Hennemann, Frank H., Conle, Oskar V., Bellanger, Yannick, Lelong, Philippe & Jourdan, Toni, 2018, Studies on neotropical Phasmatodea XVII: Revision of Phantasca Redtenbacher, 1906, with the descriptions of six new species (Phasmatodea: Diapheromeridae: Diapheromerinae), European Journal of Taxonomy 435, pp. 1-62: 50-56
treatment provided by
Phantasca ruboligata sp. nov.
Figs 104 View Figure –119
Phantasca sp. III – Jourdan, Lelong & Bellanger 2014: 489.
FRENCH GUIANA: ♂, “ Guyane, Montagne de Kaw , 5-12 VIII 92, Roubaud, Auvray, Rarchaert rec” (MNHN).
N4°41.747' W52°18.339, leg. T. Jourdan 9.VIII.2015 ” ( FH 0947-E1); 3 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, 10 eggs, “ex Zucht F. Hennemann 2017, Herkunft : Französisch Guayana, Route de Roura, N 4°41.747' W 52°18.339, leg. T. Jourdan 9.VIII.2015 ” (FH 0947-1–0947-4, E2).
Amongst the species of Phantasca currently known from French Guiana and the eastern regions of Brazil, males of this pretty new species are well characterised by the long, hook-like cerci that are otherwise only seen in P. heteronemia ( Günther, 1940) from northwest Brazil and P. poeciloptera ( Günther, 1940) from eastern Peru. They resemble P. amabile sp. nov. from Ecuador, but males of P. ruboligata sp. nov. differ by the almost entire posterior margin of the anal segment, much smaller poculum, unicoloured head, pronotum, mesonotum and abdominal tergites II–VI, green mesosternum, plain green costal region of the alae, which only have the extreme apex and intero-basal portion black, as well as the differently shaped black markings on abdominal tergites VIII and IX. Females are similar to those of P. nigrolineata sp. nov. but differ by the more stocky body and legs, bright red interior surface of the profemora (plain green in P. nigrolineata sp. nov.), longer median segment and longer, apically acutely pointed cerci, which are decidedly longer than the anal segment (blunt apically and at best equal in length to the anal segment in P. nigrolineata sp. nov.). The eggs (Figs 117–119) are fairly different from all other known eggs of the genus and would suggest that P. ruboligata sp. nov. belongs to a different genus, but the insect’s morphology leaves no doubt that this species belongs in Phantasca .
The name of this new species (rubus Lat. = red, ligatus Lat. = ligature) refers to the bright red scapus, coxae and bases of the tibiae.
Male ( Figs 109–110 View Figure )
BODY. Size fairly small (body length 41.4–51.3 mm, Table 12); form moderately slender and elongate.
COLOUR. Colouration very characteristic. General colour plain pale to mid green, sometimes, with a slight yellowish hue. Head, with a faint mid to dull green postocular streak along cheeks and lateral margins
of mesonotum somewhat darker green than rest of body. Episternum I and epimerum I contrasting black ( Fig. 111 View Figure ). Probasisternum and mesosternum dark brown ( Fig. 113 View Figure ), metasternum dull orange. Tegmina and alae of same colour as body, with all major veins mid to dull green. Apex of tegmina red, apex and interobasal portion of costal region of alae black. Anal fan of alae transparent, with only the apical portion slightly greyish. Abdominal tergum VIII, with a bold black longitudinal marking antero-medially and two diverging black stripes post-laterally; IX only, with a bold black anteromedian marking. Cerci red.Antennae pale greyish brown, the scapus bright red, the pedicellus and antennomere III dull grey. All coxae, apex of all femora and base of all tibiae and tarsomeres bright red. Pre-apical portion of all femora as well as apex of all tibiae and all tarsomeres black. All femora and tibiae occasionally, with a few weakly defined black spots ventrally.
HEAD. Oval, sub-globose, with the vertex gently convex and about 1.2× as long as wide; broadest at the eyes ( Fig. 111 View Figure ). Frons, with a pair of shallow humps between the eyes. Eyes large, circular, projecting hemispherically and their length contained about 1.5× in that of cheeks. Antennae slightly longer than body. Scapus somewhat narrowed basally and almost 1.5× as long as wide, pedicellus sub-globose and antennomere III almost 2× as long as pedicellus.
THORAX. Pronotum considerably shorter and narrower than head, the transverse median sulcus somewhat displaced towards the anterior, fairly distinct, almost straight and expanding over entire width of segment ( Fig. 111 View Figure ). Mesothorax some 2.9× as long as head and pronotum combined ( Fig. 112 View Figure ). Tegmina fairly broad for the genus, gradually narrowed towards the base, with the apical portion roundly spatulate. Alae reaching about halfway along abdominal segment V.
ABDOMEN. Median segment about 5× as long as metanotum. Segments II–IV roughly equal in length and about 5× as long as wide; V–VII gradually decreasing in length, with VII only about half the length of II–IV. VII narrowed in anterior portion and slightly deflexed and rounded in posterior half. VIII strongly swollen, globose and considerably broader than all other segments; the lateral margins concave pre-basally and weakly separated from sternum VIII ( Figs 115–116 View Figure ); the latter strongly swollen and laterally projecting over tergum, bulgy and with the upper anterior portions convex and protruded dorsally. Tergum IX slightly longer than VIII, constricted medially and slightly widening in posterior half; the lateral margins well separated ventrally. Vomer weakly developed, with only a very small triangular terminal hook. Anal segment slightly cucullate and hardly longer than wide; posterior margin, with a shallow indention medially and the outer lateral portions obtusely rounded ( Fig. 114 View Figure ); thorn pads lacking. Poculum bowl-shaped, with the lateral margins strongly excavated ( Fig. 115 View Figure ) and the apical portion narrowed, upcurving and bilabiate ( Fig. 116 View Figure ). Cerci long, hookshaped and somewhat longer than anal segment; projecting considerably beyond apex of abdomen.
LEGS. All long and slender. Profemora a little longer than head, pro- and mesothorax combined, mesofemora somewhat longer than mesothorax and metatibiae, projecting considerably beyond apex of abdomen. Pro- and metabasitarsi more than 2× as long as the remaining tarsomeres combined; mesobasitarsus only about 1.5× as long as remaining tarsomeres combined.
Female ( Fig. 104 View Figure )
BODY. Size medium (body length 58.7–80.0 mm, Table 12); form moderately slender for the genus. Body entirely smooth.
COLOUR. Plain green, meso- and metasternum pale cream. Epimerum I, with a fine longitudinal black line along upper margin ( Fig. 105 View Figure ). Legs plain green, with tarsi tawny and the lower portion of interior surface and inner portion of ventral surface of profemora bright red. Antennae ochraceous.
HEAD. Roundly rectangular, the vertex gently convex and with a scarce longitudinal median sulcus, cheeks slightly narrowing ( Fig. 105 View Figure ). Frons, with two shallow pits between bases of antennae. Eyes of average size, circular and their length contained almost 2× in that of cheeks. Antennae reaching to posterior margin of abdominal segment III; otherwise as in males.
THORAX. Pronotum noticeably shorter and narrower than head, the anterolateral angles somewhat deflexed and the transverse median sulcus displaced towards the anterior, distinct, slightly curved and almost expanding over entire width of segment ( Fig. 105 View Figure ). Mesothorax about 2.3× as long as head and pronotum combined, uniform in width.
ABDOMEN. Median segment only about 1.4× as long as metanotum and gently constricted medially. Abdominal segment II–IV slightly increasing in length, V about equal in length to IV and VI–VII decreasing in length and width; IV about 1.6× as long as wide. Praeopercular organ very indistinct and merely represented as a very shallow rough posteromedian swelling on sternum VII. Tergites VIII–X of uniform width and somewhat narrower than preceding. Anal segment a little shorter than IX, indistinctly tectinate longitudinally and somewhat narrowed towards the posterior; the posterior margin sub-rectangular, with a very shallow median indention ( Fig. 106 View Figure ). Epiproct fairly large, roundly triangular, tectinate and considerably projecting over anal segment ( Fig. 106 View Figure ). Gonapophyses VIII much elongated, slender, filiform and projecting beyond apex of subgenital plate ( Fig. 107 View Figure ). Cerci very long, slender, straight, gradually constricted towards a slender tip and considerably longer than anal segment ( Fig. 106–108 View Figure ). Subgenital plate elongate, with lateral margins convergent and weakly convex to the fairly acute apex, which fails to reach the apex of the anal segment by a brief distance; the apical half weakly carinate longitudinally.
LEGS. All fairly long and slender. Anterodorsal carina of profemora moderately raised sub-basally. Profemora a little longer than mesothorax and metatibiae almost reaching apex of abdomen. Pro- and metabasitarsus somewhat longer than remaining tarsomeres combined, mesobasitarsus about equal to combined length of remaining tarsomeres.
Egg (Figs 117–119) Small, ovoid, oval in cross-section, almost 1.2× as long as high and about 1.5× as long as wide. Dorsal surface considerably more convex than ventral surface, the dorsal margin somewhat protuded. Complete capsule surface covered by an irregular network of raised hairy ridges; the spaces in between almost smooth and glossy. Micropylar plate somewhat displaced towards the anterior, small, elongate and very gently widened sub-posteriorly; some 3.6× as long as wide and just a little more than half the length of capsule. Outer margin bulgy, raised and covered, with the same hairy structures as the ridges of the capsule; interior portion, with a longitudinal median hairy ridge and several transverse ridges connecting this, with the outer bulge. Micropylar cup small, bowl-shaped. Median line very short. Operculum convex, oval and slightly narrowed towards the dorsal surface; capitulum surrounded by a raised rim of hairy structures and outer portion, with several radial ridges. Capitulum small and an open network. General colour pale glossy ochre, the raised ridges of the capsule and operculum cream. Micropylar plate pale grey and capitulum dull reddish brown.
Measurements (in mm). Length (incl. operculum) 2.70, length 2.50, width 1.70, height 2.00, length of micropylar plate 1.30, diameter of operculum 1.20 × 1.40.
Males show quite some variability in the shape and size of the black markings on abdominal segments VIII and IX. The great number of specimens available shows this species is fairly common in some localities, e.g., Montagnes de Kaw and Montagne des Chevaux. Captive breeding in Europe is currently being attempted from stock collected in 2015. Hatching rates in the first generation were close to 90%. Nymphs accepted eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus spp., Myrtaceae ) and St. John’s wort ( Hypericum patulum ‘Hidcote’, Hypericaceae ) as alternative foodlants and took about seven months to reach maturity. Unfortunately, nothing is known about the natural food plants.
French Guiana: Montagnes de Kaw , Piste de Kaw ( MNHNAbout MNHN); Commune de Roura , Route de Roura ( ASPER); Commune de Roura , Montagne de Cheveaux (OC); Commune de Saül, Belvedere (OC); Commune de Mana, Laussat (OC).
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