Sphenoptera, Dejean, 1833

Ghahari, Hassan, Volkovitsh, Mark G. & Bellamy, Charles L., 2015, An annotated catalogue of the Buprestidae of Iran (Coleoptera: Buprestoidea), Zootaxa 3984 (1), pp. 1-141: 38-64

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3984.1.1

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Sphenoptera
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Genus SPHENOPTERA Dejean, 1833 

synonym: Depsaria Gistel 1856.

Sphenoptera abbaspouri Obenberger  (nomen nudum): Radjabi 1968: 76 (as abbss-pouri); Modarres Awal 1997: 138; Borumand 2002: 24.

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Tehran ( Radjabi 1968; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002). Note. Undescribed species (M. Kalashian, personal communication), specimen(s) deposited in Obenberger’s collection (Prague, Czech Republic).

Sphenoptera abbreviata Jakovlev 1899 a: 104  ; Radjabi 1968: 76; Modarres Awal 1997: 138; Borumand 2002: 19; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 362; Bellamy 2008 b: 638; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 412. [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Ilam ( Borumand 2002), Kermanshah ( Radjabi 1968; Modarres Awal 1997), Lorestan ( Obenberger 1927 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Note. Record for Iran in Volkovitsh & Kalashian (2006) based on the type specimen of S. abbreviata hetera  ( Obenberger 1927 a), currently a synonym of S. obruta Kerremans 1909  (see below). The presence of this species in Iran needs confirmation.

Sphenoptera acuminata Jakovlev 1898 a: 331  ; Radjabi 1968: 76, 1976: 129; Modarres Awal 1997: 138; Borumand 2002: 24; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 92; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 357; Bellamy 2008 b: 639. [subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Fars ( Radjabi 1968, 1976; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Golestan ( Jakovlev 1898 a; Kerremans 1913; Obenberger 1929 d), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera aeneomicans Kraatz  in Heyden & Kraatz 1882: 317; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 91; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 357; Sakenin et al. 2008: 36; Bellamy 2008 b: 640. synonym: unidentata Jakovlev 1891: 137.

synonym: veselyi Obenberger 1915: 53  .

synonym: aladaghensis Obenberger 1920 a: 116.

synonym: aeneofulgens Obenberger 1929 d: 26, 120.

synonym: persica Obenberger 1929 d: 26  , 121; Radjabi 1974: 40. synonym: ushinskii Obenberger 1929 d: 26; 122.

synonym: ahriman Obenberger 1929 d: 48; Bílý 1983 a: 79.

synonym: amasiae Obenberger 1929 d: 49.

synonym: baicalensis Obenberger 1929 d: 53.

synonym: fabichi Obenberger 1952 b: 14.

synonym: fleischeri Obenberger 1952 b: 15.

synonym: moganensis Obenberger 1955 a: 12.

synonym: hoberlandti Obenberger 1955 a: 13  .

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Fars ( Bílý 1983 a, as ahriman), Guilan (Sakenin et al. 2008), Khorasan (type of aladaghensis) ( Obenberger 1920 a, 1929 d), Lorestan (types of persica  , ahriman) ( Obenberger 1929 d), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, China, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera aerata Jakovlev 1887 a: 62  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 362; Bellamy 2008 b: 640, 652 (as areata). [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Jakovlev 1887 a; Kerremans 1913; Obenberger 1927 a; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Note. Records for Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan in Bellamy (2008 b) are dubious.

Sphenoptera althaeae Obenberger 1929 d: 17  , 112; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 94; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 358; Bellamy 2008 b: 643.

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Khuzestan ( Obenberger 1929 d), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera ambigua ( Klug) 1829  : No. 28 ( Buprestis  ); Bílý 1983 a: 79; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 358; Bellamy 2008 b: 644.

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Mazandaran ( Bílý 1983 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Iraq, Syria ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera amoena Jakovlev 1901 a: 183  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 355; Bellamy 2008 b: 644. [subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Distribution within Iran. Sistan & Baluchestan ( Jakovlev 1901 a; Kerremans 1913), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan ( Bellamy 2008 b), Turkmenistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006). Note. Records for Armenia and Azerbaijan in Bellamy (2008 b) are erroneous.

Sphenoptera anthaxoides Reitter 1895 a: 42  ; Radjabi 1968: 79, 1976: 129; Bílý 1983 a: 80; Modarres Awal 1997: 138; Borumand 2002: 28; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 368; Bellamy 2008 b: 646 (subgenus Hoplistura  ). [subgenus Tropeopeltis  ].

Immatures: Richter 1940: 241; Alexeev 1981 a: 76; Zykov 1995: 51.

Biology/Bionomy: Richter 1940: 244.

Distribution within Iran. East Azarbaijan ( Radjabi 1968; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Fars ( Radjabi 1968, 1976; Bílý 1983 a; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Kuhgiloyeh & Boyerahmad ( Bílý 1983 a; Borumand 2002), Kerman, Tehran ( Bílý 1983 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006), Iraq ( Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera anthracina Jakovlev 1887 a: 78  ; Radjabi 1976: 129; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 362; Bellamy 2008 b: 646, Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 412; Ghobari et al. 2012: 237.

synonym: atramentaria Jakovlev 1900: 500; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of anthracina  ), 362. synonym: furva Jakovlev 1908 a: 215; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of anthracina  ), 362; Barimani et al. 2012: 192.

synonym: tenebricosa Jakovlev 1908 a: 215  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of anthracina  ), 362. [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Host plant(s) within Iran. Astragalus anseanthus  , A. gossypinus  ( Fabaceae  ) ( Barimani et al. 2012). Distribution within Iran. "Perse: Chakhou" (type of anthracina  ) ( Jakovlev 1887 a). Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari, Fars ( Radjabi 1976), Kordestan ( Ghobari et al. 2012), Mazandaran ( Barimani et al. 2012), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera antiqua ( Illiger) 1803  : 247 ( Buprestis  ); Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 97; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 362; Bellamy 2008 b: 647.

synonym: inaequalis ( Steven) 1829: 287 ( Buprestis  ).

synonym: dianthi ( Steven) 1829: 286 ( Buprestis  ).

synonym: litigiosa Mannerheim 1837: 94.

synonym: iridiventris Gory & Laporte 1839: 7.

synonym: variolosa Kerremans 1898 b: 299.

synonym: serena Jakovlev 1900: 407.

synonym: quercii Leoni 1911: 5.

synonym: georgica Obenberger 1916: 248; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of antiqua  ), 362. synonym: lineigera Obenberger 1920 a: 115; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of antiqua  ), 362. synonym: melitta Obenberger 1927 a: 88.

synonym: oreophila Obenberger 1927 a: 90; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of antiqua  ), 362. synonym: danaica Obenberger 1927 a: 92.

synonym: helladicola Obenberger 1927 a: 92 (subspecies of georgica). synonym: korbi Obenberger 1927 a: 93; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of antiqua  ), 362. synonym: ausonica Obenberger 1927 a: 95 (subspecies of antiqua  ). synonym: earo Obenberger 1929 d: 27, 123.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Immatures: Bílý 1999: 15.

Biology/Bionomy: Bílý 2003: 72.

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Macedonia, Moldavia, Morocco, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Turkey, Ukraine, former Yugoslavia ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

* Sphenoptera antiqua pernitens Obenberger 1927 a: 94  (subspecies of antiqua  ); Radjabi 1968: 76; Modarres Awal 1997: 138; Borumand 2002: 19; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 362; Bellamy 2008 b: 649. Distribution within Iran. Tehran ( Radjabi 1968; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Iran (no locality cited) ( Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006).

Note. The records for Iran may refer to the next subspecies.

Sphenoptera antiqua ramosula Obenberger 1927 a: 95  (subspecies of antiqua  ); Bílý 1983 a: 77; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 362; Bellamy 2008 b: 649.

Distribution within Iran. East Azarbaijan ( Bílý 1983 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006).

Sphenoptera arcana Jakovlev 1908 a: 211  ; Obenberger 1927 a: 46, 53; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 97; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 362; Bellamy 2008 b: 650.

synonym: assuricola Obenberger 1920 a: 121.

synonym: baghdadensis Obenberger 1929 b: 13.

synonym: heliochaera Obenberger 1929 d: 17, 111 (variety of assuricola). synonym: morgani Obenberger 1929 d: 18  , 114 (part.).

synonym: stella Obenberger 1952 b: 5.

synonym: teheranica Obenberger 1952 b: 6.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. "Perse septentrionale" ( Jakovlev 1908 a; Obenberger 1927 a). Fars ( Obenberger 1952 b, type of stella), Lorestan (paralectotype of morgani  ), Tehran ( Jakovlev 1908 a, lectotype of arcana  ; Obenberger 1952 b, type of teheranica), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Iraq, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera arguta Jakovlev 1900 c: 440  (subgenus Hoplandrocneme  ); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 360; Bellamy 2008 b: 652.

[subgenus Hoplistura  ].

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Jakovlev 1900; Kerremans 1913; Obenberger 1927 f; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera armena ( Steven) 1829  : 286 ( Buprestis  ); Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 93; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 358; Bellamy 2008 b: 652 ( Sphenoptera  s.str.).

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. West Azarbaijan ( Steven 1829), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera artemisiae Reitter 1889: 281  ; Radjabi 1968: 75; Bílý 1983 a: 81; Modarres Awal 1997: 138; Borumand 2002: 25; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 355; Bellamy 2008 b: 653. synonym: caucasica Jakovlev 1891: 138  .

synonym: molitor Reitter 1890 e: 170 (variety of artemisiae  ); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of artemisiae  ).

[subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Distribution within Iran. Fars ( Radjabi 1968; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Khorasan ( Jakovlev 1903 a, var. molitor  ; Kerremans 1913), Qazvin ( Bílý 1983 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Israel, Turkey, Turkmenistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera balassogloi Jakovlev 1885: 131  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003: 339, 2006: 360; Bellamy 2008 b: 655. synonym: protracta Jakovlev 1885: 133.

synonym: flagrans Semenov-Tian-Shankij 1896 b: 348.

synonym: morawitzi  Semenov-Tian-Shankij 1897: 248; Bílý 1983 a: 81. synonym: venusta Jakovlev 1904 b: 309 (subgenus Hoplandrocneme  ). [subgenus Hoplistura  ].

