lip, covered by a flap. Upper lip with fleshy protrusions before and behind the posterior nostril. Dorsal-fin origin above the middle of the pectoral fin. Pectoral fin rounded, not elongated, about 2.6–3.5 times in HL. Pectoral-fin base 7.5–10.2 times in HL. Pectoral-fin rays 12-14. Vertebrae: 13–14 before the dorsal fin, 48–51 before the anal fin, and 143–153 in total. Cephalic-sensory pores ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3. A) minute, inconspicuous. Supraorbital pores 1 + 4, infraorbital pores 4 + 2, mandibular pores 5, preopercular pores 3, supratemporal pores 1 + 4. Lateral-line pores minute; 10 before gill opening, 51–54 before mid-anus. Teeth ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4) small, conical, pointed. Prevomerine teeth large, one central and one row on each side. Vomerine teeth biserial, two regular rows of 21–24 teeth anteriorly, followed by 2–3 irregular rows of 11–13 teeth posteriorly. Maxillary teeth in a single row of 25–28 teeth. Mandibular teeth 1–2 rows anteriorly, followed by a single row of 30–33 teeth. Prevomerine and vomerine are slightly separated from each other.

A total of 983 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA 12 S rRNA sequence of Pisodonophis sangjuensis  were compared with those of six ophichthid species and two outgroups ( Anguilla japonica and Conger myriaster  ). Kimura’s genetic distance was large between P. sangjuensis  and P. cancrivorus  (0.068), although they are congeneric species, followed by the distance to Ophichthus serpentinus  (0.080; Table 4). The Maximum-likelihood tree shows the reciprocal monophyly of P. sangjuensis  , being supported by high bootstrap values (100; Fig. 5View FIGURE 5).

Color when fresh ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2): body uniform dark brownish dorsally, but head and body pale brownish ventrally. Dorsal, anal, and pectoral fins blackish red.

Color in formalin: body uniform dark blackish dorsally, head and body pale whitish ventrally. Dorsal, anal, and pectoral fins whitish.

Size. The largest specimen is 601 mm TL, a mature female.

Etymology. The specific name, sangjuensis  , refers to the name of type locality (Sangju).

Distribution. South Sea of Korea, 5–110 m depth.

Remarks. The genus Pisodonophis  contains seven species worldwide ( Eschmeyer, 2010), six of which ( Pisodonophis cancrivorus  , Pisodonophis boro  , Pisodonophis copelandi  , Pisodonophis hijala  , Pisodonophis hoevenii  , and Pisodonophis hypselopterus  ) are from East Asia, and Pisodonophis daspilotus  is from the eastern Pacific ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6) ( Eschmeyer, 2010; McCosker, 2011). The genus Pisodonophis  has not been reviewed taxonomically except for some brief descriptions ( McCosker, 1977, 1989; Smith and McCosker, 1999). The six species ( Ophisurus cancrivorus  , Ophisurus hoevenii  , Ophisurus hypselopterus  , Ophisurus boro  , Ophisurus hijala  , Ophisurus semicinctus  ) previously included in the genus Ophisurus  were relocated to the genus Pisodonophis  according to its characteristic of having granular and conical teeth ( Jordan and Richardson, 1910; Herre, 1923; Smith, 1962). Ophisurus semicinctus  has been shown to require a new genus ( McCosker, 2011). Three species, Pisodonophis daspilotus  , Pisodonophis zophistius  , Pisodonophis copelandi  were described as Pisodonophis  , however P. z o p h i s t i u s has been found to be a synonym of Ophichthus altipennis ( McCosker, 2011)  . In recent years, Smith and McCosker (1999) defined the genus Ophisurus  as having canine teeth, the genus Ophichthus  as having conical teeth, and the genus Pisodonophis  as having granular or conical teeth in both jaws. We suggest that Pisodonophis  requires a careful revision.

