Phaenomenella nicoi, Kantor & Kosyan & Sorokin, 2020

Kantor, Yuri, Kosyan, Alisa & Sorokin, Pavel, 2020, On the taxonomic position of Phaenomenella Fraussen & Hadorn, 2006 (Neogastropoda, Buccinoidea) with description of two new species, Zoosystema 42 (3), pp. 33-55 : 43-48

publication ID 10.5252/zoosystema2020v42a3

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Phaenomenella nicoi

sp. nov.

Phaenomenella nicoi View in CoL n. sp.

( Figs 5 View FIG C-F; 7; 8)

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Holotype. South China Sea • MNHN- IM-2013-61585 (sequenced, Fig. 7 View FIG A-C); S.W. off Dong Sha, ZHONGSHA 2015; st. CP4132; 20°07’N, 116°22’E; 958- 988 m. GoogleMaps

OTHER SEQUENCED MATERIAL. — South China Sea 3 GoogleMaps lv; MNHN- IM-2013-61637 ( Figs 7H View FIG ; 8 View FIG E-G), MNHN-IM- 2013-61638 , MNHN-IM- 2013-61639 ( Fig. 7E View FIG ); S.W. off Dong Sha, ZHONG- SHA 2015, st. CP4133; 19°59’N, 116°24’E; 999-1070 m 1 GoogleMaps lv.; MNHN-IM- 2013-61673 ( Fig. 7I View FIG ); st. CP4134; 19°50’N, 116°27’E; 1128-1278 m 1 GoogleMaps lv; MNHN-IM- 2013-59398 ( Fig. 7D View FIG ); st. CP4157; 19°48’N, 116°29’E; 1205-1389 m.

Philippines 6 1 l•; MNHN-IM-2007-34639; AURORA 2007; st. CP2685; 15°00’N, 123°06’E; 1155-1302 m ( Fig. 7 F View FIG ) GoogleMaps .

OTHER STUDIED MATERIAL. — South China Sea 2 GoogleMaps lv; MNHN- IM-2013-61590 , MNHN-IM-2013-61592 ( Fig. 7K, L View FIG ); S.W. off Dong Sha, ZHONGSHA 2015; st. CP4132; 20°07’N, 116°22’E; 958- 988 m 5 GoogleMaps lv; MNHN-IM- 2013-59661 , MNHN-IM- 2013-61636 ( Figs 7J View FIG , 8 View FIG A-D), MNHN-IM- 2013-63029 , MNHN-IM- 2013-63025 , MNHN-IM- 2013-61638 ; st. CP4133; 19°59’N, 116°24’E; 999- 1070 m 2 GoogleMaps lv, MNHN-IM- 2013-61671 , MNHN-IM- 2013-61672 ; st. CP4134; 19°50’N, 116°27’E; 1128-1278 m 1 GoogleMaps lv; MNHN- IM-2013-59397 ; st. CP4157; 19°48’N, 116°29’E; 1205-1389 m, S off Helen Shoal   GoogleMaps 2 GoogleMaps lv; MNHN-IM- 2013-61815 , MNHN- IM-2013-59663 ; st. CP4141; 18°49’N, 113°58’E; 1151-1286 m. Philippines • • l•; MNHN-IM-2007-34644 ( Fig. 7 View FIG ); AURORA 2007; st. CP2685; 15°00’N, 123°06’E; 1155-1302 m, SL 38.7 mm GoogleMaps .

ETYMOLOGY. — Named in honour of Nicolas Puillandre, associate professor of MNHN, our long term co-author and participant of many expeditions with whom we had a pleasure to share the lab bench for long hours.

DIAGNOSIS. — Shell medium sized for genus, up to 42 mm, fusiform with high spire and attenuated, medium long, and slightly inclined to left siphonal canal. Protoconch large, paucispiral, of about 2 whorls. Spiral sculpture of distinct flat on top spiral cords, about 55 on last whorl. Radula with tricuspate central teeth with rectangular basal part and tricuspate lateral teeth with longest outermost cusp.

DISTRIBUTION. — The species is found so far in the South China Sea at 999-1389 m and Philippines (in Philippine Sea) at 1155-1302 m.