Distribution within Iran. Bushehr ( Bílý 1983 a, as morawitzi  ), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003, 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003).

* Sphenoptera bellatrix  Obenberger 1927 f: 185; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 360; Bellamy 2008 b: 660. [subgenus Hoplistura  ].

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Iraq ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006).

Note. The record for Iran in Bellamy (2008) is doubtful, this species is described and known only from Iraq ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006).

Sphenoptera bicarinata Jakovlev 1887 a: 77  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 363; Bellamy 2008 b: 662, Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 413.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Jakovlev 1887 a; Obenberger 1927 a; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Armenia (Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009).

* Sphenoptera bodemeyeri  Jakovlev 1900: 501; Radjabi 1968: 76; Modarres Awal 1997: 139; Borumand 2002: 20; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 363; Bellamy 2008 b: 663; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 406. synonym: quadrata Kerremans 1909: 279; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 366; Bellamy 2008 b: 770; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 406 (synonym of bodemeyeri  ).

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Isfahan ( Radjabi 1968; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Iran (no locality cited) ( Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009). Note. The record for Iran needs confirmation.

Sphenoptera boisduvali Obenberger 1927 a: 77  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 363; Sakenin et al. 2008: 35; Bellamy 2008 b: 664.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Host plant(s) within Iran. Fraxinus excelsior  ( Oleaceae  ) (Sakenin et al. 2008). Distribution within Iran. Mazandaran (Sakenin et al. 2008), Sistan & Baluchestan ( Obenberger 1927 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Note. Record for Fraxinus  as a host plant (Sakenin et al. 2008) is doubtful.

Sphenoptera cauta Jakovlev 1904 a: 183  ; Bílý 1983 a: 79 (as palea Obenberger); Kalashian et al. 2005 a: 80; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 353; Bellamy 2008 b: 669; Barimani et al. 2009: 65, 2010: 131; Ghobari et al. 2012: 238.

synonym: maja Jakovlev 1908 b: 516

synonym: wagneri Obenberger 1926 b: 197, 200.

synonym: dryadis Obenberger 1926 b: 208.

synonym: rambouseki Théry, 1928: 132.

synonym: petriceki Obenberger 1952 c: 57.

synonym: danubiana Obenberger 1952 c: 58 (nomen novum for parvula Auctorum  ). synonym: damascena Obenberger 1952 c: 58.

synonym: iberica Obenberger 1952 c: 88.

synonym: oeneis Obenberger 1952 c: 88.

[subgenus Chilostetha  ].

Immatures: Alexeev 1981 a: 76 (as palea).

Biology/Bionomy: Bílý 2003: 73 (as petriceki).

Distribution within Iran. Kordestan ( Ghobari et al. 2012), Mazandaran ( Bílý 1983 a, as palea; Barimani et al. 2009, 2010), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006). Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Jordan, Macedonia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Syria, Turkey (subsp. cauta  ), Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine (subsp. palea) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

* Sphenoptera chalybea Ménétriés 1848: 30  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 363; Bellamy 2008 b: 671. synonym: askhabadensis Obenberger 1927 a: 62; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of chalybea  ), 363. synonym: schelli Obenberger 1927 a: 62.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Biology/Bionomy: Kaplin 1981 (as halybae) (with bibliography).

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, * Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Note. Records for Iran and Azerbaijan in Bellamy (2008 b) need confirmation.

Sphenoptera chusistanica Obenberger 1926 b: 201  ; Bílý 1983 a: 79; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 353; Bellamy 2008 b: 673.

[subgenus Chilostetha  ].

Distribution within Iran. Fars ( Bílý 1983 a), Khuzestan ( Obenberger 1926 b), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera clarescens Kerremans 1909: 283  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 363; Bellamy 2008 b: 673 ( Chilostetha  ).

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Host plant(s) within Iran. Chondrilla juncea  L., Lactuca orientalis (Boiss.)  , Cichorium intybus  L. (Astreraceae); under laboratory condition: Lactuca sativa  L., Cichorium endivia  L., Taraxacum officinale Weber  , Sonchus aster  (L.), Scorzonera hispanica  L., Calendula officinalis  L., Chrysanthemum  sp. ( Asteraceae  ) ( Hasan 1978). Biology/Bionomy: Hasan 1978: 19.

Immatures: Hasan 1978: 19.

Distribution within Iran. Lorestan ( Kerremans 1913; Obenberger 1927 a; Hasan 1978), Tehran ( Hasan 1978), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Note. Species studied by Hasan (1978) as a potential candidate for biological control of skeleton weed ( Chondrilla juncea  L.) in Tehran have possibly been misidentified. A few specimens collected by Hasan near Tehran and deposited in Obenberger’s collection ( NMPCAbout NMPC) were re-identified as S. (Deudora) aeneomicans Kr.  (M. Kalashian, personal communication).

Sphenoptera coerulea Jakovlev 1898 b: 559  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 357; Bellamy 2008 b: 674. [subgenus Cyphostetha  ].

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Jakovlev 1898 b; Kerremans 1913; Obenberger 1927 a; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Turkmenistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera coracina ( Steven) 1829  : 286 ( Buprestis  ); Salavatian 1950: 9; Radjabi 1968: 76, 77; Modarres Awal 1997: 139; Borumand 2002: 20; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 363; Bellamy 2008 b: 676; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 410.

synonym: babel Marseul 1865: 340; Radjabi 1968: 76 (variety of coracina  ); Modarres Awal 1997: 139 (variety of coracina  ).

synonym: clauda Marseul 1865: 341; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of coracina  ), 363. synonym: quadrifoveolata Marseul 1865: 356.

synonym: parnassica Jakovlev 1887 a: 74.

synonym: crassiceps Jakovlev 1887 a: 75; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of coracina  ), 363. synonym: thoracica Jakovlev 1887 a: 80; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of coracina  ), 364. synonym: dichroa Jakovlev 1887 b: 112; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of coracina  ), 363. synonym: aethiops Jakovlev 1891: 129; Théry 1925: 80; Radjabi 1968: 76; Bílý 1983 a: 75 (as ethiops [sic!]); Modarres Awal 1997: 138; Borumand 2002: 19; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of coracina  ), 363; Sakenin et al. 2008: 36.

synonym: rugata Kerremans 1903: 112.

synonym: hartmanni Obenberger 1927 a: 11; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of coracina  ), 363. synonym: mrazi Obenberger 1927 a: 30.

synonym: poetica Obenberger 1927 a: 35.

synonym: korenskyi Obenberger 1927 a: 37, 41; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of coracina  ), 363. synonym: tatarica Obenberger 1927 a: 38.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Host plant(s) within Iran. (Adult) Rosa canina  ( Rosaceae  ) (Sakenin et al. 2008). Distribution within Iran. Fars, Tehran ( Radjabi 1968, Bílý 1983 a, as ethiops; Borumand 2002, as aethiops), Golestan (Sakenin et al. 2008, as aethiops), Hamadan, Zanjan ( Théry 1925, as aethiops), Isfahan ( Salavatian 1950; Radjabi 1968; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002, as aethiops), Kerman, Khuzestan, Mazandaran ( Bílý 1983 a, as ethiops), Sistan & Baluchestan ( Radjabi 1968; Borumand 2002), Iran (no locality cited) ( Obenberger 1927 a, as aethiops; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Iraq, Israel, Macedonia, Lebanon, Russia, Syria, Turkey, Ukraine ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Note. The record of Rosa  as a host plant is erroneous, this species outside Iran associated with Astragalus  ( Fabaceae  ).

Sphenoptera cunea Marseul 1865: 346  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 364; Bellamy 2008 b: 679. [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Marseul 1865; Kerremans 1913; Obenberger 1927 a; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Iraq, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

* Sphenoptera cuprifrons  Faldermann, 1835: 153; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 364; Bellamy 2008 b: 680. [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Isfahan, Khorasan, Lorestan ( Marseul 1865; Kerremans 1912; Obenberger 1927 a). Distribution outside Iran. "Transcaucasia" ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Note. Dubious species; the type depositary is unknown.

* Sphenoptera curta  Jakovlev 1885: 131; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 96; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 358; Bellamy 2008 b: 681.

synonym: caspica Jakovlev 1904 a: 184  .

synonym: plavilscikovi Obenberger 1952 b: 18; Bílý 1983 a: 78. [subgenus Deudora  ].

Biology/Bionomy: Kaplin 1981 (as caspica  ).

Distribution within Iran. Lorestan ( Bílý 1983 a, as plavilscikovi), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Note. Probably misidentification; this species is distributed in the Middle Asian sandy deserts.

Sphenoptera cyanea Jakovlev 1898 b: 558  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 364; Bellamy 2008 b: 682. [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Afganistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera cyaneoniger Kerremans 1909: 275  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 364; Bellamy 2008 b: 682. [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Lorestan (as cyaneonigra [sic!]) ( Obenberger 1927 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera cylindricollis Marseul 1866: 401  ; Bílý 1983 a: 82; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 355; Bellamy 2008 b: 683.

synonym: henonii Fairmaire in Fairmaire & Coquerel 1866: 26. synonym: alfredi Reitter 1900: 85.

[subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Distribution within Iran. Bushehr ( Bílý 1983 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Algeria, Egypt (Sinai), Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

* Sphenoptera dadkhani  Obenberger, 1955 b: 90; Modarres Awal 1997: 139; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 368; Bellamy 2008 b: 684.

[subgenus Tropeopeltis  ].

Host plant(s) within Iran. Apricot ( Prunus armeniaca  ; Rosaceae  ) ( Modarres Awal 1997). Distribution within Iran. Khorasan ( Modarres Awal 1997).

Distribution outside Iran. India, Pakistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Note. Most probably a misidentification of S. servistana Obenberger 1929  ; species is known only from Pakistan.

Sphenoptera davatchii Descarpentries 1960: 175  ; Radjabi 1968: 79, 1972: 38, 1976: 129; Modarres Awal 1997: 139; Borumand 2002: 28; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 368; Bellamy 2008 b: 684 (subgenus Hoplistura  ); Ghobari et al. 2012: 238.

[subgenus Tropeopeltis  ].

Immatures: Radjabi 1971: 208.

Biology/Bionomy: Radjabi 1971: 203-227, 1972: 38.