Pisodonophis sangjuensis  is most similar to P. cancrivorus  in its morphology and coloration, but the former differs from the latter in its teeth shape and distribution (conical teeth in P. sangjuensis  vs. granular teeth in P. cancrivorus  ) and its number of vertebrae (143–153 vs. 153–164, respectively) ( McCosker & Castle, 1986; Hatooka, 2002; Lee, 2009) (Tables 2, 3). Pisodonophis sangjuensis  differs from P. boro  in the origin of the dorsal fin (above the middle of the pectoral fin in P. sangjuensis  vs. far behind the pectoral fin tip in P. boro  ) ( Table 3), its number of vertebrae (143–153 vs. 170–177, respectively), its teeth shape (conical vs. granular, respectively) and habitat (marine vs. fresh or brackish waters, respectively) ( Herre, 1923; McCosker et al., 1989; Hatooka, 2002). Pisodonophis sangjuensis  differs from P. copelandi  in the origin of the dorsal fin (above the middle of the pectoral fin in P. sangjuensis  vs. far behind the pectoral fin tip in P. copelandi  ), its teeth rows on both jaws (1 row vs. 2 rows, respectively) ( Herre, 1953) ( Table 3). Pisodonophis sangjuensis  differs from P. hypselopterus  in its number of vertebrae (143–153 in P. sangjuensis  vs. 120 in P. hypselopterus  ), the number of pectoral fin rays (12–14 in P. sangjuensis  vs. 17 in P. hypselopterus  ), its teeth shape (conical vs. granular, respectively) (Tables 2, 3), and habitat (marine vs. fresh or brackish waters, respectively). Pisodonophis sangjuensis  differs from Pisodonophis hijala  and Pisodonophis hoevenii  in its number of pectoral fin rays (13 in P. sangjuensis  vs. eight in P. hijala  and 10 in P. hoevenii  ) and in the origin of the dorsal fin (above the middle of the pectoral fin vs. behind pectoral fin vs. above the middle of the pectoral fin, respectively) ( Table 3). Pisodonophis sangjuensis  is easily distinguished from Pisodonophis daspilotus  in lacking bands and dark markings on its body (no markings in P. sangjuensis  vs. central circular dark markings in P. daspilotus  ) ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7. A), and in the shape of its teeth (conical vs. blunt vs. granular, respectively) and in the origin of the dorsal fin (the middle of the pectoral fin vs. behind of pectoral fin vs. in front of pectoral fin, respectively) ( McCosker and Rosenblatt, 1995; Bilecenoglu et al., 2009) ( Table 3).

Dorsal fin origin Middle of pectoral fin Middle of pectoral fin Far behind of pectoral fin Far behind of pectoral fin

Dentition Uniserial Multiserial Multiserial Beserial

Teeth shape Conical Granular Granular Conical

Body color Dark brown Dark brown Brown Dusky brown (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)

Pisodonophis sangjuensis  sp. nov. (1)

Pisodonophis sangjuensis  sp. nov. (2) 0.000

Pisodonophis sangjuensis  sp. nov. (3) 0.000 0.000

Pisodonophis sangjuensis  sp. nov. (4) 0.000 0.000 0.000

Pisodonophis cancrivorus  (5) 0.068 0.068 0.068 0.068

Echelus urotperus  (6) 0.114 0.114 0.114 0.114 0.109

Echelus myrus  (7) 0.105 0.105 0.105 0.105 0.099 0.015 Ophichthus asakusae  (8) 0.081 0.081 0.081 0.081 0.081 0.079 0.066 Ophichthus serpentinus  (9) 0.080 0.080 0.080 0.080 0.087 0.077 0.070 0.057 Ophichthus zophochir  (10) 0.089 0.089 0.089 0.089 0.085 0.085 0.078 0.066 0.048 Anguilla japonica (11) 0.201 0.201 0.201 0.201 0.186 0.155 0.160 0.170 0.169 0.164 Conger myriaster  (12) 0.214 0.214 0.214 0.214 0.209 0.216 0.216 0.255 0.221 0.216 0.183

A molecular phylogenetic study of several Anguilliformes  based on mtDNA 12 S rRNA sequences showed high genetic distances among three ophichthid species ( Ophichthus evermanni  , P. cancrivorus  , and Xyrias revulsus  ; 0.063–0.094; see Wang et al., 2002). From the perspective of the genetic distances reported by Wang et al. (2002), our new species must be the eighth species of the genus Pisodonophis  . Most ophichthid species are known to live in waters relatively shallower than 100 m ( McCosker, 2010).

Comparative materials.

Pisodonophis cancrivorus  , BMNH 1938.12. 32.1 (618.0 mm TL), Singapore (N 1 ° 14 ʹ 28 ʺ, E 103 ° 48 ʹ0 7 ʺ), no collection date; BMNH 1938.12. 21.2 (735.0 mm TL), Philippines (N 14 ° 39 ʹ 23 ʺ, E 120 ° 43 ʹ0 1 ʺ), no collection date; HUMZ- 161 (652.0 mm TL), no collection locality or date; HUMZ- 44598 (374.0 mm TL), Ogasawara Island, Japan (N 26 ° 56 ʹ0 9 ʺ, E 142 ° 13 ʹ 30 ʺ), no collection date.

