Peprilus crenulatus Cuvier, 1829

Marceniuk, Alexandre P., Caires, Rodrigo, Siccha-Ramirez, Raquel & Oliveira, Claudio, 2016, Review of the harvestfishes, genus Peprilus (Perciformes: Stromateidae), of the Atlantic coast of South America, Zootaxa 4098 (2), pp. 311-332: 316-320

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4098.2.6

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A09B292F-2522-4755-9054-678C5C1B74CD

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03DC795F-FF96-4265-9DA9-FF6BC583F811

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Plazi

scientific name

Peprilus crenulatus Cuvier, 1829
status

 

Peprilus crenulatus Cuvier, 1829 

( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1, Tables 2, 3)

Peprilus crenulatus Cuvier, 1829: 214  [original description; type locality: Cayenne, French Guiana. Syntypes: MNHNAbout MNHN 0000- 4060 (1), A- 5326 (1)].—Cuvier, 1836−1849: 141, fig. 3, pi. 64.— De Lanois, 1963: 222 [ MNHNAbout MNHN type catalog].

Rhombus crenulatus Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1833: 410  [redescription].

Rhombus argentipinnis Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1833: 405  [original description. Type locality: Montevideo, Uruguay. Syntypes: MNHNAbout MNHN 0000- 4061 (3)].— De Lanois, 1963: 222 [ MNHNAbout MNHN type catalog].

Stromateus gardenii Günther, 1860: 399  [in part; Catalog of Fishes of the British Museum; northeastern Brazilian coast, Bahia].

Rhombus orbicularis Guichenot, 1866: 245  [original description, type locality: Cayenne, French Guiana. Syntypes: MNHNAbout MNHN 0000- 4306 (8)].

Stromateus paru  von Ihering, 1897: 43 [in part; occurrence, Rio Grande do Sul; synonymy of Stromateus gardenii  and S. alepidotus  ].— Pozzi & Bordale, 1935: 164 [in part; occurrence; Argentina, 35 o 30´S to 38 o 30 ’ S].

Rhombus paru Devincenzi, 1924: 220  [fishes of Uruguay].— Devincenzi & Legrand, 1936: plate 26 [ Uruguay; ichthyological album].

Seserinus paru Ringuelet & Aramburu, 1961: 83  [in part; fishes of Argentina]

Peprilus paru  (not of Linnaeus, 1758).— Haedrich, 1967: 106 [in part; revision; synonymy].— Horn, 1970: 202 [in part; revision; synonymy].— Haedrich & Horn, 1972: 32 [in part; identification key; distribution, New York to Argentina].— Cervigón & Cousseau, 1971: 22 [in part; ichthyological collection Instituto de Biologia Marina, Mar  del Plata, Argentina].— Lopez & Miquelarena, 1980: 281 −283 [description; distribution; synonymy; Argentina].—Shimizu in Uyeno et al., 1983: 429 [fishes trawled off Suriname and French Guiana; description, photograph].— Menni et al., 1984: 196, 328 [in part; fishes of Uruguay and Argentina; illustrated].— Valdez & Aguillera, 1987: 162 [Gulf of Venezuela; description; photograph].- Cerqueira & Haimovici, 1990: 599 −613 [in part; Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; population dynamics].— Haimovici et al., 1994: 66 [in part; Brazil Subtropical Convergence Ecosystem].— Figueiredo & Menezes, 2000: 32 [in part; description; distribution].— Camargo & Isaac, 2001: 148 [estuarine fishes; northern Brazilian coast].− Figueiredo et al., 2002: 221 [description; material from southern Brazilian coast].— Menezes, 2003: 104 [in part; catalog of marine fishes of the Brazilian coast].− Mabragaña et al., 2011: 9 [in part; barcoding; Argentina].— Fischer, Pereira & Vieira, 2011: 101 [in part; Patos Laguna, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