Host plant(s) within Iran. Prunus  sp. ( Rosaceae  ) ( Descarpentries 1960); Almond ( Amygdalus  sp.), apricot, garden plum, peach, plum, sour cherry ( Prunus  spp., Rosaceae  ) and many other cold region fruit trees ( Modarres Awal 1997).

Distribution within Iran. East Azarbaijan, Fars, Tehran ( Radjabi 1968; Borumand 2002), Kordestan ( Ghobari et al. 2012), Yazd ( Radjabi 1976), generally distributed ( Radjabi 1968, 1976; Behdad 1988; Zomorrodi 1990; Modarres Awal 1997), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Note. Two parasitoid wasps, Heydenia pretiosa Förster, 1856  ( Hymenoptera  : Pteromalidae  ) (4 ♀, 1 ♂) and Eupelmus muellneri Ruschka, 1921  ( Hymenoptera  : Eupelmidae  ) (2 ♀) were collected as the parasitoids of Sphenoptera davatchii  in Piranshahr (West Azarbaijan province).

Sphenoptera demissa Marseul 1865: 365  ; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 98; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 364; Bellamy 2008 b: 685; Ghobari et al. 2012: 237.

synonym: ganglbaueri Jakovlev 1886: 85; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of demissa  ), 364. synonym: komarovi Jakovlev 1886: 86; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of demissa  ), 364. synonym: obscura Jakovlev 1891: 130  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of demissa  ), 364. synonym: profusa Kerremans 1909: 277; Bílý 1983 a: 76; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of demissa  ), 364.

synonym: agrippina Kerremans 1911: 633; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of demissa  ), 364. synonym: ajax Kerremans 1913: 137; Radjabi 1968, 1976: 129; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of demissa  ), 364.

synonym: breiti Obenberger 1920 a: 117.

synonym: shahrudensis Obenberger 1927 a: 55 (variety of ajax); Salavatian 1950: 10; Radjabi 1968: 76, 1976: 129; Bílý 1983 a: 76; Modarres Awal 1997: 138; Borumand 2002: 19; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of demissa  ), 364.

synonym: kaszabi Obenberger 1963: 321; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of demissa  ), 364. [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Fars (as ajax shahrudensis) ( Salavatian 1950; Radjabi 1968, 1976; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Kordestan ( Ghobari et al. 2012), Lorestan ( Kerremans 1913, types of agrippina, profusa; Obenberger 1927 a, as agrippina, profusa), Mazandaran ( Bílý 1983 a, as profusa), Semnan (type of shahrudensis) ( Obenberger 1927 a), Tehran ( Bílý 1983 a, as ajax shahrudensis), "Perse" (type of ganglbaueri) ( Jakovlev 1886), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, "Caucasus", Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera eddin Jakovlev 1903 a: 266  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2001: 197, 2006: 355; Bellamy 2008 b: 692. [subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Distribution within Iran. Sistan & Baluchestan ( Jakovlev 1903 a; Kerremans 1913), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Pakistan (subspecies pakistana Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2001 ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera edmundi Jakovlev 1900 b: 425  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 364; Bellamy 2008 b: 692; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2008: 207.

synonym: oporina Jakovlev 1903 b: 386; Radjabi 1968: 77, 1976: 129; Modarres Awal 1997: 140; Borumand 2002: 23; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 366; Bellamy 2008 b: 753; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2008: 207 (synonym of edmundi  ).

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Fars ( Radjabi 1968, 1976; Borumand 2002, as oporina, var.?), Tehran ( Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002, as oporina), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2008).

Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey (Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2008).

Sphenoptera esfandiarii Obenberger  (nomen nudum): Radjabi 1968: 76; Modarres Awal 1997: 139; Borumand 2002: 25.

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Sistan & Baluchestan ( Radjabi 1968; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002). Note. Undescribed species (M. Kalashian, personal communication), specimen(s) deposited in Obenberger’s collection (Prague, Czech Republic).

Sphenoptera eugenii Jakovlev 1898 b: 554  ; Bílý 1983 a: 78 (as eugeni); Borumand 2002: 20 (as eugeni); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 364; Bellamy 2008 b: 695; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2008: 207; Ghobari et al. 2012: 238.

synonym: cyaniventris Obenberger 1927 a: 23; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 364; Bellamy 2008 b: 682; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2008: 207 (synonym of eugenii  ).

synonym: leonhardi Obenberger 1927 a: 25; Salavatian 1950: 9; Radjabi 1968: 77, 1976: 129; Modarres Awal 1997: 139; Borumand 2002: 22; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 365; Bellamy 2008 b: 730; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2008: 207 (synonym of eugenii  ).

synonym: maga Obenberger, 1927 a: 26; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 365; Bellamy 2008 b: 735; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2008: 207 (synonym of eugenii  ).

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. " Persia: Poucht-é Kouh" ( Obenberger 1927 a, type of leonhardi). Alborz ( Bílý 1983 a; Borumand 2002), Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari ( Obenberger 1927 a, type of leonhardi), Fars ( Obenberger 1927 a, type of maga; Salavatian 1950; Radjabi 1968, 1976; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002, as leonhardi), Semnan ( Borumand 2002), Tehran ( Radjabi 1968; Bílý 1983 a; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002, as leonhardi), Khuzestan ( Obenberger 1927 a, type of cyaniventris), Kordestan ( Ghobari et al. 2012), Lorestan ( Obenberger 1927 a, type of leonhardi), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera euplecta Obenberger 1927 a: 89  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 364; Bellamy 2008 b: 695. [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. " Persia: Aghir Dagh" ( Obenberger 1927 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera exarata  (Fischer von Waldheim) 1824: 169 ( Buprestis  ); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 364; Bellamy 2008 b: 695.

synonym: dejeanii ( Zubkov) 1829: 156 ( Buprestis  ); Farahbakhsh 1960: 76; Radjabi 1968: 77; Modarres Awal 1997: 139; Borumand 2002: 20.

synonym: spectabilis Kraatz in Heyden & Kraatz 1883 a: 345.

synonym: prosternalis Jakovlev 1885: 130.

synonym: interrupta Kerremans 1909: 276.

synonym: araxana Obenberger 1915: 52; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of exarata  ), 364. synonym: nomadica Obenberger 1916: 247; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of exarata  ), 364. synonym: sumakovi Obenberger 1927 a: 29; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of exarata  ), 364. [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Host plant(s) within Iran. Glycyrrhiza glabra  ( Fabaceae  ) (as dejeani) ( Farahbakhsh 1960; Modarres Awal 1997). Distribution within Iran. Mazandaran ( Radjabi 1968; Modarres Awal 1997), Tehran ( Borumand 2002), Iran (no locality cited) ( Obenberger 1927 a; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

* Sphenoptera excavata  Faldermann 1835: 154; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 364; Bellamy 2008 b: 696. [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Note. Dubious species, type depositary is unknown, probably a synonym of S. antiqua  .

Sphenoptera exoleta Jakovlev 1908 a: 217  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 364; Bellamy 2008 b: 696; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 406.

synonym: politipennis Obenberger 1927 a: 12, 23; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 366; Bellamy 2008 b: 764; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 406 (synonym of exoleta  ).

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. "Perse septentrionale: monts Kuldzhar" ( Jakovlev 1908 a; Obenberger 1927 a). Golestan ( Obenberger 1927 a, type of politipennis), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera finitima Jakovlev 1908 a: 225  , 227; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 95; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 358; Bellamy 2008 b: 698.

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Sistan & Baluchestan ( Jakovlev 1908 a; Obenberger 1929 d; Bellamy 2008 b), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera formosula Obenberger 1927 d: 27  ; Bílý 1983 a: 82; Borumand 2002: 25; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 355; Bellamy 2008 b: 699.

[subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Distribution within Iran. Semnan ( Obenberger 1927 d), Qom ( Bílý 1983 a; Borumand 2002), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera fossa Kerremans 1909: 271  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 365; Bellamy 2008 b: 699. [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Lorestan ( Kerremans 1912; Obenberger 1927 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera freyi Théry 1942: 274  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 365; Bellamy 2008 b: 700. [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Fars ( Théry 1942), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera fulgens Gory 1841: 309  ; Bílý 1983 a: 81; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 368; Bellamy 2008 b: 700 ( Hoplistura  ).

synonym: chalcichroa Obenberger 1914 d: 132.

synonym: arenosa Obenberger 1924 a: 125 (subspecies of chalcichroa). [subgenus Tropeopeltis  ].

Immatures: Mateu 1974: 198.

Biology/Bionomy: Mateu 1974: 201.

Distribution within Iran. Hormozgan ( Bílý 1983 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Algeria, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Israel, Libya, Mauritania, Moçambique, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan ( Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera glasunovi Jakovlev 1903 a: 273  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003: 338, 2006: 355; Bellamy 2008 b: 704. [subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Distribution within Iran. Khorasan ( Jakovlev 1903 a; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera hauseri Reitter 1895 a: 34  ; Radjabi 1968: 75 (with var. expectanda Obenberger  ); Abai & Adeli 1984: 119; Modarres Awal 1997: 139 (with var. expectana  [sic!] Obenberger); Borumand 2002: 25; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003: 337, 2006: 355; Bellamy 2008 b: 707.

[subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Biology/Bionomy: Kaplin 1981 (with bibliography).

Host plant(s) within Iran. (Adult) on Tamarix  sp. ( Tamaricaceae  ) ( Abai & Adeli 1984, sapwood; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002).

Distribution within Iran. Sistan & Baluchestan ( Jakovlev 1903 a; Kerremans 1913; Radjabi 1968; Abai & Adeli 1984; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003, 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera hayeki Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2007: 38  ; Bellamy 2008 b: 708. [subgenus Chilostetha  ].

Distribution within Iran. Hormozgan ( Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2007), Iran (no locality cited) ( Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera heroica Jakovlev 1903 a: 270  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 355; Bellamy 2008 b: 708. [subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Distribution within Iran. Khorasan ( Jakovlev 1903 a), "Perse septentrionale" ( Kerremans 1913), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera hetita Obenberger 1927 a: 13  ; Bílý 1983 a: 78; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 365; Bellamy 2008 b: 708.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Host plant(s) within Iran. (Adult) Astragalus melananthus  ( Bílý 1983 a). Distribution within Iran. Kuhgiloyeh & Boyerahmad ( Bílý 1983 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Syria, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera hypocrita Mannerheim 1837: 92  ; Radjabi 1968: 77; Borumand 2002: 21; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 97; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 365; Bellamy 2008 b: 710; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 405; Ghobari et al. 2012: 237.

synonym: sieversi Jakovlev 1887 a: 82.

synonym: torrida Jakovlev 1898 b: 553; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 367; Bellamy 2008 b: 804; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 405 (synonym of hypocrita  ).

synonym: ixion Kerremans 1912: 74; Radjabi 1968: 77, 1976: 129; Modarres Awal 1997: 139; Borumand 2002: 21; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 365; Bellamy 2008: 719; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 405 (synonym of hypocrita  ).

synonym: ordubadensis Obenberger 1916: 250; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of hypocrita  ), 365. synonym: funebralis Obenberger 1927 a: 19; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of hypocrita  ), 365. synonym: erdshmiadzini Obenberger 1927 a: 20; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of hypocrita  ), 365. synonym: turkmenica Obenberger 1927 a: 44; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of hypocrita  ), 365. synonym: glabricollis Obenberger 1929 d: 33, 129.

synonym: levantina Obenberger 1929 d: 33. 130; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of hypocrita  ), 365. synonym: dlabolai Obenberger 1955 a: 11  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of hypocrita  ), 365. [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Fars ( Radjabi 1968, 1976; Modarres Awal 1997, as ixion), Kordestan ( Ghobari et al. 2012), Kuhgiloyeh & Boyerahmad, Tehran ( Radjabi 1968; Borumand 2002, as ixion), Lorestan ( Kerremans 1912, type of ixion; Obenberger 1927 a, 1929 d, types of funebralis, levantina), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008).

Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Jordan, Pakistan Russia, Turkey, Turkmenistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera ignita Reitter 1895 a: 33  ; Radjabi 1968: 76 (with var. monochroa Obenberger  ); Abai & Adeli 1984: 119; Modarres Awal 1997: 139 (with var. monochroa Obenberger  ); Borumand 2002: 26; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003: 334, 2006: 356; Bellamy 2008 b: 712.

synonym: aurora Semenov-Tian-Shanskij 1897: 249.

synonym: prasinula Obenberger 1937 b: 91; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of ignita  ), 356. [subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Host plant(s) within Iran. (Adult) on Tamarix  sp. ( Tamaricaceae  ) ( Abai & Adeli 1984, sapwood; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002).

Distribution within Iran. Khorasan, Sistan & Baluchestan ( Radjabi 1968; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002); Sistan & Baluchestan ( Abai & Adeli 1984).

Distribution outside Iran. Kazakhstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera incerta Jakovlev 1887 a: 57  ; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 92; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 358; Bellamy 2008 b: 714.

synonym: dolens Jakovlev 1893 a: 133.

synonym: confusa Kerremans 1913: 104.

synonym: joukli Obenberger 1929 d: 118.

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Lorestan ( Kerremans 1913; Obenberger 1927 a, types of confusa, var. limbifera  ), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera inculta Obenberger 1929 d: 42  ; Bílý 1983 a: 78; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 92; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 358; Bellamy 2008 b: 714.

misidentification: confusa Kerremans 1913: 104 (part.). [subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Lorestan (lectotype of inculta  ), Mazandaran ( Bílý 1983 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Obenberger 1929 d; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera kaznakowi Jakovlev 1899 b: 295  ; Bílý 1983 a: 80; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 368; Bellamy 2008 b: 721 ( Hoplistura  ).

[subgenus Tropeopeltis  ].

Immatures: Alexeev 1981 a: 76; Zykov 1995: 49.

Distribution within Iran. Hormozgan ( Bílý 1983 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera kermanshahensis Obenberger 1952 a: 4  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 362; Bellamy 2008 b: 721; Kalashian in Bílý et al. 2011: 203.

[subgenus Paradeudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Kermanshah ( Obenberger 1952 a; Kalashian in Bílý et al. 2011), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE (Kalashian in Bílý et al. 2011).

Sphenoptera koenigi Jakovlev 1891: 133  ; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 93; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 358; Bellamy 2008 b: 723.

synonym: integripennis Obenberger 1929 d: 20, 116.

synonym: alma Obenberger 1952 b: 11.

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Golestan (as integripennis) ( Obenberger 1929 d), Iran (no locality cited) ( Kalashian et al. 2005 b; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera lalage Obenberger 1927 f: 179  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 361; Bellamy 2008 b: 726. [subgenus Hoplistura  ].

Distribution within Iran. Khuzestan ( Obenberger 1927 f), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera lapidaria ( Brullé) 1832  : 134 ( Buprestis  ); Radjabi 1968: 77; 1976: 129; Modarres Awal 1997: 139; Borumand 2002: 22; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 365; Bellamy 2008 b: 726; Ghobari et al. 2012: 237. synonym: carcelii Gory & Laporte 1839: 21; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of lapidaria  ), 365. synonym: hellenica Obenberger 1913 b: 87.

synonym: caucasicola Obenberger 1927 a: 56 (variety of lapidaria  ); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of lapidaria  ), 365.

synonym: ogloblini Obenberger 1927 a: 56; Radjabi 1968: 77; Modarres Awal 1997: 139; Borumand 2002: 23; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of lapidaria  ), 365.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Immatures: Özer & Duran 1968: 26 (as carcelii).

Distribution within Iran. " Persia: Aghir Dagh" ( Obenberger 1927 a, type of var. cyanina  ). East Azarbaijan ( Radjabi 1968; Modarres Awal 1997), Fars ( Radjabi 1976; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Khorasan ( Borumand 2002, as ogloblini), Kordestan ( Ghobari et al. 2012), Lorestan (type of ogloblini) ( Obenberger 1927 a), Mazandaran (as ogloblini) ( Radjabi 1968; Modarres Awal 1997), Tehran, Yazd ( Borumand 2002), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, France, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Russia, Syria, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

* Sphenoptera laticeps  Jakovlev 1886: 94; Borumand 2002: 22; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 365; Bellamy 2008 b: 729.

synonym: strigosa Jakovlev 1887 a: 71; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of laticeps  ), 365. synonym: montana Jakovlev 1887 b: 113  .

synonym: massagetica Obenberger 1920 a: 109; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of laticeps  ), 365. synonym: tadjika Obenberger 1927 a: 74; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of laticeps  ), 365. synonym: memnonia Obenberger 1927 a: 79 (subspecies of laticeps  ); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of laticeps  ), 365.

synonym: montivaga Obenberger 1927 a: 80 (subspecies of propinqua); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of laticeps  ), 365.

synonym: karakusensis Obenberger 1927 a: 80 (subspecies of propinqua); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of laticeps  ), 365.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Immatures: Rodd 1928: 1 (as montana  ).

Biology/Bionomy: Rodd 1928: 1 (as montana  ).

Distribution within Iran. East Azarbaijan ( Borumand 2002), Iran (no locality cited) ( Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Note. Probably misidentification; this species does not occur in adjacent regions of Central and Middle Asia. Its occurrence in Iran and Turkey is doubtful.

Sphenoptera lia Jakovlev 1901 a: 168  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 365; Ghahari et al. 2008: 639; Bellamy 2008 b: 731; Havaskary et al. 2012: 1.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Host plant(s) within Iran. (Adult) Mountain almond, Amygdalis scoparia Spash  ( Rosaceae  ) ( Ghahari et al. 2008). Distribution within Iran. East Azarbaijan ( Havaskary et al. 2012), Golestan ( Ghahari et al. 2008). Distribution outside Iran. Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Note. Record in Havaskary et al. (2012) is dubious, though the species may occur in Northern Iran eastwards of the Caspian Sea.

Sphenoptera ligulata Jakovlev 1904 a: 178  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 361; Bellamy 2008 b: 731. [subgenus Hoplistura  ].

Distribution within Iran. Sistan & Baluchestan ( Jakovlev 1904 a; Kerremans 1914), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera magna Gory & Laporte 1839: 3  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 365; Bellamy 2008 b: 735; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 413.

synonym: alexandri Obenberger 1927 a: 33; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 367 (synonym of tragacanthae  ; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 413 (synonym of magna  ).

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Hamadan ( Obenberger 1927 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

* Sphenoptera manderstjernae  Jakovlev 1886: 94; Radjabi 1974: 40; Modarres Awal 1997: 139; Borumand 2002: 22; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 365; Bellamy 2008 b: 736.

synonym: bucharae Obenberger 1927 a: 78; 1930 b: 219; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of manderstjernae  ), 366.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Khorasan ( Radjabi 1974; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Iran (no locality cited) ( Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Note. Doubtful record. This species is not recorded from adjacent regions.

Sphenoptera manifesta Jakovlev 1900: 428  ; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 96; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 358; Bellamy 2008 b: 736.

synonym: megarauca Obenberger 1952 b: 21.

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera merkli Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2008: 205  . [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Kermanshah, Lorestan (Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2008). Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera mesopotamica Marseul 1865: 389  ; Salavatian 1950: 10; Farahbakhsh 1960: 76; Radjabi 1968: 77; Bílý 1983 a: 81; Abai & Adeli 1984: 119; Modarres Awal 1997: 139; Borumand 2002: 27; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003: 340, 2006: 361; Bellamy 2008 b: 740.

synonym: fairmairei Marseul 1866: 528  ; Salavatian 1950: 9; Radjabi 1968: 77, 1976: 129; Modarres Awal 1997: 139; Borumand 2002: 27.

synonym: pelletii Mulsant & Rey 1866: 87; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003: 340 (lectotype). synonym: turkestanica Jakovlev 1885: 133.

synonym: fulgurans Obenberger 1920 a: 128.

synonym: deserti Obenberger 1920 a: 129  (subspecies of mesopotamica  ).

synonym: sartica Obenberger 1927 f: 171 (subspecies of mesopotamica  ).

synonym: namanganensis Obenberger 1927 f: 176.

[subgenus Hoplistura  ].

Biology/Bionomy: Kaplin 1981 (with bibliography).

Host plant(s) within Iran. Tamarix  sp. ( Tamaricaceae  ) ( Farahbakhsh 1960; Abai & Adeli 1984, sapwood; Modarres Awal 1997).

