Raorchestes flaviventris ( Boulenger, 1882 )

Abraham, Robin Kurian, Zachariah, Anil & Cyriac, Vivek Philip, 2015, A reappraisal of the rhacophorid bush frog Raorchestes flaviventris (Boulenger, 1882), with an evaluation of the taxonomic status of R. emeraldi Vijayakumar, Dinesh, Prabhu and Shankar, 2014, Zootaxa 4048 (1), pp. 90-100: 91-94

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4048.1.5

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A16BEF8D-7BC1-4184-8AC3-F5AB560CFAF5

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03D3F77D-FFC2-8B35-F0AD-FDF97E9DFEAF

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Raorchestes flaviventris ( Boulenger, 1882 )
status

 

Raorchestes flaviventris ( Boulenger, 1882) 

Name bearing type: Lectotype, BMNH 1947.2. 26.98 [ex BMNH 1874.4.29.1202], adult male (SVL 29.4 mm) ( Fig. 3 View Figure ), figured in Boulenger (1882: pl. 11 fig. 1 b) collected from “Malabar”. Other materials: TNHMAbout TNHM (H) 12.6.18 / 47 a; adult ♂ ( Fig. 1 View Figure B; Fig. 2 View Figure ; Table 1), collected by Anil Zachariah from Kadalar (10 ° 8 ' 7.65 "N, 76 ° 59 ' 55.48 "E), Idukki district, Kerala, India; 1515m ASL; 14 /06/ 2012; TNHMAbout TNHM (H) 12.6.18 / 47 b ( Table 1); adult ♂, collected by Robin Kurian Abraham from Kadalar along with the previous specimen; 14 /06/ 2012.

SVL=snout-vent length; HW=head width, at angle of jaw; HL=head length, from rear of mandible to tip of snout; IUE=inter upper eyelid width, the shortest distance between the upper eyelids; UEW=maximum upper eyelid width; SL=snout length, from tip of snout to anterior orbital border of eye; ED=eye diameter; TD= horizontal tympanum diameter; FLL=forelimb length, from elbow to base of outer palmar tubercle; HaL=hand length, from base of outer palmar tubercle to tip of third finger; TL=thigh length; ShL=shank length; Tal= tarsal length; FoL=foot length, from base of inner metatarsal tubercle to tip of fourth toe.

Description of fresh material (N = 2): Large sized bush frog (mean SVL 34.5) with moderately elongated body; head wider (mean HW 14.3) than long (mean HL 11.6), slightly convex above; snout semicircular in ventral view, rounded in profile; snout length (mean SL 5.1) slightly more than or almost equal to horizontal diameter of eye (mean EL 4.8); canthus rostralis round, loreal region concave; nostrils oval, closer to tip of snout; tympanum distinct (mean TD 1.7), rounded; supratympanic fold distinct, from back of eye to shoulder; pineal ocellus absent; vomerine ridge present, vomerine teeth absent, posterior to choanae; tongue moderately large, emarginate, more cordiform than lanceolate; lingual papilla present, conical; a small tooth-like projection present on the lower jaw; forearm (mean FLL 7.5) shorter than hand (mean HaL 11.3), fingers moderately long, tips with large welldeveloped disks, and with distinct circum-marginal grooves; fingers without dermal fringe; webbing on fingers basal, not well developed; subarticular tubercles distinct, rounded, single, present on all fingers; thenar tubercle oval, distinct; palmar tubercles small, rounded, not well developed, accessory palmar tubercles present; supernumerary tubercles absent; hindlimb moderately long, thigh length (mean TL 17.0) slightly longer than shank length (mean ShL 16.8), toe tips with moderate disks; distinct circum-marginal grooves present; toes basally webbed; webbing reaching only up to the penultimate subarticular tubercle on both sides of Toe IV; dermal fringe present on all toes; subarticular tubercles prominent, rounded, simple and present on all toes; inner metatarsal tubercle oval, not well developed; outer metatarsal tubercle, supernumerary tubercles and tarsal tubercle absent.