Morphological diagnosis. Peprulis crenulatus  differs from its congeners, except P. xanthurus  , by having 11−12 pre-caudal vertebrae (vs. 13 or more, rarely 12, in all other representatives, excluding P. x an t hu r u s, Table 3); 28−29 total vertebrae (vs. 30 or more in P. medius  , P. ovatus  , P. simillimus  , and P. snyderi  , Table 3); body height 58.5 −79.0% SL (vs. 33.0− 52.% SL in P. burti  , P. simillimus  , P. snyderi  , P. ovatus  , and P. triacanthus  , Fig. 1View FIGURE 1, Table 2); no series of pores along the front half of body under the dorsal fin (vs. 17−25 pores in P. triacanthus  ); a moderately falcate dorsal fin (vs. not falcate in P. triacanthus  , or conspicuously falcate in P. pa r u Figs. 1View FIGURE 1, 4View FIGURE 4); specimens larger than 90 mm SL, with an extremely falcate anal fin (vs. not falcate or moderately falcate in P. burti  , P. simillimus  , P. snyderi  , P. ovatus  , and P. triacanthus  , Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 g, h). Peprulis crenulatus  is further distinguished from sympatric P. xanthurus  by the lack of a conspicuous dark spot over the eyes, from snout to nape (vs. with a conspicuous dark spot over the eyes, especially conspicuous in fresh specimens, Figs. 1View FIGURE 1, 2View FIGURE 2 e,f); in specimens smaller than 110 mm SL, the orbital diameter 1.6 −5.0 in anal-fin height (vs. 5.1 −8.0, Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 a); in specimens larger than 109 mm SL, the orbital diameter 3.2−5.2 in anal-fin height (vs. 5.5−9.2, Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 a); in specimens larger than 109 mm SL, the orbital diameter 2.9−3.8 in pectoral-fin height (vs. 3.9−5.9, Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 b); in specimens larger than 109 mm SL, the orbital diameter 0.8−1.4 in post-orbital length (vs. 1.5−2.3, Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 c). Peprulis crenulatus  is additionally distinguished from P. p ar u by having moderately long to short dorsal fin and relatively long caudal fin lobe, the length of the lower lobe of the caudal fin is more than 1.2 times the length of the dorsal fin (vs. 1.2 times the length or less) ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1, 4View FIGURE 4).

Molecular diagnosis. The DNAAbout DNA barcode of P. crenulatus  forms a distinct cluster with genetic distances of 10.0 to 13.0% from all other species (except P. ovatus  from the Pacific coast of Mexico and P. snyderi  from the eastern Pacific; Fig. 5View FIGURE 5). Genetic distance to P. xanthurus  is 13.0%, and 11.0% to P. burt  i and P. pa r u ( Table 4). The haplotypes of P. crenulatus  differed from all other members of the genus (excluding P. ovatus  and P. snyderi  ) by 60 to 74 bases, 74 from P. xanthurus  , 64 from P. b ur t i, and 66 from P. paru  ( Table 5).

Description. Morphometric data in Table 2, meristic data in Table 3. Counts D. III−V. 39 −45; A. III−IV. 36 −41; P. 20−22; vertebrae 11−12 + 17−18; gill rakers 3−7 + 14−18. Body compressed, short and very deep. Dorsal profile steep at snout, convex from eye to origin of dorsal fin, descending, slightly convex along base of dorsal fin to caudal peduncle. Ventral profile steep along head to pectoral girdle, descending, slightly concave from pectoral girdle to origin of anal fin, ascending, mildly convex along base of anal fin to caudal peduncle. Head dorsum and nape with vertical rows of branched, subdermal canals. Head deep, with very short snout and small mouth, barely reaching anterior border of eye, upper jaw fixed, teeth long, conical or tricuspid in upper jaw, conical in lower jaw. Eye lateral and large, post-orbital region as large as eye diameter. Opercle with small lobe on posterior margin, occasionally with concavity on posterodorsal margin. Scales cycloid, small, deciduous on flanks and dorsal and anal fin bases to nape, present also on belly, under eye (4−5 horizontal rows) and preopercle, absent on pectoral base and opercle. Dorsal-fin base long and discreetly falcate, anteriorly with small, plate-like spines partially embedded in skin. Pectoral fin falcate, 2 nd and 3 rd rays longest. Anal-fin base longer than dorsal fin, falcate. Caudal peduncle short, relatively low. Caudal fin forked, upper lobe slightly longer than lower. Lateral line slightly arched, with 59−79 small scales, some of them pored, extending to upper margin of caudal peduncle.

Coloration of the fresh specimens. Grayish brown on upper half of the head and along the dorsal margin, silvery on flanks, with a slight orange-red hue on the snout of some specimens ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 f, h). Dorsal fin dusky, darker on the tips of the longer rays, some individuals with a yellow hue on the posterior soft rays; anal fin whitish at base, slightly dusky at the tip, tips of soft rays slightly yellowish, with scattered melanophores in some specimens; pectoral fin hyaline with very small, pepper-like black dots, slightly yellowish in some specimens. Caudal fin light yellowish ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 f, h).

Coloration of the preserved specimens. Light brown on the head and upper third of the trunk, silvery white on flanks; fins hyaline ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 e, g).

Morphological variation. Significant variation is found in the development of P. crenulatus  , in the 56 to 135 mm SL size interval ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6), expressed by either negative or positive allometry in 16 of the 22 characters examined ( Table 2, Fig. 7View FIGURE 7). Smaller specimens present a deeper head and body ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 b, c), larger eyes ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 a), and wider mouth ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 d). Smaller specimens also have longer snout to pectoral base distance and longer snout to dorsal fin distance ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 e, f). Positive allometry was observed in the depth of the caudal peduncle ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 i), post-orbital distance ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 h), and the depth of the dorsal and anal fins ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 g). No variation was detected in the profile of the lateral line.

Sexual dimorphism. The small number of fresh specimens examined did not permit the differentiation of males and females.

Distribution and habitat. Peprilus crenulatus  occurs between French Guiana and Argentina (5 ° 41 ’ N to 38 °00’ S), inhabiting estuarine and coastal marine waters at depths of up to 136 meters ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8). The species is relatively common on the northern coast of Brazil, but it is rare or absent between Cape Frio in Rio de Janeiro State to Paraná State (22 ° 50 ’ S to 26 °00’ S), resurging on the coast of the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, south to Argentina (26 °00’ to 38 °00’ S). In the Brazilian Northeast, specimens were collected near the Mundaú Lagoon in the state of Alagoas (9 ° 40 ' S). The species was not observed in the catches of the industrial fishery of São Paulo and either in the state’s fish markets, but it is common in the catches of artisanal fisheries of the northern coast of Brazil, though always in small number of specimens (A. Marceniuk, pers. obs.). It probably does not form large schools.

Remarks. Peprilus crenulatus  was described by Cuvier (1829) based on two specimens collected in Cayenne. Our examination of the type specimen revealed that it represents a valid species, based on the presence of a short anal fin, which is especially short in smaller specimens ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 e, f). The nominal species Rhombus argentipinnis  ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 c, d), described from three specimens from Montevideo, Uruguay, and Rhombus orbicularis  ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 b), described from eight specimens obtained from the same type locality of Peprilus crenulatus  , share the relatively short anal fin with Peprilus crenulatus  , and are thus recognized as junior synonyms of this species. The morphometric data also confirm that Rhombus argentipinnis  and Rhombus orbicularis  are conspecifics of Peprilus crenulatus  , which is distinguished from P. xanthurus  by the ratio of the orbital diameter to anal-fin height, which is 1.2 in Peprilus crenulatus  , 3.0− 3.5 in Rhombus argentipinnis  , and 1.4−1.6 in Rhombus orbicularis  (vs. 5.1−8.8 in P. xanthurus  ). The exact identification of specimens presented in the literature is difficult to ascertain, given that Peprilus paru  was for many years considered the only harvestfish species found in the western South Atlantic. However, it was possible to assign to Peprilus crenulatus  the specimens collected in Suriname (reported in Uyeno et al., 1983), based on the provided photograph. The presence of 29 vertebrae in the specimens presented by Lopez & Miquelarena (1970) allows them to be distinguished from Peprilus paru  in the western North Atlantic. This study also presents an illustration depicting a specimen with a relatively short anal fin, which can be identified as Peprilus crenulatus  . The same criterion was used to identify the specimens examined by Figueiredo et al. (2002) as P. crenluatus  .

Material examined: Type specimens. MNHNAbout MNHN 4061, 3, syntypes of Rhombus argentipinnis  , Montevideo, Uruguay (photographic image); MNHNAbout MNHN 6828, 1, syntypes of Peprilus crenulatus, Cayenne  (photographic image); MNHNAbout MNHN 4306, 8, syntypes of Rhombus orbicularis, Cayenne  , French Guiana (photographic image).

Non-type specimens: Brazil. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 103940 (1, 86 mm SL), 0 1 o 59 '09''N, 48 o 42 '07''W, Amapá; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67653 (1, 68 mm SL), Alegre, Marapanim, Pará; AZUSC 1067 (1, 109 mm SL), Ajuruteua, Bragança, Pará; MPEGAbout MPEG apm 137 (2, 115 - 131 mm SL), Ajuruteua, Bragança, Pará; MPEGAbout MPEG apm 109 (3, 123 − 128 mm SL), Ajuruteua, Bragança, Pará; MPEGAbout MPEG apm 1174 (7, 85− 92 mm SL), Ajuruteua, Bragança, Pará; MPEGAbout MPEG apm 1182 (3, 71− 110 mm SL), Ajuruteua, Bragança, Pará; MPEGAbout MPEG apm 1211 (2, 103 − 107 mm SL), Ajuruteua, Bragança, Pará; MPEGAbout MPEG apm 1218 (6, 86− 109 mm SL), Ajuruteua, Bragança, Pará; MPEGAbout MPEG apm 275 (2, 121 − 123 mm SL) Ajuruteua, Bragança, Pará; MPEGAbout MPEG apm 181 (1, 111 mm SL), Ajuruteua, Bragança, Pará; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67583 (1, 102 mm SL), rio Curuca, Ilha de São Luís, Maranhão; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 51150 (2, 59− 63 mm SL), 9 o 37 'S, 35 o 48 'W, lagoa Mundaú, Maceio, Alagoas; MNH-UFAL 1134 (2, 96− 116 mm SL), Maceió, Alagoas; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67669 (3, 56− 78 mm SL), Bahia, Maragogipe, mouth of rio Paraguaçu, 12 o 45 ' S, 38 o 56 ' W; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 61308 (3, 97− 107 mm SL), 17 o 45 ' S, 39 o 10 ' W, mouth of rio Caravelas, Bahia; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 79266 (2, 46.7−88 mm SL), Corumbau extractive reserve, Bahia; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67604 (4, 94− 106 mm SL), 18 o 45 ' S, 39 o 35 ' W, São Mateus, Espírito Santo; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67668 (3, 56− 85 mm SL), rio Doce, Espirito Santo; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67636 (4, 88− 96 mm SL), Cabo de São Tomé, Rio de Janeiro; LBP 10538 (2, 65− 76 mm SL), 22 ° 22 ' 26.9 '' S, 41 ° 43 ' 14.3 '' W, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro; NPM 139 (1, 114 mm SL), Santana archipelago, 15 m deep, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro; NPM 173 (1, 111 mm SL), Santana archipelago, 15 m deep, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro; NPM 2598 (1, 125 mm SL), fish marked, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; fish marked, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67595 (4, 109 − 121 mm SL), 22 o 33 ' S, 41 o 24 ' W, 46−74 m deep, Rio de Janeiro; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67581 (1, 76 mm SL), Moela island, Santos, São Paulo; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67607 (3, 87− 118 mm SL), 28 o 28 ' S, 48 o 29 ' W, 70 m deep, Santa Catarina; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67643 (2, 107 − 118 mm SL), 29 o 13 ' S, 49 o 35 ' W, Santa Catarina; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67626 (1, 119 mm SL), 29 o 34 ' S, 49 o09' W, 76−91 m deep, Rio Grande do Sul; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67654 (1, 133 mm SL), 30 o06' S, 48 o 56 ' W, 136 m deep, Rio Grande do Sul; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67650 (3, 101 − 112 mm SL), 31 o 45 ' S, 51 o 26 ' W, 15 m deep, Rio Grande do Sul; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67649 (2, 43.4−97.7 mm SL), 32 o05' S, 51 o 55 ' W, 13 m deep, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67681 (1, 68 mm SL), 32 o 58 ' S, 52 o 30 ' W, 13 m deep, Rio Grande do Sul; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67663 (2, 66− 72 mm SL), Rio Grande do Sul, 33 o 58 ' S, 52 o 50 ' W, 29 m deep; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67586 (1, 113 mm SL), Rio Grande do Sul, 32 o 36 ' S, 51 o 33 ' W; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 67633 (8, 80− 91 mm SL), Rio Grande do Sul.

