Manota maorica Edwards,

Hippa, Heikki, 2007, The genus Manota Williston (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) in Melanesia and Oceania, Zootaxa 1502, pp. 1-44: 6-10

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.177118

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Manota maorica Edwards


Manota maorica Edwards 

( Figs 3View FIGURE 3 A, B, C)

Manota maorica Edwards  in Tonnoir and Edwards, 1927: 801.

A large-sized Manota  .

Male. Coloration. See the original description ( Tonnoir and Edwards 1927): Head. Antennal flagellomere 4 similar to M. pentacantha  , Fig. 22View FIGURE 22 C. Palpomere 3 of maxillary palpus with apicomesial extension, with 2 curved sensilla; palpomere 4 with parasegment. Thorax. Anepisternum non-setose. Laterotergite setose. Preepisternum 2 and episternum 3 appearing non-setose under a stereomicroscope, but the presence of setae is not excluded. Wing. Length 1.9 mm. Vein R 1 unusually long, meeting C near the middle of wing and much beyond the base of the sclerotized part of M 1. Hypopygium ( Figs 3View FIGURE 3 A,B,C). Tergite 9 united with gonocoxites, but the lateral margin partly distinct, anterior margin deeply notched, posterior margin with a small notch, the setae slightly stronger than the adjacent ventral setae of gonocoxa, with a couple of stronger setae subapically on each side. Parastylar lobe exposed, composed of three parts, a more sclerotized part in the middle, with two strong setae directed obliquely posteriad, and a more weakly sclerotized part on both its anterior and posterior sides, the latter not sharply separate from gonocoxa. Paraapodemal lobe small, but exposed in ventral view. The dorsal mesial margin of gonocoxa with a setose lobe at the middle and a large lobe in a more posterior position bearing 4 megasetae at apex and 3 at the apical part of the mesial margin and a group of the usual setae subbasally at the mesial margin. Two juxtagonostylar setae present: a megaseta and a rather strong seta, both apically flattened, arising from a common basal body which is longer than the megaseta, the megaseta being apical, the seta subapical. Gonostylus large, unusually complicated, with several lobes and groups of different types of modified setae. Tegmen triangular, nearly equilateral, without distinct lateral shoulders. Hypoproct posteriorly extending to the level of the basal part of gonostylus, with ca. 50 scattered ventral setae. Cerci medially separate.

Female and preimaginal stages unknown.

Discussion. Only the holotype male of this species is known. It is a dry specimen pinned from the side through the pleura, with one wing and hind leg glued to the piece of celluloid through which the specimen is pinned. I have dissected the abdomen and also the hypopygium, and have mounted them between two cover glasses as described under Material and methods.

Because of its non-setose anepisternum, M. maorica  is similar to three other species in the Australasian region, M. ctenophora  , M. taedia  and M. serawei  , but differs e.g. by its bicolorous wing. In addition to these four species, only the Palaearctic M. unifurcata Lundström  is known to have the anepisternum non-setose, but there are many Afrotropical and several Neotropical species in which this character has not been studied. M unifurcata  differs from all the species mentioned above by also having the laterotergite non-setose. Its wing is unicolorous, as in M. ctenophora  , M. taedia  and M. serawei  , and R 1 is long as in M. maorica  . In its hypopygium M. maorica  differs from all other described Manota  except for M. sicula  by the complicated many-lobed gonostylus, but there are species in which the male is unknown (Afrotropical) or the hypopygium has not been studied (Neotropical). In M. sicula  and M. maorica  the detailed structure of the gonostylus as well as all other parts of the hypopygium are abundantly different (cf. Figs 3View FIGURE 3 A –C and 21 A –D). M. maorica  is the only species I have seen which has the apical part of tergite 9 fused with the gonocoxa but has the lateral margin more basally distinct. Usually when the tergite is fused with gonocoxa it begins from the base. The dorsal aspect of the gonocoxa is reminiscent of M. serawei  , but differs e.g. by much stronger apical setae on the more apical of the two lobes at the dorsal mesial margin of the gonocoxa and by having two juxtagonostylar setae instead of one. The hypopygium of M. unifurcata  , which was mentioned above, differs from all the species discussed here by the totally non-lobed dorsomesial margin of gonocoxa and by having two angulate projections on the ventral margin of gonostylus.

Material studied. Holotype male, New Zealand, West Coast, S. I., ii. 1923, T. R. Harris. B.M. 1923 - 230 (in BMNH).

Manota serawei  sp. n. ( Figs 1View FIGURE 1 A, 2 F, 4 A –C)

A small-sized Manota  .

Male. Coloration. Almost unicolorous yellowish-brown, vertex and occiput darker brown, mouthparts, coxae and femora slightly paler than other parts but the apices of coxa 2 and 3 and their trochanters darker brown, wing unicolorous, hyaline, pale greyish yellowish-brown, knob of haltere dark. Head. Antennal flagellomere 4, Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 C. Palpomere 3 of maxillary palpus with apicomesial extension, with ca. 4 apically expanded curved sensilla, and in addition with at least two sensilla which seem to be intermediate between the curved and apically flattened sensilla and the blunt sensilla; palpomere 4 with parasegment. Thorax. Pleural setosity pattern, Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A: anepisternum non-setose; anterior basalare non-setose; preepisternum 2 setose, with 17 setae; laterotergite setose, with ca. 23 setae; episternum 3 setose, with 13 setae. Wing. Length 1.4 mm. Hypopygium ( Figs 4View FIGURE 4 A, B). Sternite 9 extending posteriorly to halfway between the base of gonocoxa and the base of gonostylus, laterally sharply delimited, posterior margin convex, anterior margin deeply notched, the setae similar to adjacent ventral setae of gonocoxa. The ventral mesial margin of gonocoxa convex at middle. Parastylar lobe exposed but partly fused with the mesial margin of gonocoxa, with 5–6 long setae directed obliquely posteriad. Paraapodemal lobe well exposed in ventral view of hypopygium. The dorsal mesial margin of gonocoxa narrowed angulately just beyond the middle, with a small setose lobe at the angle, with a larger apically setose lobe in a more apical position. One juxtagonostylar seta present: an apically flattened and expanded megaseta, arising from a large clavate basal body, which is as long as the megaseta. Gonostylus elongate, simple, the setae similar to the ventral setae of gonocoxa. Tegmen triangular, basally very broad, with indistinct lateral shoulders. Hypoproct posteriorly just reaching the level of the base of gonostylus, with about 30 scattered ventral setae on each half. In the holotype there are 4 setae dorsally in the membraneous area between the gonocoxae and which probably belong to tergite 9. Cerci separate.

Female. Similar to male. Antennal flagellomere 4 in the single specimen seen in oblique ventral view with its length/width ratio 0.8. Palpomere 3 with 3 curved sensilla. Anepisternum non-setose, anterior basalare non-setose, preepisternum 2 with 14 setae, laterotergite with 16 setae, episternum 3 with 7 setae. Wing length 1.4 mm. Apical part of abdomen, Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 F: the long setae on tergite 9 arising from basal bodies, which are much longer than basally wide. Cercus two-segmented.

Preimaginal stages unknown.

Discussion. M. serawei  is similar to M. ctenophora  and M. taedia  . It differs from both by having the parastylar lobe fused with the ventral mesial margin of gonocoxa, by having a narrow subapical lobe at the dorsal mesial margin of gonocoxa instead of a very broad one, by having the juxtagonostylar megaseta apically entire, not bi- or trifurcate, by having the basal body of the juxtagonostylar megaseta as long as the megaseta instead of a low tubercle only, and by lacking a strong seta apically on the gonostylus. All three species are similar to M. maorica  and M. unifurcata  in the non-setose anepisternum, and to M. maorica  also in some hypopygial characters. For further discussion, see under M. maorica  . The hypopygium of M. serawei  is reminiscent of M. explicans  , especially in the dorsal aspect. It differs by having one apically setose subapical lobe at the dorsal mesial margin of gonocoxa instead of two and by having the juxtagonostylar megaseta arising from a basal body as long as the megaseta; in M. explicans  the basal body is almost non-existent. In ventral aspect, the hypopygium of the two species is greatly different: e.g. in M. serawei  the lateral margin of sternite 9 is long, the paraapodemal lobe is large and well exposed, the parastylar lobe is exposed and the hypoproct is of the usual dimensions, whereas in M. explicans  the sternite 9 is laterally fused with the gonocoxite so that there is only a short lateral margin posteriorly, the paraapodemal lobe is small and wholly concealed under the gonocoxa, the parastylar lobe is concealed under the gonocoxa and the hypoproct is unusually large, larger than the space between gonocoxae and sternite 9. In addition, M. serawei  differs from M. explicans  by the non-setose anepisternum. M. serawei  is also similar to a lesser extent to M. perissochaeta  , which is similar to M. explicans  . See under M. explicans  .

Types. Holotype. Male, Papua New Guinea, Morobe province, Lakekamu basin, Tekadu, 470 m a. s. l., Malaise trap close to Yenina river, 17–20.XI. 1999, H. Hippa, R. Norberg D. Borisch (in NRM).

Paratypes. 3 males, Papua New Guinea, Madang province, Hapurpi village, nr. Halopa mission, 700 m, S 5 o 05’, E 145 o 41 ’, primary forest, Malaise trap, January 2001, Amari & Novotny leg. (in NRM); 1 male, Papua New Guinea, Madang province, Halopa village, primary forest, 600 m a. s.l., Malaise trap, November 2000, Lukáš Č iżek leg. (in NRM); 1 male, Papua New Guinea, Madang province, Baitang village, Kau wildlife area, 50 m a. s. l., S 5 o 08’, E 145 o 46 ’, primary forest, Malaise trap, 2 – 19.2.2000, Lukáš Č iżek leg. (in NRM).

Other material. 1 female with same data as the holotype (in NRM).

Etymology. The species is named for Mr. Stuart Serawe, Conservation Officer, Lakekamu ICDA Project, Foundation for People & Community Development, Inc., Boroko, Papua New Guinea.


Swedish Museum of Natural History - Zoological Collections














Manota maorica Edwards

Hippa, Heikki 2007

Manota maorica

Tonnoir 1927: 801