Masteria L. Koch, 1873,

Passanha, Victor & Brescovit, Antonio D., 2018, On the Neotropical spider Subfamily Masteriinae (Araneae, Dipluridae), Zootaxa 4463 (1), pp. 1-73: 8-9

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Masteria L. Koch, 1873


Masteria L. Koch, 1873 

Masteria L. Koch, 1873: 458  . Type species by monotypy, Masteria hirsuta L. Koch, 1873  ; Raven, 1979, 624; Raven, 1981: 57.

Accola Simon, 1889: 191  . Type species Accola lucifuga Simon, 1891  . First synonymised by Raven, 1979: 624.

Antrochares Rainbow, 1898: 332  . Type species by monotypy, Antrochares macgregori Rainbow, 1898  . First synonymised by Raven, 1979: 624.

Microsteria Wunderlich, 1988: 46  . Type species by monotypy, Microsteria sexoculata  . Based on a fossil in Dominican amber; first synonymised by Raven, 2000: 573.

Diagnosis. Species of Masteria  resemble those of Siremata  n. gen. in the presence of an australotheline crescent ( Fig. 2AView FIGURE 2) and distribution of trichobothria on the tarsus, metatarsus ( Fig. 4DView FIGURE 4) and tibia of all legs, but can be distinguished by the absence of micro-spines around the ocular region ( Fig. 3A –CView FIGURE 3), presence of prolateral process on apical portion of tibia I of males ( Fig. 4CView FIGURE 4) and ovate pattern of eyes ( Fig. 3A –CView FIGURE 3). They differ from Striamea  in the presence of an australotheline crescent ( Fig. 2CView FIGURE 2) at the base of the spinnerets.

Description. Small mygalomorph spiders, total length 2.50–6.06. Color: carapace in dorsal view, chelicerae and legs varying from whitish to dark brown, with variations of yellow, orange and light brown. Endites, labium and sternum light brown to whitish. Abdomen whitish or light yellow. Clypeus narrow (0.01–0.10) in relation to ALE. Chelicerae without rastellum. Basal segment of chelicerae with prolateral row of 9–14 teeth and 7–20 mesobasal microteeth in line ( Fig. 1BView FIGURE 1). Ocular tubercle wider than long, with eight or six eyes ( Fig. 3A –CView FIGURE 3), vestigial in M. pecki  ( Fig. 24A, BView FIGURE 24); anterior row straight, posterior row straight to strongly recurved. Labium wider than long, without cuspules. Endites without cuspules, with a linear serrula on apical edge ( Fig. 1AView FIGURE 1). Oval sternum longer than wide, without evident sigilla. Tarsus without scopulae, with sensorial setae thin and slightly interspaced or thick and abundant. Superior tarsal claws with one row of teeth (5–15), inferior tarsal claw on all legs with 2–7 teeth ( Fig. 3DView FIGURE 3). Femora of all legs with distinct dorsal row of thin and elongated spines (5–16); in ventral view, two rows of thin spines (4–20). Tarsal organ without elevation, with low and concentric keels ( Fig. 1C, DView FIGURE 1). Male tibia of leg I with prolateral processes or megaspines, with two megaspines ( M. manauara  ; Figs 23DView FIGURE 23, 30FView FIGURE 30), group of megaspines ( M. aimeae  ; Fig. 20CView FIGURE 20) or prolateral process divided in P1, P2 and P3. Prolateral process with two processes (P2, P3) as in M. petrunkevitchi  ( Figs 8DView FIGURE 8, 29AView FIGURE 29) or three ( M. tayrona  n. sp.; Figs 4CView FIGURE 4, 30EView FIGURE 30), P1 a distal spur, P2 a strong spine with normal base, P2 with double spines ( M. yacambu  n. sp.; Figs 12FView FIGURE 12, 29DView FIGURE 29); P3 with two strong spines emerging from same base ( M. tayrona  n. sp.; Figs 22EView FIGURE 22, 30EView FIGURE 30); P3 with only one spine on projected base ( M. petrunkevitchi  , M. amarumayu  n. sp. and M. mutum  n. sp.; Figs 16CView FIGURE 16, 30BView FIGURE 30). In addition, P1, P2 and P3 are developed in Masteria toddae Raven, 1991  and M. franzi Raven, 1991  (See Raven, 1979, figs 18¯19; Raven 1991, fig. 60). Metatarsus of leg I with a basal depression (BD) associated with prolateral process of tibia I, with a flattened basal spine (BS) as in Masteria tayrona  n. sp. ( Figs 4CView FIGURE 4, 30EView FIGURE 30); BD absent only in M. barona  ( Fig. 9DView FIGURE 9). Trichobothria with filiform setae, corrugated bases, with longitudinal keels along entire length ( Fig. 1EView FIGURE 1). Trichobothria: legs with one dorsal row on tarsus and two on metatarsus (one dorsal and one dorso-retrolateral) ( Fig. 4DView FIGURE 4) and two dorsal rows on tibia; palp with one row on tarsus and two on tibia. Abdomen with oval booklung openings. Posterior median spinnerets short with spigots on apex, australotheline crescent present. Posterior lateral spinnerets three-segmented, long, apical segment with digitiform apex, spigots on ventral face (major ampulate spigots, aciniform spigots and pumpkiniform spigots). Female palp with one or two ventral spines on basal tarsus, tarsal claw with one central row of teeth (13̄22). Male palp: cymbium with apical spines (2̄5) and short prolateral lobe ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5). Palpal tibia with retrolateral group of spines or setae, located in median region ( Fig. 25DView FIGURE 25) or basally ( M. petrunkevitchi  Fig. 8CView FIGURE 8). Male bulb piriform ( Fig. 14BView FIGURE 14), elongate ( Fig. 9BView FIGURE 9) or globose ( Fig. 23B –CView FIGURE 23), with paraembolic apophysis in M. simla  , M. spinosa  , M. sabrinae  n. sp., M. galipote  n. sp., M. toddae  ( Raven, 1979, figs 24̄25, 27), M. franzi  ( Raven, 1991, figs 62̄63), embolus short (smaller than tegulum) ( Fig. 15BView FIGURE 15) or elongate (longer than tegulum) ( Fig. 10CView FIGURE 10). Female genitalia: two spermathecae, with one ( Fig. 8EView FIGURE 8), two ( Fig. 6A, BView FIGURE 6), three ( Fig. 10FView FIGURE 10) or four lobes ( Fig. 12D –EView FIGURE 12); M. tayrona  n. sp. has five lobes on one side and four on the other ( Fig. 22FView FIGURE 22).