Distribution within Iran. Fars (as fairmairei  ) ( Salavatian 1950; Radjabi 1968, 1976; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Khorasan ( Salavatian 1950; Farahbakhsh 1960; Radjabi 1968; Abai & Adeli 1984; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Sistan & Baluchestan ( Bílý 1983 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003, 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003, 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera micans Jakovlev 1886: 93  ; Bílý 1983 a: 78; Borumand 2002: 25; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 95; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 358; Bellamy 2008 b: 741.

synonym: binominata Kerremans 1913: 577 (nomen novum for aenea Kraatz  ). synonym: irritatrix Obenberger 1929 d: 37 (correct subsequent spelling validated by subsequent usage, ICZN 1999, Article 33.3.1).

synonym: viridatrix Obenberger 1929 d: 37 (unused original spelling).

synonym: shah Obenberger 1929 d: 37.

synonym: escalerae Obenberger 1929 d: 39  , 43.

synonym: pseudomicans Obenberger 1929 d: 42.

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Golestan ( Jakovlev 1886, type of micans  ; Kerremans 1913; Obenberger 1929 d; Obenberger 1929 d, type of pseudomicans), Kerman ( Borumand 2002), Tehran ( Bílý 1983 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Obenberger 1929 d, type of shah; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera misella Jakovlev 1900: 415  ; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 92; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 359; Bellamy 2008 b: 742.

synonym: liliputana Obenberger 1929 d: 52.

synonym: callimicra Obenberger 1929 d: 53, 115.

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Lorestan ( Obenberger 1929 d, type of callimicra), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Georgia, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera moesta Jakovlev 1887 a: 64  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 366; Bellamy 2008 b: 743. synonym: uncta Kerremans 1909: 277; Radjabi 1968: 77; Modarres Awal 1997: 140; Borumand 2002: 24; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of moesta  ), 366.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Lorestan ( Kerremans 1913, type of uncta; Obenberger 1927 a, as uncta), Sistan & Baluchestan (as uncta) ( Radjabi 1968; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Iran (no locality cited) ( Jakovlev 1887 a; Kerremans 1913; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

* Sphenoptera motschulskyi  Obenberger 1926 a: 17; Bílý 1983 a: 81 (motschulski); Bellamy 2008 b: 745. [subgenus Hoplistura  ].

Distribution within Iran. Hormozgan, Sistan & Baluchestan ( Bílý 1983 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. India ( Bellamy 2008 b).

Note. Record for Iran ( Bílý 1983 a) needs confirmation; this species was described from East India (Madras).

Sphenoptera nausicaa Obenberger 1927 a: 21  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 366; Bellamy 2008 b: 746; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 406.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Lorestan (type, Obenberger 1927 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera nox Jakovlev 1900: 445  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2002: 170; 2006: 357; Bellamy 2008 b: 749. [subgenus Cyphostetha  ].

Distribution within Iran. Khorasan ( Jakovlev 1900; Kerremans 1913), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera obruta Kerremans 1909: 275  ; Obenberger 1927 a: 21 (as abbreviata  , non Jakovlev 1899, misidentification); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 366; Bellamy 2008 b: 751; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 406. synonym: hetera Obenberger 1927 a: 21 (subspecies of abbreviata  ); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 362; Bellamy 2008 b: 638 (subspecies of abbreviata  ); Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 406 (synonym of obruta  ). synonym: chalcosoma Obenberger 1927 a: 43; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 363; Bellamy 2008 b: 671; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 406 (synonym of obruta  ).

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Lorestan ( Obenberger 1927 a, as abbreviata  ), central parts of Iran ( Obenberger 1927 a, type of hetera), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b, as abbreviata hetera  ). Distribution outside Iran. Armenia (as chalcosoma), Syria ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009).

Sphenoptera oertzeni Jakovlev 1887 b: 115  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 369; Bellamy 2008 b: 751 ( Hoplistura  ). synonym: deltae Obenberger 1924 a: 123.

[subgenus Tropeopeltis  ].

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Israel, Syria, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera oresitropha Obenberger 1927 a: 31  ; Bílý 1983 a: 76; Borumand 2002: 24; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 366; Bellamy 2008 b: 753; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 412.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari ( Borumand 2002), Kuhgiloyeh & Boyerahmad, Mazandaran, Tehran ( Bílý 1983 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Syria, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera parumpunctata ( Klug) 1829  : No. 33 ( Buprestis  ); Bílý 1983 a: 79; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 56 (subgenus Chrysoblemma  ), 356; Bellamy 2008 b: 758.

synonym: houskai Obenberger 1946: 27; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of parumpunctata  ), 356. [subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Distribution within Iran. Bushehr ( Bílý 1983 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Algeria, Chad, Egypt (Sinai), Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Saudi Arabia ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera parysatis Obenberger 1929 d: 43  , 241; Bílý 1983 a: 79; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 95; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 359; Bellamy 2008 b: 759.

synonym: isfahanensis Obenberger 1952 b: 8.

synonym: proserpina Obenberger 1952 b: 10.

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari ( Obenberger 1929 d, type of parysatis  ), Isfahan ( Obenberger 1952 b, types of isfahanensis and proserpina), Kuhgiloyeh & Boyerahmad ( Bílý 1983 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera perroteti Guérin-Méneville 1840: 328  ; Bílý 1983 a: 80; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 361; Bellamy 2008 b: 760.

synonym: angustata Thomson 1878: 72.

[subgenus Hoplistura  ].

Distribution within Iran. Bushehr, Hormozgan ( Bílý 1983 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan (subspecies afganica), India, Sri Lanka ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera puberula Jakovlev 1887 b: 116  ; Kalashian et al. 2005 a: 80; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 355; Bellamy 2008 b: 767.

synonym: rauda Jakovlev 1908 b: 515.

synonym: cataonia Obenberger 1926 b: 209.

synonym: seriatosetosa Obenberger 1926 b: 210.

synonym: inderiensis Obenberger 1927 e: 73.

[subgenus Chilostetha  ].

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera quezeli Descarpentries & Bruneau  de Miré 1963: 173; Bílý 1983 a: 82 (as quetzeli); Borumand 2002: 26; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 356; Bellamy 2008 b: 770.

[subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Host plant(s) within Iran. (Adult) on Tamarix mascatensis  ( Tamaricaceae  ) ( Bílý 1983 a). Distribution within Iran. Hormozgan ( Bílý 1983 a; Borumand 2002), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Algeria, Chad, Egypt (Sinai), Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera rangnowi Kerremans 1909: 273  ; Théry 1925: 80; Salavatian 1950: 9; Radjabi 1968: 77; Bílý 1983 a: 77 (as rangowi); Modarres Awal 1997: 140; Borumand 2002: 24; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 366; Bellamy 2008 b: 771; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 412.

synonym: strandiana Obenberger 1927 a: 42; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of rangnowi  ), 366. [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. " Persia: Ardilan" (type of strandiana) ( Obenberger 1927 a). Fars ( Salavatian 1950; Modarres Awal 1997), Hamadan, Zanjan ( Théry 1925), Lorestan ( Kerremans 1909, type of rangnowi  , 1912; Obenberger 1927 a), Tehran ( Radjabi 1968; Bílý 1983 a; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

* Sphenoptera rauca ( Fabricius) 1787  : 177 ( Buprestis  ); Farahbakhsh 1960: 76; Modarres Awal 1997: 140; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 359; Bellamy 2008 b: 771.

synonym: metallica (Fabricius) 1792 b: 210 ( Buprestis  ).

synonym: striola ( Illiger) 1803: 94 ( Buprestis  ).

synonym: geminata ( Illiger) 1803: 244 ( Buprestis  ).

synonym: bassii Gory & Laporte 1839: 13.

synonym: similis Gory & Laporte 1839: 14.

synonym: bravaisii Gory & Laporte 1839: 30.

synonym: carduorum Chevrolat 1840: 14.

synonym: celtiberica Gory 1841: 302.

synonym: africana Jakovlev 1900 b: 402 (variety of rauca  ).

synonym: heliobia Obenberger 1929 b: 55.

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Host plant(s) within Iran. Wild artichoke ( Cynara cardunculus  , Asteraceae  ) ( Farahbakhsh 1960; Modarres Awal 1997).

Distribution within Iran. Northern provinces ( Farahbakhsh 1960; Modarres Awal 1997). Distribution outside Iran. Albania, Algeria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Egypt, France, Greece, Italia, Lybia, Macedonia, Morocco, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, former Yugoslavia ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Note. Most probably a misidentification; probably records for Iran refer to S. aeneomicans Kraatz. Records  for Armenia, Azerbaijan, Czech Republic, Hungary, Sudan in Bellamy (2008 b) are doubtful.

Sphenoptera repetekensis Obenberger 1927 a: 80  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 366; Bellamy 2008 b: 775. synonym: budshnurdi Obenberger 1927 a: 71; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of repetekensis  ), 366. [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Biology/Bionomy: Kaplin 1981 (with bibliography).

Distribution within Iran. Khorasan ( Obenberger 1927 a, type of budshnurdi), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera rugulosa Faldermann 1835: 151  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 366; Bellamy 2008 b: 776. synonym: cribrata Faldermann 1835: 152; Radjabi 1968: 77 (variety of morio Jakovlev); Modarres Awal 1997: 139 (variety of morio Jakovlev).

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Tehran ( Radjabi 1968, Modarres Awal 1997, as morio, var.?), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera sancta Reitter 1890 a: 277  , 280; Radjabi 1968: 76; Bílý 1983 a: 81; Modarres Awal 1997: 140; Borumand 2002: 26; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 356; Bellamy 2008 b: 777. synonym: roseicollis Obenberger 1937 c: 92 (variety of sancta  ); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of sancta  ), 356.

synonym: quadrisignatula Obenberger 1937 d: 110 (variety of sancta  ); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of sancta  ), 356.

synonym: taborskyi Obenberger 1955 a: 15.

[subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Immatures: Zykov & Kalashian 1991: 205.