Ophichthus altipennis  , HUMZ- 58879 (846.0 mm TL), Japan (N 35 °03ʹ 11 ʺ, E 139 ° 43 ʹ 32 ʺ), 6 Nov., 1976; HUMZ- 171743 (532.0 mm TL), Japan (N 33 ° 24 ʹ 53 ʺ, E 133 ° 21 ʹ0 5 ʺ), caught by trawl, July, 1995; HUMZ- 171744 (581.0 mm TL), Japan (N 33 ° 24 ʹ 53 ʺ, E 133 ° 21 ʹ0 5 ʺ), caught by trawl, July, 1995.

Pisodonophis boro  , HUMZ- 70754 (561.0 mm TL), Hainan Island, China (N 18 ° 57 ʹ 28 ʺ, E 108 ° 22 ʹ 35 ʺ), Sep., 1939.

Pisodonophis copelandi  , USNM 202516 (308.0 mm TL), Luzon Island (N 14 ° 37 ʹ 51 ʺ, E 120 ° 53 ʹ 37 ʺ), 21 Nov., 1947; USNM 202517 (303.0 mm TL), Luzon Island (N 14 ° 37 ʹ 51 ʺ, E 120 ° 53 ʹ 37 ʺ), 21 Nov., 1947.

Pisodonophis hypselopterus  , BMNH 1867.11. 28.279 (313.0 mm TL), no collection locality or date.

Pisodonophis hoevenii  , BMNH 1867.11. 28.314 (623.0 mm TL), no collection locality or date.

Pisodonophis daspilotus  , USNM 318297 (413.0 mm TL), Panama (N 08°00ʹ0 6 ʺ, E 80 ° 24 ʹ 31 ʺ), 22 Mar., 1990.

Pisodonophis  semicinctus  , BMNH 1845.2. 11.39 (687.0 mm TL), no collection locality or date; BMNH 1852.8. 12.43 (725.0 mm TL), no collection locality or date; BMNH 1853.1. 11.9 (538.0 mm TL), no collection locality or date; BMNH 1865.1. 23.3 (747.0 mm TL), no collection locality or date.

Ophichthus evermanni  , ASIZ 0060063 (738.0 mm TL), Taiwan (N 24 ° 57 ʹ0 0ʺ, E 121 ° 52 ʹ 48 ʺ), 1 May, 1993; ASIZ 006315 (434.0 mm TL), Taiwan (N 24 ° 57 ʹ0 0ʺ, E 121 ° 52 ʹ 48 ʺ), 18 May, 1999; ASIZ 0060864 (725.0 mm TL), Taiwan (N 22 ° 27 ʹ 45 ʺ, E 120 ° 28 ʹ 13 ʺ), 10 May, 2000.

Ophichthus rotundus  , BKNU 3001 (793.0 mm TL), Yellow Sea (N 35 ° 48 ʹ 35 ʺ, E 126 ° 36 ʹ 28 ʹ), 27 June, 1993; BKNU 916–925 (605.0–722.0 mm TL), Yellow Sea (N 35 ° 48 ʹ 35 ʺ, E 126 ° 36 ʹ 28 ʺ), 8 Sep., 1995.

Muraenichthys gymnopterus  , FSIU 2144 (254.6 mm TL), Yellow Sea (N 37 ° 23 ʹ, E 126 ° 44 ʹ), 24 June, 2007.

DNA

Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

BKNU

Kunsan National University

FSIU

Laboratory of Fisheries, Department of Oceanography

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Anguilliformes

Family

Ophichthidae

Genus

Pisodonophis

Loc

Pisodonophis sangjuensis

Ji, Hwan-Sung & Kim, Jin-Koo 2011
2011
Loc

Pisodonophis copelandi

Herre 1953
1953
Loc

Pisodonophis daspilotus

Gilbert 1898
1898
Loc

Pisodonophis hoeveni

Bleeker 1853
1853
Loc

Pisodonophis hypselopterus

Bleeker 1851
1851
Loc

Pisodonophis cancrivorus

Richardson 1848
1848
Loc

Pisodonophis boro

Hamilton 1822
1822
Loc

Pisodonophis hijala

Hamilton 1822
1822