Shell fusiform with high spire and attenuated siphonal canal ( Fig. 7 View FIG A-C), fragile, white under periostracum. Siphonal canal medium long, slightly inclined to left and crossing coiling axis. Protoconch paucispiral, of about 2 whorls, partially eroded as well as upper teleoconch whorls, teleoconch whorls 6 ½ in number. [Better preserved protoconch found in specimen MNHN-IM-2013-61592 ( Fig. 7L View FIG ): bulbous, of nearly 2 whorls, diameter 2.05 mm, exposed height 2.1 mm. Protoconch surface eroded, sculpture not seen. Boundary with teleoconch marked by weak (about 5) orthocline ribs.] Teleoconch whorls convex, weakly angulated at shoulder. Suture distinct, shallowly impressed. Spiral sculpture of distinct flat on top spiral cords, covering entire shell surface. Number of cords increasing from 8 on first teleoconch whorl to 19 on penultimate whorl, on last whorl 55 cords, of which about 20 on canal. Cords differing slightly in width, with most narrow on subsutural ramp, interspaces between cords about 1/3-½ of cord’s width. Strong axial ribs present on entire shell, suture to suture on uppermost teleoconch whorls, gradually becoming obsolete on subsutural ramp and absent on ramp of last and penultimate whorls. On last whorl ribs distinct only on shoulder, producing its angulated appearance. Number of ribs stable, i.e., 15-16 per whorl.

Aperture ovate, white inside, angulated posteriorly, outer lip thin, evenly convex, concave at transition to canal. Parietal wall and columella with narrow and thin glossy callus.

Shell covered with very light olive adhering periostracum, forming densely spaced low axial lamellae visible in interspaces between cords.

Operculum partially abraded, when intact ( Fig. 7 D View FIG ) spanning most of aperture with distinctly turned leftwards terminal nucleus and rounded upper part.

Radula ( Fig. 5 View FIG C-F)

Examined in five specimens, including holotype. Rather similar in all specimens; central tooth with rectangular basal part with weakly arcuate anterior margin and three medium long triangular broad cusps, central one shorter and narrower than lateral ones. Lateral teeth normally tricuspate with weakly curved basal side, attached to membrane. Outermost cusp recurved, medium long, inner cusp weakly recurved, about 2/3 of outer cusp length. Intermediate cusp shortest, situated slightly closer to inner cusp. In one sequenced specimen (MNHN-IM-2013-61673, Fig. 5F View FIG ) intermediate cusps of the left lateral teeth of the radula paired, nearly equal in size, while lateral teeth on right side have broader intermediate cusp subdivided on top.

Measurements (holotype)

Shell length 41.3 mm, last whorl length 26.9 mm, aperture length (without canal) 16.0 mm, diameter 16.5 mm. In the largest specimen studied, shell length reaching 43 mm.


Two specimens examined: MNHN-IM-2013-61636, male, and MNHN-IM-2013-61637, female, sequenced paratype (similar in both studied specimens). Soft body partly extracted from the shell. Head medium large, with two long tentacles and large black eyes on lobes at bases of tentacles. Mantle similar to that of Phaenomenella samadiae n. sp. Penis flattened, with seminal papilla situated on its top and surrounded by circle fold of skin ( Fig. 8B View FIG ).

Digestive system. Proboscis almost completely inverted into rhynchodaeum ( Fig. 8D View FIG , pr). Several bands of proboscis retractors muscles attached to middle part on both sides of rhynchodaeum ( Fig. 8 View FIG D-F, prr). Buccal mass slightly shorter than retracted proboscis ( Fig. 8C View FIG , bm), attached to its walls by multiple odontophoral retractors ( Fig. 8C View FIG , odr). Radula lying in middle of buccal mass and attached to proboscis walls by median retractor ( Fig. 8C View FIG , mrr).

Anterior oesophagus straight, following along ventral side of proboscis ( Fig. 8E View FIG , aoe). Valve of Leiblein ( Fig. 8D, E View FIG , vl) medium large, coniform, situated immediately before nerve ring ( Fig. 8D View FIG , nr). Salivary glands medium-large (about 0.3 proboscis length), fused ventrally beneath nerve ring ( Fig. 8E, F View FIG , sg), with very thin strongly convoluted salivary ducts following along anterior oesophagus. Gland of Leiblein medium in size ( Fig. 8D, E View FIG , gl), following along posterior oesophagus and anterior aorta. Stomach rather large, spanning about 0.4 whorl ( Fig. 8G View FIG ). Posterior mixing area (pma) twice larger than in Phaenomenella samadiae , posterior oesophagus and intestine medium wide.


The new species is highly variable in shell shape. Some of the specimens are much more slender ( Fig. 7D, I, G View FIG ) and the axial ribs are either very weak or obsolete. The specimen with no axial ribs was collected at a maximal depth (1634-1683 m), but there is not clear correlation with depth, since syntopic specimens can have strong or weak axial ribs. Nevertheless the molecular data clearly indicates the conspecifity of “typical” angulated specimens with well-developed ribs and smooth ones. The specimens collected at greater depth have the protoconch and upper teleoconch whorls more eroded or missing. In general shape the new species has some resemblance to P. mokenorum Fraussen, 2008 from the Andaman Sea, differing in better pronounced axial ribs in later teleoconch whorls and more attenuated narrow siphonal canal. Also P. nicoi n. sp. has smaller size (maximal shell length 42 mm versus 55.6 mm in P. mokenorum ).

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

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