Zephronia konkakinhensis Semenyuk, Golovatch & Wesener

Semenyuk, Irina, Golovatch, Sergei I. & Wesener, Thomas, 2018, Four new species of giant pill-millipedes from Vietnam (Sphaerotheriida, Zephroniidae), Zootaxa 4459 (3), pp. 535-550: 544-546

publication ID


publication LSID


persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Zephronia konkakinhensis Semenyuk, Golovatch & Wesener

sp. nov.

Zephronia konkakinhensis Semenyuk, Golovatch & Wesener  , sp. nov.

Figs 1C View Figure , 7–8View FIGURE 7View FIGURE 8, 9A View Figure

Material examined: Type specimens. Holotype male ( ZMUMAbout ZMUM), Vietnam, Gia Lai Province, Kon Ka Kinh National Park , near Krong village (N 14°18' E 108°26', 800–900 m. a.s.l.), monsoon mixed tropical forest, slopes, litter and under logs, V.2017, leg. I.I. Semenyuk. ParatypeGoogleMaps  : 1 female, ZFMKAbout ZFMK MYR 6260, same data as holotypeGoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis. Medium-sized, up to 36 mm long, chestnut-brown Zephronia  with a dark posterior margin of terga, a shiny weakly coriaceous, glabrous surface and light brown appendages. Zephronia konkakinhensis  sp. nov. fits the general characteristics of the Zephronia  sensu stricto group, but differs from all known Zephronia  species except Z. montis  sp. nov. in features of their walking legs, in which the prefemora and femora are greatly expanded mesally, being as long as wide, and carrying numerous spine-like projections in konkakinhensis  sp. nov. ( Fig. 7H View Figure ). Zephronia konkakinhensis  sp. nov. differs from Z. montis  sp. nov., mainly in anterior telopod structure, and much shorter telopoditomere 4 in the former ( Fig. 7A View Figure ) than in the latter ( Fig. 10A View Figure ).

Description. Measurements: Holotype male. Body length ca 34 mm, width of thoracic shield = 15.6 mm, of tergite 8 = 16.4 mm (= broadest), height of thoracic shield = 8.8 mm, of tergite 8 = 9.8 mm (= highest). Female: length ca 36 mm, width of thoracic shield = 16 mm, of tergite 8 = 17.2 mm (= broadest), height of thoracic shield = 9.5 mm, of tergite 8 = 11.3 mm (= highest). Coloration: in live specimens chestnut-brown, shiny, posterior margin of tergites dark brown ( Fig. 1C View Figure ). Head and collum dark olive-black. Anal shield shiny and chestnut-brown like tergites. Antennae and legs light brown, beige. Head: wide and short. Eyes with>60 ocelli. Aberrant ocellus located inside antennal groove. Antennae short, with rounded joints ( Fig. 7D View Figure ), protruding posteriorly to leg-pair 3. Sizes of antennomeres 1>2=3=4=5<<6 ( Fig. 8A View Figure ). Antennomere 6 densely pubescent, with a few sensilla basiconica surrounding apical disc. Shape cylindrical, male apical disc with 55/56 apical sensory cones ( Fig. 8B View Figure ), that of female with 48/51 apical cones. Organ of Tömösváry located on a special crest-like brim at margin of antennal groove, orientated towards eyes. Gnathochilarium: structure typical of the order. Stipites and paramentum bearing several long setae. Mandibles (not examined). Stigmatic plates: first stigmatic plate triangular, apex broadly rounded, curved towards coxa 1. Laterotergites: first laterotergite tip weakly extended, well-rounded. Collum: glabrous, except for margins which have a few isolated and long setae. Thoracic shield: surface as in tergites. Shallow grooves filled with numerous long setae, no keels. Tergites: surface shiny, glabrous, weakly coriaceous. Tips of paratergites of midbody tergites straight, not projecting posteriorly. Endotergum: inner section without spines or longer setae, tiny setae visible. Middle area with a single row of round, sparse, cuticular impressions. Apically, 3–4 dense rows of short marginal bristles, the latter not reaching the tergal margin ( Fig. 9A View Figure ). Bristles not smooth, but with numerous small spicules ( Fig. 9A View Figure ). Anal shield: large and well-rounded, glabrous. Surface similar to that of tergites. Underside carrying a single, black, locking carina of medium length, which is close to tergal margin. Legs: leg-pair 1 with 2 or 3, leg-pair 2 with 4, leg-pair 3 with 5 or 6 ventral spines. First two leg-pairs without an apical spine. Leg-pairs 4–21 with 9 ventral spines and an apical spine. In leg-pair 9, femur as long as wide, tarsus 3.9X longer than wide ( Fig. 7H View Figure ). All podomeres setose. Coxa with a large, well-rounded process. Prefemur expanded into a dentate mesal margin featuring ca 12 teeth. Femur mesally expanded into a dentate margin featuring 12–14 teeth.

Female sexual characters: vulva large, covering 1/2 of coxa, extending mesally to half of prefemur length ( Fig. 7G View Figure ). Operculum rounded, projecting into a well-rounded mesal lobe.

Subanal plate: large, tall, triangular, with a well-rounded tip.

Male sexual characters: gonopore covered with a single, undivided, triangular, sclerotized plate. Anterior telopods ( Figs 7A–C View Figure ): first telopoditomere rectangular, slightly longer than wide. Telopoditomere 2 large, as long as telopoditomeres 3 and 4 combined. Process of telopoditomere 2 located posteriorly, but partly visible laterally in anterior view. Process wide, broader than telopoditomeres 3 and 4. Process tapering apically, well-rounded.

Telopoditomere 3 slender, 2.3X longer than wide, more than 4X longer than short telopoditomere 4. Telopoditomere 3 posteriorly with a row of 8 teeth apicolaterally, at midpoint with a single spine mesally. Telopoditomere 4 very short, in posterior aspect without any teeth, but with two prominent spines. All podomeres covered with long sparse setae, except for posterior surface of telopoditomeres 3 and 4. Posterior telopods ( Figs 7E, F View Figure ): first telopoditomere stout and narrow, twice as wide as high. Immovable finger (process of telopoditomere 2) longer than movable finger and consisting of telopoditomeres 3 and 4. Immovable finger slender, 2.8X longer than wide, weakly tapering apically, not curved. Margin towards movable finger genus-characteristic, with two large, triangular, membranous lobes and several rows of circular sclerotized spots. Telopoditomere 3 elongated, typical of the genus, 3.8X longer than telopoditomere 4. Margin near immovable finger with a large membranous lobe and a single long and slender spine, posterior surface with a row of 12 crenulate and sclerotized teeth. Telopoditomere 4 slender, only half as wide as telopoditomere 3, 3.6X longer than wide, slightly tapering apically, at inner margin with two long spines and a single membranous lobe. Entire telopod on anterior side covered with long setae, except for telopoditomere 4. In posterior view, telopoditomeres 3 and 4 setose only at lateral margins.

Distribution and Ecology. In May, this species is widespread on several slopes (up to 80° inclination) and hill tops at 700–900 m elevations. Both mature and disturbed forests are inhabited by these millipedes, which are found only in a single small area in the National Park, while other similar adjacent forests seem to lack this species. The millipedes inhabit leaf litter and walk on the forest floor. Their density is higher in forest patches with thick leaf litter. Activity occurs both in daylight and at night. When disturbed, the millipedes roll up, but unroll quite quickly and start actively moving.

Name. Adjective, to emphasize Kon Ka Kinh National Park, its type locality ( Fig. 1 View Figure ).


Zoological Museum, University of Amoy


Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig