Paraxantia, Liu, Chun-Xiang & Kang, Le, 2009

Liu, Chun-Xiang & Kang, Le, 2009, A new genus, Paraxantia gen. nov., with descriptions of four new species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) from China, Zootaxa 2031, pp. 36-52: 37-38

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.186270

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gen. nov.

Genus Paraxantia  gen. nov.

Type species: Paraxantia tibetensis Liu & Kang  , sp. nov. Here designated.

Diagnosis: Compound eyes twice as long as wide ( Figs. 1–5View FIGURES 1 – 5, 11– 25View FIGURES 11 – 15View FIGURES 16 – 25); fastigium verticis strongly deflexed forwards, with apex distinctly emarginated ( Figs. 1–10View FIGURES 1 – 5View FIGURES 6 – 10, 16– 25View FIGURES 16 – 25); pronotal disk approximately flat, just slightly rough, gradually tilting backwards, with lateral carinae finely denticulate on prozona ( Figs. 6–10View FIGURES 6 – 10); lateral lobes of pronotum higher than long, and gradually becoming higher backwards; with moderate humeral notch ( Figs. 11–15View FIGURES 11 – 15); anterior coxae unarmed; each femur possessing strong ventral spines ( Fig. 67View FIGURES 65, 69); each femoral genicular lobe with a distinct median spine ( Figs. 67, 69View FIGURES 65, 69); tegmen gradually attenuated behind middle, with approximately erect apical margin ( Fig. 68View FIGURES 65, 69); Rs not bifurcate ( Fig. 68View FIGURES 65, 69); male subgenital plate with distinct styli ( Figs. 48View FIGURES 48 – 49 –54); male phallus bearing complex systematical sclerites ( Figs. 60–64View FIGURES 60 – 64).

Description: Head ovoid, occiput convex and smooth. Fastigium verticis triangular, well-produced, strongly deflexed, dorsally slightly or distinctly sulcate, approximately twice as wide as first segment of antenna, with apex slightly emarginated, nearly touching fastigium frontis. Fastigium frontis triangular, perpendicular. Compound eye elongate, greatly bulging, ventral margin extending through to ventral margin of antennal scrobe ( Figs. 1–5View FIGURES 1 – 5, 16– 25View FIGURES 16 – 25). Antennae thread-like, long and flexible. Pronotum gradually tilting and widened backwards; pronotal disk approximately flat, just slightly rough; first transverse groove strongly impressed; second transverse groove more or less indistinct, present before middle with a discontiguous elongate median line extending; lateral carinae finely denticulate on prozona; anterior margin strongly concaved, posterior margin obtuse, with a small middle notch; some small granules composed of two lines, which is shaped into a angle from connection between first transverse groove and each lateral carina to centre of posterior margin ( Figs. 6–10View FIGURES 6 – 10). Lateral lobes of pronotum deeper than long; anterior margin with a distinct concavity at top, remainder of anterior margin approximately straight, posterior margin slightly obtuse, ventral margin outspreading backwards, slightly sinuate. Humeral notch distinct, moderate ( Figs. 11–15View FIGURES 11 – 15).

Tegmen slightly translucent, gradually widened from base, then attenuated behind middle, with regular veinlets; Costa indistinct; subcostal vein and radial vein joined at base, then separated but closely abutted together till before apical part of tegmen; radical sector not bifurcated; apex of tegmen rounded ( Fig. 68View FIGURES 65, 69). Male stridulatory area (Figs. 26–37) with posterior margin straight; male right stridulatory area with distinct mirror. Anterior coxae unarmed. Anterior and median femora with regularly-arranged big spines on ventroanterior margin; posterior femur with many regularly-arranged big spines on ventro-anterior margin and a few big spines near apex on ventro-posterior margin. Anterior tibiae dorsally approximately flat, with tympanum conchate on both sides; widened at and gradually constricted below tympana. Median tibia almost flat, without distinct groove, with or without dorsal spines; posterior tibiae with dorsal spines on both sides.

Male terminalia. Tenth abdominal tergum broad, concave in middle ( Figs. 48–49View FIGURES 48 – 49). Subgenital plate elongate, with notch at apex; styli minute, robust, short ( Figs. 63–67View FIGURES 60 – 64View FIGURES 65, 69). Male concealed sclerotized genitalia complex, comprising an upper smooth conchae, a median pair of crinkled band-shaped spinous sclerites and a lower pair of denticulate sclerites or a lower unpaired sclerite with bifurcate distal part, which separately enveloped by membranous structures, and arranged from top down in internal genitalia; structure of lower denticulate sclerites distinctly various through different species (Figs. 50–54).

Female unknown.

Discussion: Paraxantia  resembles Xantia Brunner  von Wattenwyl in the shape of compound eyes, the width of fastigium verticis, and the shape of lateral lobes of pronotum. It differs from the latter by the shape of pronotal posterior margin, Rs vein of tegmen, and the shape of hind tibiae. In Xantia  , the posterior margin of the pronotum is angular, the tegmen is lanceolate and tapering from the widest middle part in the latter, the Rs vein is bifurcate, and, the hind tibia is dilated at base ( Figs. 65, 66View FIGURES 65, 69). The characters of Paraxantia  distinguish it from Xantia  at generic level, although there is no description on male abdominal apex of Xantia borneensis  because of loss of the abdomen of the type.

Paraxantia  possesses a leaf-shaped tegmen, from which we infer that the katydids live in broadleaf forests. When collecting in the field, Paraxantia  was not collected by net during the daytime, but many males were acquired by attraction to lights. This further suggests that these katydids live in broadleaf forests. Only males were attracted to light.

Species of Paraxantia  are distributed in middle altitudes of South of China. Males were attracted to light from 700m to 2200m. Until now, we have collected them in primal forests in Hubei Province, Guangxi Province, Fujian Province, Sichuan Province, and Tibet.

Etymology: The name Paraxantia  is composed of the prefix Para-, and name of another genus Xantia  . The name refers that the new genus is related to Xantia  . Feminine gender.

Distribution: China.