Distribution within Iran. Guilan, Khorasan, Qazvin, West Azarbaijan ( Bílý 1983 a), Tehran ( Radjabi 1968; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan,? Israel, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera saxosa Kerremans 1909: 283  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 366; Bellamy 2008 b: 778. [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Lorestan ( Kerremans 1913; Obenberger 1927 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera scovitzii ( Faldermann) 1835  : 155 ( Buprestis  ); Radjabi 1968: 76 (as sowitzi); Bílý 1983 a: 82 (as sovitzi); Abai & Adeli 1984: 119 (as sovitzi); Modarres Awal 1997: 140; Borumand 2002: 26; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 356; Bellamy 2008 b: 779.

synonym: latescutata Fairmaire 1892 b: cliii (preoccupied by latescutata Jakovlev 1886). synonym: transcaspica Jakovlev 1893 b: 448 (nomen novum for latesulcata Jakovlev 1893, superfluous name); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of scovitzii  ), 56 (comment), 357.

synonym: rhododactyla Semenov-Tian-Shankij 1897: 251; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2001: 198; 2006: 357. synonym: angelica Obenberger 1915: 55.

synonym: combinatrix Obenberger 1920 a: 124.

synonym: vachshenica Stepanov 1959: 59.

[subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Biology/Bionomy: Krivosheina 1975 a, 1975 b; Kaplin 1981; Korotyaev et al. 2005. Host plant(s) within Iran. (Adult) Tamarix  sp. ( Tamaricaceae  ) ( Abai & Adeli 1984; Modarres Awal 1997); on Haloxylon  ( Chenopodiaceae  ), Calligonum  ( Polygonaceae  ) ( Borumand 2002).

Distribution within Iran. Bushehr, Kerman, Khuzestan, Qazvin, Qom, Tehran, West Azarbaijan ( Bílý 1983 a), Hormozgan ( Bílý 1983 a; Borumand 2002), Isfahan, Khorasan ( Borumand 2002), Sistan & Baluchestan ( Jakovlev 1903 a; Radjabi 1968; Abai & Adeli 1984; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Iran (no locality cited) ( Marseul 1866; Kerremans 1913; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Chad, Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Kazakhstan,? Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera sculpticollis Heyden 1886: 278  ; Salavatian 1950: 10 (var.?); Modarres Awal 1997: 140; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 94; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 359; Bellamy 2008 b: 780; Ghobari et al. 2012: 238. synonym: akbesiana Obenberger 1920 a: 120; Borumand 2002: 24.

synonym: alutaceiceps Obenberger 1929 d: 111.

synonym: morgani Obenberger 1929 d: 114  .

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Immatures: Zykov & Kalashian 1991: 211.

Distribution within Iran. Kermanshah ( Salavatian 1950; Modarres Awal 1997), Kordestan ( Borumand 2002, as akbesiana; Ghobari et al. 2012), Lorestan ( Obenberger 1929 d (type of morgani  ), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera semenovi Jakovlev 1889: 85  (ssemenovi; subgenus Oplistura); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003: 339, 2006: 362; Bellamy 2008 b: 781.

synonym: prosternalis Reitter 1890 a: 279 (preoccupied by prosternalis Jakovlev 1885). synonym: reitteri Jakovlev 1891: 139  (subgenus Oplistura); Radjabi 1968: 76, 1974: 40; Bílý 1983 a: 81; Modarres Awal 1997: 140; Borumand 2002: 27.

synonym: sagitta Semenov-Tian-Shanskij 1899: 651 (subgenus Hoplandrocneme  ). synonym: lamaica Obenberger 1920 a: 126.

synonym: jedlickai Obenberger 1927 f: 187.

[subgenus Hoplistura  ].

Host plant(s) within Iran. (Adult) on Tamarix  sp. ( Tamaricaceae  ) ( Borumand 2002). Distribution within Iran. Hormozgan ( Bílý 1983 a, as reitteri  ), Lorestan ( Obenberger 1927 f, type of jedlickai; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003), Sistan & Baluchestan ( Radjabi 1968, 1974; Bílý 1983 a; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002, as reitteri  ), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003, 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera servistana Obenberger 1929 c: 60  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003: 340, 2006: 369; Bellamy 2008 b: 783 ( Hoplistura  ); Ghobari et al. 2012: 238.

synonym: kambyses Obenberger 1930 a: 104; Salavatian 1950: 10 (as cambyses); Davatchi et al. 1959: 245 (as cambyses); Farahbakhsh 1960: 76 (as cambyses); Radjabi 1968: 79, 1972: 38; Abai & Adeli 1984: 33, 70 (as cambyses); Modarres Awal 1997: 139; Borumand 2002: 28 (as cambyses).

synonym: dhiaahmedi Cobos 1956: 29.

[subgenus Tropeopeltis  ].

Immatures: Davatchi et al. 1959: 246 (as cambyses); Radjabi 1971: 210 (as kambyses); Zykov 1995: 42 (as kambyses).

Biology/Bionomy: Radjabi 1971: 203-227, 1972: 38 (as kambyses).

Host plant(s) within Iran. Almond, apricot, cherry, peach, plum ( Prunus  spp., Rosaceae  )?pistachio ( Pistacia  sp., Anacardiaceae  ) (as kambyses) ( Davatchi et al. 1959; Farahbakhsh 1960; Modarres Awal 1997); Prunus  ( Cerasus  ) spp., trunks and branches, Pistacia  spp., buds ( Abai & Adeli 1984); polyphagous ( Davatchi et al. 1959). Distribution within Iran. Azarbaijan, Kermanshah ( Davatchi et al. 1959, Farahbakhsh 1960, Abai & Adeli 1984, as kambyses), Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari and central provinces ( Abai & Adeli 1984, as cambyses), Fars ( Obenberger 1929 c, type of servistana  ; Davatchi et al. 1959; Farahbakhsh 1960; Abai & Adeli 1984, as kambyses), Isfahan ( Farahbakhsh 1960), Kerman ( Salavatian 1950; Davatchi et al. 1959; Farahbakhsh 1960; Abai & Adeli 1984, as kambyses), Khorasan ( Davatchi et al. 1959; Farahbakhsh 1960; Abai & Adeli 1984, as kambyses), Kordestan ( Ghobari et al. 2012), Tehran ( Davatchi et al. 1959; Farahbakhsh 1960, Radjabi 1968; Borumand 2002, as kambyses), Yazd ( Radjabi 1968; Borumand 2002, as kambyses), generally distributed ( Salavatian 1950; Farahbakhsh 1961; Radjabi 1991; Behdad 1988; Modarres Awal 1997, as kambyses), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003, 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Iraq, Turkmenistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera signata Jakovlev 1887 a: 65  ; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 90; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 359; Bellamy 2008 b: 784; Ghobari et al. 2012: 238.

synonym: obsoleta Jakovlev 1891: 136.

synonym: satelles Jakovlev 1898 a: 331.

synonym: addenda Jakovlev 1900: 413.

synonym: jejuna Jakovlev 1900: 417.

synonym: detrita Jakovlev 1902: 572  .

synonym: destituta Obenberger 1929 d: 25, 46.

synonym: julia Obenberger 1929 d: 50.

synonym: araxicola Obenberger 1929 d: 50.

synonym: buresi Obenberger 1932: 61.

synonym: hierosolymitana Obenberger 1946: 25.

synonym: jureceki Obenberger 1946: 26.

synonym: arsinoe Obenberger 1952 b: 22; Bílý 1983 a: 79. synonym: gyaurdagensis Obenberger 1955 a: 14.

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Alborz, Tehran, West Azarbaijan ( Bílý 1983 a, as arsinoe), Fars ( Obenberger 1952 b, type of arsinoe), Khuzestan ( Obenberger 1929 d, type of julia), Kordestan ( Ghobari et al. 2012), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Turkey, Turkmenistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006).

Sphenoptera simplex Jakovlev 1893 a: 130  ; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 95; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 359; Bellamy 2008 b: 786; Barimani et al. 2009: 65.

synonym: fraterna Jakovlev 1900: 408.

synonym: allecta Jakovlev 1900: 410.

synonym: samotica Obenberger 1929 d: 32, 128.

synonym: ankarana Obenberger 1952 b: 17.

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Mazandaran ( Barimani et al. 2009), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Greece, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera smyrneensis Gory 1841: 305  ; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 89; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 359; Bellamy 2008 b: 787; Ghobari et al. 2012: 238.

synonym: inconspicua Jakovlev 1893 a: 134.

synonym: congrua Jakovlev 1900: 419.

synonym: anxia Jakovlev 1900: 420.

synonym: captiosa Jakovlev 1902: 571.

synonym: delicata Kerremans 1909: 279.

synonym: subsulcata Kerremans 1909: 282.

synonym: migriensis Obenberger 1916: 249.

synonym: nephele Obenberger 1929 d: 43.

synonym: cassia Obenberger 1929 d: 45; Bílý 1983 a: 79. synonym: maronita Obenberger 1929 d: 51.

synonym: salomonis Obenberger 1952 b: 12.

synonym: pseudorauca Obenberger 1952 b: 13.

synonym: agilis Obenberger 1952 b: 19.

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Khuzestan ( Obenberger 1929 d, types of nephele, cassia), Kordestan ( Ghobari et al. 2012), Lorestan ( Kerremans 1913, type of subsulcata), Tehran ( Bílý 1983 a, as cassia), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera sobrina Jakovlev 1886: 97  ; Kalashian et al. 2005 b: 89; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 360; Bellamy 2008 b: 789; Ghobari et al. 2012: 238.

[subgenus Deudora  ].

Distribution within Iran. Kordestan ( Ghobari et al. 2012).

Distribution outside Iran. Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera striatipennis Jakovlev 1885: 132  , 1903a: 255; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003: 334, 2006: 357; Bellamy 2008 b: 791.

synonym: potanini Jakovlev 1889: 86; Radjabi 1968: 76; Abai & Adeli 1984: 119; Modarres Awal 1997: 140; Borumand 2002: 26 (potonini).

synonym: procera Reitter 1890 a: 277  .

synonym: cyaneoviridis Cobos 1968: 385.

[subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Immatures: Alexeev et al. 1991: 15 (as potanini).

Biology/Bionomy: Kaplin 1981 (as potanini) (with bibliography).

Host plant(s) within Iran. (Adult) Tamarix  sp. ( Tamaricaceae  ) ( Abai & Adeli 1984, sapwood; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002, as potanini).