Snout, interorbital region and sides of head smooth; anterior and posterior part of back shagreen with sparse spicules; flanks shagreen; dorsal surface of forelimbs and hindlimbs smooth to slightly shagreen; throat, chest and belly granular; ventral part of thighs slightly granular; ventral sides of shanks and tarsus smooth.

Colour in preservation: One week after preservation ( Fig. 2 View Figure ): Head and dorsum greyish brown with several white spots; upper lip creamy white; ventrum white with irregular greyish black patches at belly and tibia; dorsal parts of limbs brown with fewer number of white spots; hand greyish brown, foot greyish brown with white blotches on the anterior region; flanks white; groin, anterior and posterior parts of the thigh and anterior region of tarsals greyish white with dark black patches giving a blotched appearance.

Colour in life ( Fig. 1 View Figure ): Dorsum bright green, with numerous pale yellow spots towards the posterior region; axilla, groin, anterior and posterior of thighs and anterior region of tarsals bright orange-yellow interspersed with brownish-black patches sometimes appearing as yellow blotches; flank creamy white, edge of upper and lower lip creamy white; iris pale grey bordered outwards with a bluish-black ring.

Distribution: Endemic to the evergreen forests of the western slopes of the Anamalai Hills and High Ranges of Tamil Nadu and Kerala ( Fig. 5 View Figure ). Elevation ranges from 1300 to 1900 m ASL.

Natural history: Vocalizing males were found on the trunks of forest trees from 2m to 4m above the forest floor. In adjacent cardamom plantations, they could be found on the leaves of the cardamom plants. Calls were akin to that of R. ponmudi  .

TABLE 1. Morphometric measurements (in mm) of specimens studied.

Specimen SVL HW HL IUE UEW SL ED TD FLL HaL TL ShL TaL FoL
R. flaviventris  TNHM (H) 12.6.18/47a (Male) 36.2 14.9 12.3 4.4 3.7 5.4 5.5 1.8 8.5 11.3 17.9 17.5 8.2 15.1
R. flaviventris  TNHM (H) 12.6.18/47b (Male) 32.8 13.8 10.9 3.8 3.2 4.8 4.2 1.5 6.5 11.3 16.2 16.1 8.1 14.4
R. emeraldi  CESF 1353 Holotype ZSI/ WGRC/V/A/ 873 (Male) 35.3 14.3 12.7 4.3 3.6 4.4 4.7 1.4 8.0 11.1 16.8 17.1 9.4 15.0
R. emeraldi  CESF 1365 Paratype ZSI/ WGRC/V/A/ 874 (Female) 49.3 19.7 18.5 4.7 3.9 6.3 5.9 1.9 10.2 14.5 20.8 22.7 12.4 18.9

TABLE 1. Morphometric measurements (in mm) of specimens studied.

Specimen SVL HW HL IUE UEW SL ED TD FLL HaL TL ShL TaL FoL
R. flaviventris  TNHM (H) 12.6.18/47a (Male) 36.2 14.9 12.3 4.4 3.7 5.4 5.5 1.8 8.5 11.3 17.9 17.5 8.2 15.1
R. flaviventris  TNHM (H) 12.6.18/47b (Male) 32.8 13.8 10.9 3.8 3.2 4.8 4.2 1.5 6.5 11.3 16.2 16.1 8.1 14.4
R. emeraldi  CESF 1353 Holotype ZSI/ WGRC/V/A/ 873 (Male) 35.3 14.3 12.7 4.3 3.6 4.4 4.7 1.4 8.0 11.1 16.8 17.1 9.4 15.0
R. emeraldi  CESF 1365 Paratype ZSI/ WGRC/V/A/ 874 (Female) 49.3 19.7 18.5 4.7 3.9 6.3 5.9 1.9 10.2 14.5 20.8 22.7 12.4 18.9
TNHM

University of Texas

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Amphibia

Order

Anura

Family

Rhacophoridae

Genus

Raorchestes