Species included. M. lucifuga ( Simon, 1889)  , M. spinosa ( Petrunkevitch, 1925)  , M. petrunkevitchi ( Chickering, 1964)  , M. lewisi ( Chickering, 1964)  , M. barona ( Chickering, 1966)  , M. downeyi ( Chickering, 1966)  , M. simla ( Chickering, 1966)  , M. colombiensis Raven, 1981  , M. pecki Gertsch, 1982  , M. aimeae ( Alayón, 1995)  , M. golovatchi ( Alayón, 1995)  , M. manauara Bertani, Cruz & Oliveira, 2013  ; M. amarumayu  n. sp., M. mutum  n. sp., M. yacambu  n. sp., M. sabrinae  n. sp., M. tayrona  n. sp., M. aguaruna  n. sp., M. soucouyant  n. sp., M. galipote  n. sp., M. hirsuta L. Koch, 1893  , M. caeca ( Simon, 1892)  , M. cavicola ( Simon, 1892)  , M. franzi Raven, 1991  , M. kaltenbachi Raven, 1991  , M. macgregori ( Rainbow, 1898)  , M. pallida ( Kulczynski, 1908)  , M. modesta ( Simon, 1892)  , M. toddae Raven, 1979  .

Misplaced species. Masteria emboaba Pedroso et al. (2015)  was described from caves from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. After the morphological study of material from the type locality, we noted the presence of six vestigial eyes (and not two, as in the original description), australotheline crescent absent, no corrugated trichobothria and different serrula conformation. Thus, the species does not belong to Masteriinae  , but to Micromygalinae Platnick & Forster 1982, as it has serrula teeth clumped into series and scales on cuticle (see Platnick & Forster, 1982, figs 2̄5, 8). A paper with the description of several Brazilian specimens of Micromygalinae is being prepared.

Unrecognizable species. The type material of Masteria modesta Simon (1892)  is probably lost as it was not found in the MNHN. We have not been able to obtain additional material from Saint Vincent Island. Therefore, this species is herein considered as species inquirendae. 

Distribution. Melanesia, Micronesia, Australia, and Neotropical region, from the Antilles and Continental Central America to the Amazonian region of South America.


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle












Masteria L. Koch, 1873

Passanha, Victor & Brescovit, Antonio D. 2018


L. Koch, 1873 : 458
Raven, 1981 : 57

Accola Simon, 1889 : 191

Simon, 1889 : 191
Raven, 1979 : 624


Rainbow, 1898 : 332
Raven, 1979 : 624


Wunderlich, 1988 : 46
Raven, 2000 : 573