Epipleoneura

Pessacq, Pablo, 2014, Synopsis of Epipleoneura (Zygoptera, Coenagrionidae, “ Protoneuridae ”), with emphasis on its Brazilian species, Zootaxa 3872 (3), pp. 201-234 : 203-204

publication ID

https://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3872.3.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:72ACE4FF-9A41-4D26-A201-01E020439899

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5296802

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03D3FD33-FFA0-FFE8-4E8F-745BF394F96A

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Epipleoneura
status

 

Key to males of Epipleoneura

A key to females is not included since only half of the females have been described for the known species. Caution should be used in using this key. Identification relies on subtle differences of the epiproct, cerci, and apex of the genital ligula some of which should be examined at high (ca 100 x) power and proper lighting for best results.

1. Cercus in posterior view with an inner-basal branch, lobe or tooth visible on posterior or latero-posterior view (e.g. Figs. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 3 b-c, 3, 7b-c, CT, CIB)..................................................................................... 2

1 ’. Cercus in posterior view without an inner-basal branch or tooth (e. g. Figs. 8 View FIGURES 7 – 9 b, 17 bc, 19 b, 24 c)........................ 3

2. Epiproct in posterior view with a well-developed quadrangular or convexly curved medial lobe on its distal margin (ML, Figs. 4 View FIGURES 4 – 6 b and 5 b), with its apex surpassing the level of poorly developed lateral branches (LB)............................. 4

2 ’. Epiproct in posterior view without a medial lobe on its distal margin ( Figs. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 3 b– 3 b, 6 b– 9 b), if present (in some males of E. metallica and E. fernandezi , figs 6 b, 13 b), its apex never surpassing the level of lateral branches...................... 5

3. Cercus dorsal branch with an apical hook ( Figs. 8 View FIGURES 7 – 9 , 18 View FIGURES 16 – 18 c, 19).................................................. 21

3 ’. Cercus dorsal branch without an apical hook ( Figs. 17 View FIGURES 16 – 18 , 22– 27 View FIGURES 22 – 24 View FIGURES 25 – 27 )................................................ 22

4. Medial lobe of epiproct in posterior view quadrangular ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 4 – 6 b).................................... E. capilliformis

4 ’. Medial lobe of epiproct in posterior view convexly curved ( Fig. 4 View FIGURES 4 – 6 b).................................. E. demarmelsi

5. Epiproct in posterior view with an additional lateral lobe, apical branch short and rounded ( Fig. 12 View FIGURES 10 – 12 b)....... E. venezuelensis

5 ’. Epiproct in posterior view lacking an additional lateral lobe, apical branch variable................................ 6

6. Epiproct in posterior view with a wide ( Figs. 7 View FIGURES 7 – 9 b– 9 b, 13 b, 21 b) or narrow ( Figs. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 3 and 67 c–f) basal gap between branches.. 7

6 ’. Epiproct in posterior view with branches fused basally ( Figs. 2 View FIGURES 1 – 3 b, 3 b, 67 a–b) from about half ( Figs. 6 View FIGURES 4 – 6 b, 20 b) to almost their entire length ( Figs. 10 View FIGURES 10 – 12 b, 11 b, 14 b, 15 b)................................................................... 14

7. Cercus ventral branch small and approximately rounded, with two posterior small teeth visible in inner view, dorsal branch with a big inner apical spine or small hook anteriorly directed ( Fig. 25 View FIGURES 25 – 27 a–c,e).......................... E. albuquerquei

7 ’. Cercus ventral branch comparatively larger, with a clearly visible inner-basal lobe or tooth (i.e. Figs. 6 View FIGURES 4 – 6 b, 9 b), dorsal branch without or with a ventral apical hook ventrally or postero-ventrally directed (i.e. Fig. 2 View FIGURES 1 – 3 a, 9 a)......................... 8

8. Cercus without apical hook ( Fig. 21 View FIGURES 19 – 21 a)........................................................... E. waiwaiana

8 ’. Cercus with apical hook ( Figs. 1 –3 View FIGURES 1 – 3 , 7 View FIGURES 7 – 9 , 13 View FIGURES 13 – 15 )................................................................. 9

9. Epiproct in posterior view with branches widely separated at their bases, distance between them greater than half length of epiproct branch ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 4 – 6 b, 7 b, 9 b, 13 b, 68 a–f).............................................................. 10

9 ’. Epiproct in posterior view with branches slightly separated at their bases, distance between them considerably less than half length of epiproct branch ( Figs. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 3 b, 67 c–f)................................................................ 13

10. Epiproct branches short and triangular ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 4 – 6 b).................................................... E. fernandezi

10 ’ Epiproct branches long and narrow ( Figs. 7 View FIGURES 7 – 9 b, 9 b, 13 b)...................................................... 11

11. Epiproct branches in posterior view divergent, their apices straight ( Figs. 13 View FIGURES 13 – 15 ), bent medially, or rarely convergent ( Figs. 68 e–f)........................................................................................... E. metallica

11 ’. Epiproct branches in posterior view parallel, their tips slightly convergent apically ( Figs. 7 View FIGURES 7 – 9 b, 9 b)..................... 12

12. Epiproct branches comparatively long, in posterior view reaching or surpassing cercus ventral margin ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 7 – 9 b).. E.pereirai

12 ’. Epiproct branches comparatively short, in posterior view not reaching cercus ventral margin ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 7 – 9 b).......... E. susanae

13. Epiproct branches in posterior view separated by a triangular structure at their bases ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 1 – 3 b, TS), inner-basal branch of cercus triangular, visible in lateral view ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 1 – 3 a).................................................. E. machadoi (in part)

13 ’. Epiproct branches in posterior view not separated by a triangular structure at their bases ( Fig. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 3 b), inner-basal branch of cercus not triangular, medially directed and with its apex directed posteriorly, not visible in lateral view ( Fig. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 3 a)...... E. kaxuriana

14. Epiproct branches in posterior view fused along their entire length ( Figs. 10 View FIGURES 10 – 12 b, 11 b, 14 b, 15 b)....................... 15

14 ’. Epiproct branches in posterior view fused at their bases or along basal half ( Figs. 2 View FIGURES 1 – 3 b, 67 a–b)....................... 18

15. Epiproct in posterior view distinctly longer than wide, apex with two narrow lobes ( Figs. 14 View FIGURES 13 – 15 b, 15 b).................. 16

15 ’. Epiproct in posterior view about as long as wide, apex with two short, wide rounded lobes ( Figs. 10 View FIGURES 10 – 12 b, 11 b)............. 17

16. Cercus in posterior view with a narrow mesally directed inner-basal process, its apex directed posteriorly and reaching midline of S 10 medially ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 13 – 15 b). Apex of genital ligula with two long and slender apical lobes and a V cleft on its distal margin ( Fig. 30 View FIGURES 28 – 47 )......................................................................................... E. uncinata

16 ’ Cercus in posterior view with a well-developed posteriorly directed inner-basal tooth ( Fig. 14 View FIGURES 13 – 15 b). Genital ligula with two apical quadrangular lobes and a wide medial U cleft on its distal margin ( Fig. 37 View FIGURES 28 – 47 )................................ E. janirae

17. Cercus dorsal branch parallel to main body axis in lateral view, with apex blunt with a small inner spine ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 10 – 12 a) E. tariana

17 ’. Cercus dorsal branch directed upward in lateral view, with an apical hook directed meso-ventrally ( Fig. 11 View FIGURES 10 – 12 a)...... E. lamina

18. Epiproct branches in posterior view fused along ca basal half ( Figs. 16 View FIGURES 16 – 18 b, 20 b)..................................... 19

18 ’. Epiproct branches in posterior view fused at their bases ( Figs. 2 View FIGURES 1 – 3 b, 3 b).......................................... 20

19. Gap between epiproct branches at their apices wider than epiproct base, branches comparatively thick ( Fig. 20 View FIGURES 19 – 21 b). Peduncle of posterior processes of genital ligula long and clearly visible, apex of genital ligula triangular, not bent upward and lacking spines ( Fig. 36 View FIGURES 28 – 47 ).............................................................................. E. humeralis