Distribution within Iran. Sistan & Baluchestan (as potanini) ( Radjabi 1968; Abai & Adeli 1984; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Northern Iran ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003, 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera subtilis Jakovlev 1898 b: 552  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 366; Bellamy 2008 b: 794; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 406.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Golestan ( Jakovlev 1898 b), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Turkmenistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

* Sphenoptera sulcata  (Fischer von Waldheim) 1824: 197 ( Buprestis  ); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 367; Bellamy 2008 b: 794.

synonym: fossulata ( Gebler) 1825: 46 ( Buprestis  ).

synonym: gebleri Gory & Laporte 1839: 12 (nomen novum for fossulata Gebler 1825). synonym: mendax Marseul 1869: 122 (nomen novum for impressicolis Marseul 1866); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of sulcata  sulcata  ), 367.

synonym: bergrothi Obenberger 1927 a: 66; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of sulcata  sulcata  ), 367. synonym: tiflisensis Obenberger 1927 h: 38; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of sulcata  sulcata  ), 367. synonym: benedicenda Obenberger 1927 a: 72; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of sulcata  sulcata  ), 367.

synonym: uralicola Obenberger 1927 a: 75 (subspecies of cuprina); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of sulcata  sulcata  ), 367.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Obenberger 1927 a; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, China, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia, Ukraine ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006).

Note. Records for Iran, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan in Bellamy (2008 b) need confirmation.

Sphenoptera syriaca Jakovlev 1908 b: 514  ; Kalashian et al. 2005 a: 83; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 355; Bellamy 2008 b: 798.

synonym: blattnyi Obenberger 1926 b: 202.

synonym: calosoma Obenberger 1926 b: 203.

[subgenus Chilostetha  ].

Distribution within Iran. Khuzestan ( Obenberger 1952 b, type of calosoma), West Azarbaijan ( Obenberger 1952 b, type of blattnyi), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Syria, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera tamaricis ( Klug) 1829  : No. 30 ( Buprestis  ); Abai & Adeli 1984: 119; Modarres Awal 1997: 140; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003: 335, 2006: 357; Bellamy 2008 b: 798.

synonym: asiatica Gory & Laporte 1839: 36; Bílý 1983 a: 81; Borumand 2002: 25. synonym: filiformis Gory & Laporte 1839: 39.

synonym: walteri Reitter 1890 a: 276, 279.

synonym: dilotti Obenberger 1929 c: 60; Radjabi 1968: 76; Modarres Awal 1997: 139; Borumand 2002: 27. synonym: pseudoignita Alexeev 1978: 852.

[subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Biology/Bionomy: Krivosheina 1975 a, 1975 b (as pseudoignita); Kaplin 1981 (as pseudoignita); Korotyaev et al. 2005 (as tamarisci  [sic!]).

Host plant(s) within Iran. (Adult) Tamarix  sp. ( Tamaricaceae  ) ( Bílý 1983 a; Abai & Adeli 1984, sapwood). Distribution within Iran. Bushehr ( Borumand 2002, as asiatica), Khuzestan (as asiatica) ( Bílý 1983 a; Borumand 2002), Sistan & Baluchestan ( Radjabi 1968; Abai & Adeli 1984; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002, as dilotti and tamaricis  ), Tehran ( Abai & Adeli 1984; Modarres Awal 1997), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, Egypt (Sinai), Iraq, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003, 2006; Bellamy 2008 b). Note. Records for Afghanistan and Syria in Bellamy (2008 b) need confirmation.

Sphenoptera tamarisci Gory & Laporte 1839: 35  ; Modarres Awal 1997: 140; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2001: 200, 2006: 357; Bellamy 2008 b: 799.

synonym: smaragdina Jakovlev 1901 b: 352.

synonym: sterbai Obenberger 1927 d: 22; Radjabi 1968: 76; Bílý 1983 a: 82; Abai & Adeli 1984: 119; Modarres Awal 1997: 140; Borumand 2002: 27.

unavailable name: lura Obenberger 1937 d: 110 (variety of sterbai).

[subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Host plant(s) within Iran. (Adult) Tamarix  sp. ( Tamaricaceae  ) ( Abai & Adeli 1984, sapwood; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002, as sterbai).

Distribution within Iran. Ardabil, Golestan, Qom ( Borumand 2002, as sterbai), East Azarbaijan ( Radjabi 1968; Modarres Awal 1997, as sterbai), Kerman, Qazvin ( Bílý 1983 a, as sterbai), Lorestan ( Obenberger 1927 d, type of sterbai, var. lura  ), Markazi ( Modarres Awal 1997, as sterbai), Mazandaran ( Radjabi 1968, as tamarisci  and sterbai; Modarres Awal 1997, as sterbai), Sistan & Baluchestan ( Radjabi 1968, as tamarisci  and sterbai; Abai & Adeli 1984, as sterbai), Tehran ( Modarres Awal 1997, Borumand 2002, as tamarisci  , sterbai and beckeri  ), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, "Arabia", Armenia, Azerbaijan, China, Egypt, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera tamarisci beckeri Dohrn 1866: 249  ; Salavatian 1950: 9; Farahbakhsh 1960: 76; Radjabi 1968: 75; Bílý 1983 a: 82; Modarres Awal 1997: 134 (as Chrysoblemma beckeri  ), 139; Borumand 2002: 25; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 357; Bellamy 2008 b: 799; Sakenin et al. 2008: 35.

synonym: tamaricis Marseul 1866: 399  .

synonym: scutellata Obenberger 1920 a: 122 (subspecies of tamaricis  ).

synonym: chrysorrhoea Obenberger 1927 d: 21 (variety of tamaricis  ); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 53 (synonym of tamaricsi beckeri  ), 357.

synonym: tekkensis Obenberger 1952 e: 4.

synonym: potopolskii Stepanov 1959: 59.

Biology/Bionomy: Krivosheina 1975 a, 1975 b (as beckeri  ); Kaplin 1981 (as beckeri  ); Korotyaev et al. 2005. Host plant(s) within Iran. (Adult) Alhagi camelorum  ( Farahbakhsh 1960; Modarres Awal 1997), Fraxinus excelsior  ( Oleaceae  ) (Sakenin et al. 2008).

Distribution within Iran. East Azarbaijan ( Modarres Awal 1997), Guilan, Hormozgan, Qom ( Bílý 1983 a), Isfahan ( Farahbakhsh 1960; Bílý 1983 a; Modarres Awal 1997), Kermanshah, Lorestan ( Farahbakhsh 1960; Modarres Awal 1997), Mazandaran ( Farahbakhsh 1960; Bílý 1983 a; Sakenin et al. 2008), Qazvin ( Farahbakhsh 1960; Bílý 1983 a), Tehran ( Salavatian 1950; Radjabi 1968; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002), Zanjan and other northern provinces ( Modarres Awal 1997), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, China, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Note. Distribution of subspecies of this species in Iran needs further investigation. Record of Fraxinus  as a host plant (Sakenin et al. 2008) is doubtful.

Sphenoptera tappesi Marseul 1865: 387  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 369; Bellamy 2008 b: 801; Barimani et al. 2009: 65; Ghobari et al. 2012: 238.

synonym: simulatrix Reitter 1895 a: 42; Bílý 1983 a: 80; Borumand 2002: 28.

[subgenus Tropeopeltis  ].

Distribution within Iran. Fars, Isfahan, Kerman ( Bílý 1983 a, as simulatrix), Kordestan ( Ghobari et al. 2012), Mazandaran ( Barimani et al. 2009), Yazd (as simulatrix) ( Borumand 2002), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Albania, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Macedonia, Syria, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Note. Records for Cyprus and Egypt in Bellamy (2008 b) are doubtful.

A parasitoid wasp, Atanycolus ivanowi (Kokujev, 1898)  ( Hymenoptera  : Braconidae  : Braconinae) (3 ♀, 1 ♂) was collected as the parasitoid of Sphenoptera tappesi  in Behshahr (Mazandaran province).

Sphenoptera tezcani Niehuis 1999: 43  ; Kalashian et al. 2005 a: 81; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 355; Bellamy 2008 b: 802.

misidentification: verecunda: Bílý 1983 a: 79 (not Obenberger 1952 d); Kalashian et al. 2005 a: 81 (misidentification of tezcani  ); Bellamy 2008 b: 802 (misidentification of tezcani  , note).

[subgenus Chilostetha  ].

Distribution within Iran. West Azarbaijan ( Bílý 1983 a, as verecunda), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

* Sphenoptera tigridis  Obenberger 1927 d: 22; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 357; Bellamy 2008 b: 803. [subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. Iraq ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006).

Note. Record for Iran in Bellamy (2008 b) is doubtful, possible misprint of Iraq.

Sphenoptera tragacanthae ( Klug) 1829  : No. 26 ( Buprestis  ); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 367; Bellamy 2008 b: 804; Sakenin et al. 2008: 34; Barimani et al. 2009: 65; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 406; Barimani et al. 2012: 192; Ghobari et al. 2012: 237.

synonym: corrugata ( Klug) 1829: No. 27 ( Buprestis  ); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367.

synonym: glabrata ( Ménétriés) 1832: 151 ( Buprestis  ); Bílý 1983 a: 75 (as glabrata irenae Obenberger 1927 a); Borumand 2002: 20 (as glabrata irene), Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367. misidentification: semistriata: Gory & Laporte 1839: 2 [not (Palisot de Beauvois) 1807: 43 ( Buprestis  )]; Bellamy 2008 d: 782; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 408, 410 (misidentification).

synonym: derugata Redtenbacher 1850: 47; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367. synonym: mniszechi Marseul 1865: 332; Salavatian 1950: 9 (with var. minorita Obenberger  ); Radjabi 1968: 77 (authors Laporte & Gory); Bílý 1983 a: 76; Modarres Awal 1997: 139; Borumand 2002: 23; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367.

synonym: elamita Marseul 1865: 338  ; Salavatian 1950: 9 (variety of mniszechi); Radjabi 1968: 77 (variety of mniszechi); Modarres Awal 1997: 139 (variety of mniszechi); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367.

synonym: lobicollis Marseul 1865: 339; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367. synonym: encausta Marseul 1865: 340; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367. synonym: exasciata Jakovlev 1886: 83; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367. synonym: morio Jakovlev 1886: 84; Radjabi 1968: 77 (morio, var.?); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367.