19 ’. Gap between epiproct branches at their apices narrower than epiproct base, branches comparatively thin ( Fig. 16 View FIGURES 16 – 18 b). Peduncle posterior processes of genital ligula short, barely visible. Apex of genital ligula folded upwards, with a lateral spine on each side, posterior process widely rounded in lateral view, ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 28 – 47 )......................................... E. westfalli

20. Inner basal margin of cercus with a well-developed triangular tooth clearly visible in lateral view, cercus in lateral view approximately L-shaped. Branches of epiproct comparatively longer, reaching ventral level of cercus inner basal tooth ( Figs. 2 View FIGURES 1 – 3 a, b) (rarely separated at their bases, also keyed under couplet 11 due to intraspecific variation)...... E. machadoi (in part)

20 ’. Inner basal margin of cercus with a small rounded tooth, barely visible in lateral view; cercus in lateral view approximately C shaped. Branches of epiproct comparatively shorter, not reaching ventral level of cercus inner basal tooth ( Fig. 3 View FIGURES 1 – 3 a, b) E. ottoi

21. Cercus dorsal branch parallel to main body axis, epiproct branches in posterior view long and slender, widely separated at their bases, divergent, with apex closely appressed against medial surface of cercus ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 16 – 18 a)................... E. fuscaenea

21 ’ Cercus dorsal branch directed postero-dorsally, epiproct branches in posterior view relatively short and not widely separated at their bases, if divergent, then branches short and with apex bluntly pointed ( Figs. 8 View FIGURES 7 – 9 b, 19 b).......................... 23

22. Epiproct branches in posterior view adjacent or close together at their bases ( Figs. 17 View FIGURES 16 – 18 b, 27 b)....................... 24

22 ’. Epiproct branches in posterior view widely separated at their bases ( Figs. 22–26 View FIGURES 22 – 24 View FIGURES 25 – 27 )................................. 25

23. Branches of epiproct in posterior view divergent, apex of branches rounded, cleft between them inverted V shaped ( Fig. 19 View FIGURES 19 – 21 b)............................................................................................. E. pallida

23 ’. Branches of epiproct in posterior view parallel or convergent, apex of branches acute, cleft between them inverted U shaped ( Fig. 8 View FIGURES 7 – 9 b)..................................................................................... E. ocuene

24. Cercus longer than S 10, dorsal branch parallel to main body axis ( Fig. 27 View FIGURES 25 – 27 a)........................... E. manauensis

24 ’. Cercus shorter than S 10, dorsal branch directed postero-dorsally ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 16 – 18 a)............................... E. solitaria

25. Apical margin of genital ligula segment 3 in ectal view very wide and with two triangular lobes directed postero-laterally ( Fig. 47 View FIGURES 28 – 47 )......................................................................................... E. haroldoi

25 ’. Apical margin of genital ligula segment 3 in ectal view comparatively much narrower, without lobes directed postero-laterally ( Figs. 45, 46 View FIGURES 28 – 47 , 52 View FIGURES 48 – 52 ).................................................................................... 26

26. Cercus ventral branch in lateral view separated by a narrow excavation from dorsal branch and almost parallel to it. Apex of paraproct not reaching level of ventral branch apex ( Fig. 23 View FIGURES 22 – 24 b)........................................... E. angeloi

26 ’. Cercus ventral branch in lateral view separated by a wide excavation from dorsal branch. Apex of paraproct surpassing level of ventral branch apex ( Figs. 24 View FIGURES 22 – 24 b, 26 b)..................................................................... 27

27. Cercus ventral branch forming a ca 45 ° angle with dorsal branch in lateral view ( Fig. 24 View FIGURES 22 – 24 b), concave medially; epiproct branches separated at their bases by a distance longer than length of each branch ( Fig. 24 View FIGURES 22 – 24 a)................ E. williamsoni

27 ’. Cercus ventral branch directed posteriorly in lateral view ( Fig. 26 View FIGURES 25 – 27 a), flattened dorso-ventrally, epiproct branches separated at their bases by a distance shorter than length of each branch ( Fig. 26 View FIGURES 25 – 27 b).................................. E. spatulata

CIB

Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C. (Mexico)

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Odonata

Family

Protoneuridae