synonym: sordida Jakovlev 1886: 84; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 368. synonym: prolongata Jakovlev 1887 a: 70; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367. synonym: signaticollis Jakovlev 1887 a: 85; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 368. synonym: christophi Jakovlev 1887 a: 73; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367. synonym: modesta Jakovlev 1887 a: 76; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367. synonym: speciosa Jakovlev 1887 b: 110  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 368. synonym: adusta Jakovlev 1887 b: 111; Radjabi 1968: 76; Modarres Awal 1997: 138; Borumand 2002: 19; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367.

synonym: maura Jakovlev 1901 b: 317; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367. synonym: morosa Jakovlev 1908 a: 216; Bílý 1983 a: 76; Borumand 2002: 23; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367.

synonym: obnubila Jakovlev 1908 a: 221; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367. synonym: luristana Kerremans 1909: 272; Borumand 2002: 22; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367.

synonym: prometheus Obenberger 1916: 245; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367. synonym: gigas Obenberger 1916: 246; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367. synonym: maledicta Obenberger 1920 a: 104; Bílý 1983 a: 75; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 365; Bellamy 2008 b: 736; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 443 (synonym of tragacanthae  ).

synonym: parsa Obenberger 1920 a: 105; Salavatian 1950: 10 (variety of luristana); Radjabi 1968: 77 (variety of luristana); Modarres Awal 1997: 139 (variety of luristana); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367.

synonym: nominanda Obenberger 1920 a: 106; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367. synonym: zarathustrae Obenberger 1920 a: 107; 1927 a: 11 (zarathustra); Radjabi 1968: 77 (zarathustra); Modarres Awal 1997: 140; Borumand 2002: 24; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 368.

synonym: kulpensis Obenberger 1927 a: 6; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367. synonym: cilicica Obenberger 1927 a: 8; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 363; Bellamy 2008 b: 673; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 443 (synonym of tragacanthae  ).

synonym: radicigena Obenberger 1927 a: 8 (subspecies of rugulosa  ); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367.

synonym: rambouseki Obenberger 1927 a: 10; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 366; Bellamy 2008 b: 771; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 444 (synonym of tragacanthae  ).

synonym: armenigena Obenberger 1927 a: 12 (subspecies of zarathustrae); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 56 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367.

synonym: catenifera Obenberger 1927 a: 16 (variety of mniszechi); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367.

synonym: coeruleolimbata Obenberger 1927 a: 16 (subspecies of mniszechi); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367.

synonym: artaxerxes Obenberger 1927 a: 17; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367. synonym: klapaleki Obenberger 1927 a: 16; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367. synonym: mrazeki Obenberger 1927 a: 18; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367. synonym: klickai Obenberger 1927 a: 28; Bílý 1983 a: 76; Borumand 2002: 21; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 365; Bellamy 2008 b: 722; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 444 (synonym of tragacanthae  ).

synonym: corrosa Obenberger 1927 a: 31; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 364; Bellamy 2008 b: 678; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 444 (synonym of tragacanthae  ).

synonym: satrapa Obenberger 1927 a: 32; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 366; Bellamy 2008 b: 777; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 444 (synonym of tragacanthae  ).

synonym: tauricola Obenberger 1927 a: 33; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 368. synonym: syriae Obenberger 1927 a: 34; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 367; Bellamy 2008 b: 798; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 444 (synonym of tragacanthae  ).

synonym: zobeida Obenberger 1927 a: 36; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 368. synonym: armenorum Obenberger 1927 a: 37, 39; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 55 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367.

synonym: vavrai Obenberger 1927 a: 41; Bílý 1983 a: 76; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 368; Bellamy 2008 b: 811; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 444 (synonym of tragacanthae  ).

synonym: goryi Théry 1938: 91 (nomen novum for semistriata: Gory & Laporte 1839, not Palisot de Beauvois 1807); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 54 (synonym of tragacanthae  ), 367.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Host plant(s) within Iran. Falcaria vulgaris  ( Apiaceae  ) (Sakenin et al. 2008); Astragalus anseanthus  , A. gossypinus  ( Fabaceae  ) ( Barimani et al. 2012).

Distribution within Iran. Ardabil, East Azarbaijan, Qazvin, West Azarbaijan ( Borumand 2002, as glabrata irene), Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari ( Obenberger 1927 a, type of klickai; Bílý 1983 a, as mniszechi), Fars ( Redtenbacher 1850, type of derugata; Jakovlev 1886, types of exasciata, morio; Modarres Awal 1997, as parsa; Bílý 1983 a, as klickai, maledicta; Borumand 2002, as klickai), Golestan ( Obenberger 1927 a, as christophi), Isfahan ( Salavatian 1950; Radjabi 1968; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002, as mniszechi varr. elamita  and minorita), Kermanshah ( Obenberger 1920 a, types of parsa, nominanda; Borumand 2002, as mniszechi), Khorasan ( Obenberger 1920 a, 1927 a, types of zarathustrae, rambouseki, satrapa; Bílý 1983 a as glabrata irene; Borumand 2002, as glabrata irene), Khuzestan ( Bílý 1983 a, as mniszechi; Borumand 2002, as mniszechi), Kordestan ( Ghobari et al. 2012), Kuhgiloyeh & Boyerahmad ( Bílý 1983 a, as klickai and vavrai), Lorestan ( Kerremans 1909, types of luristana, var. parsa  ; Obenberger 1916, type of gigas; Obenberger 1927 a, types of mniszechi var. minorita  , tetrastigma, catenifera; artaxerxes; Sakenin et al. 2008, as mniszechi; Borumand 2002, as klickai), Mazandaran ( Bílý 1983 a, as glabrata irenae; Borumand 2002, as glabrata irene; Barimani et al. 2009, 2012), Qom ( Salavatian 1950; Radjabi 1968; Borumand 2002, as mniszechi, morosa, morio var.?), Semnan ( Borumand 2002, as adusta and luristana), Sistan & Baluchestan ( Radjabi 1968, as mniszechi var. elamita  and minorita; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002, as glabrata irene), Tehran ( Salavatian 1950; Radjabi 1968, as adusta, mniszechi, luristana var. parsa  , elamita  and zarathustrae; Bílý 1983 a, as glabrata irenae, morosa; Modarres Awal 1997; Borumand 2002, as klickai, morosa, mniszechi and zarathustrae); "Perse" (Gory & Laporte 1839, as semistriata, misidentification; Marseul 1865, types of mnizsechi, elamita  ; Kerremans 1912, as elamita  , mnizsechi, derugata), "Perse: Chakhou" ( Jakovlev 1887 a, type of christophi), " Persia " ( Obenberger 1927 a, as aethiops ssp. gigas, adusta, derugata; types of klapaleki, corrosa), " Persia: Ardilan" ( Obenberger 1927 a, type of vavrai), " Persia occidentalis: Hamarazendjan" ( Obenberger 1927 a, type of coeruleolimbata), " Persia: Kharum" ( Obenberger 1927 a, types of mrazeki, zobeida), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Greece, Iraq, Lebanon, Pakistan, Syria, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009).

Note. Records for Ethiopia, Gambia, Mali, Moçambique, Niger, Senegal, Somalia, and Sudan in Bellamy (2008 b) possibly refer to semistriata Palisot de Beauvois 1807, not to semistriata: Gory & Laporte 1839 (misidentification), the latter is a synonym of tragacanthae (Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 446)  . Record for Falicaria as a host plant (Sakenin et al. 2008) is doubtful, adult and larval host plants of this species are Astragalus  spp. ( Fabaceae  ).

Sphenoptera tristicula Reitter 1895 a: 38  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003: 337, 2006: 357; Bellamy 2008 b: 809; Ghobari et al. 2012: 238.

synonym: elegans Jakovlev, 1900 b: 433.

[subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Distribution within Iran. Kordestan ( Ghobari et al. 2012). Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Turkmenistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003, 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera trisulcata Reiche & Saulcy 1856: 413  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 368; Bellamy 2008 b: 809. [subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Syria ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera violacea Jakovlev 1898 b: 557  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 368; Bellamy 2008 b: 813; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009: 442.

[subgenus Sphenoptera  ].

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009).

Distribution outside Iran. Turkmenistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b; Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2009).

Sphenoptera viridiaurea Kraatz  in Heyden & Kraatz 1882: 318; Bílý 1983 a: 83; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 357; Bellamy 2008 b: 813.

synonym: cylindracea Reitter 1897: 215.

[subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Biology/Bionomy: Krivosheina 1975 a; Kaplin 1981.

Distribution within Iran. Bushehr, Fars, Kerman, Khuzestan, Qom ( Bílý 1983 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b).

Sphenoptera vlastae Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2006: 135  ; Bellamy 2008 b: 815. [subgenus Sphenopterella].

misidentification: elpha: Bílý 1983 a: 80 (not Obenberger 1926 b: 200; Chilostetha  ); Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2006: 135 (misidentification; holotype of vlastae  ).

Distribution within Iran. Khorasan ( Kalashian & Volkovitsh 2006), Iran (no locality cited) ( Bellamy 2008 b). Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Sphenoptera zarudniana Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003: 332  , 2006: 357; Bellamy 2008 b: 816. [subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Distribution within Iran. Sistan & Baluchestan ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2003). Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

Note. The record for Iraq in Volkovitsh & Kalashian (2006) and Bellamy (2008 b) is a misprint ( Iraq instead of Iran); this species is known only from type locality in Iran.

Sphenoptera zarudnyi Jakovlev 1899 a: 99  ; Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 357; Bellamy 2008 b: 816. [subgenus Chrysoblemma  ].

Distribution within Iran. Khorasan ( Jakovlev 1899 a), Iran (no locality cited) ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006; Bellamy 2008 b: 816).

Distribution outside Iran. None recorded.

* Sphenoptera zarudnyi schatinensis Alexeev & Zykov 1991: 149  (subspecies of zarudnyi  ); Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006: 357; Bellamy 2008 b: 816.

Distribution within Iran. Iran (no locality cited) ( Bellamy 2008 b).

Distribution outside Iran. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey ( Volkovitsh & Kalashian 2006). Note. The records of S. z. schatinensis  for Iran and Azerbaijan in Bellamy (2008 b) need confirmation.