TABLE 2. Measurements of Peprilus crenulatus expressed as percentages of standard length in two size groups.

  Mean   Mean
Standard length (mm) 47   24
Head length 42   24.2−31.8 22   24.3−30.9
Head depth 45   51.5−66.8 23
Snout length 41   23
Pos orbital length 44   10.0−14.7 23
Orbital diameter 47   10.2−14.5 24
Interorbital distance 45   23
Mouth width 40
Body depth 46   23
Body width 43   24   13.6−19.6
Distance from snout to dorsal fin 44   29.7−40.3 23
Dorsal-fin length 40   17.6−33.8 21   25.0−35.0
Dorsal-fin base length 46   24   60.1−66.2
Distance from snout to pectoral fin 40   25.0−31.3 14
Pectoral fin length 46   23   34.1−41.3
Distance from snout to anal fin 47   34.1−47.9 22
Anal-fin length 47   21.2−59.0 23   31.7−57.8
Anal-fin base length 45   55.9−66.0 23
Caudal–peduncle height 45   24
Caudal -peduncle width 45   20
Caudal-peduncle length 43   22
Caudal–fin upper lobe length 34   34.6−45.3 18
Caudal–fin lower lobe length 37   18

Peprulis crenulatus 

TABLE 3. Meristic frequencies of the pectoral fin (A). dorsal fin (B). anal fin (C). pre-caudal. caudal. and total vertebrae number (D). and gill rakers on the first gill arch (E).

P. crenulatus
  39   44   46 47
P. crenulatus
  36 37 38   41 42
P. crenulatus
  17 18   30
P. crenulatus   17
  20
  lower limb
  15   17 18
P. crenulatus

TABLE 2. Measurements of Peprilus crenulatus expressed as percentages of standard length in two size groups.

  Mean   Mean
Standard length (mm) 47   24
Head length 42   24.2−31.8 22   24.3−30.9
Head depth 45   51.5−66.8 23
Snout length 41   23
Pos orbital length 44   10.0−14.7 23
Orbital diameter 47   10.2−14.5 24
Interorbital distance 45   23
Mouth width 40
Body depth 46   23
Body width 43   24   13.6−19.6
Distance from snout to dorsal fin 44   29.7−40.3 23
Dorsal-fin length 40   17.6−33.8 21   25.0−35.0
Dorsal-fin base length 46   24   60.1−66.2
Distance from snout to pectoral fin 40   25.0−31.3 14
Pectoral fin length 46   23   34.1−41.3
Distance from snout to anal fin 47   34.1−47.9 22
Anal-fin length 47   21.2−59.0 23   31.7−57.8
Anal-fin base length 45   55.9−66.0 23
Caudal–peduncle height 45   24
Caudal -peduncle width 45   20
Caudal-peduncle length 43   22
Caudal–fin upper lobe length 34   34.6−45.3 18
Caudal–fin lower lobe length 37   18

Peprulis crenulatus 

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

DNA

Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport

MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

MPEG

Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Perciformes

Family

Stromateidae

Genus

Peprilus

Loc

Peprilus crenulatus Cuvier, 1829

Marceniuk, Alexandre P., Caires, Rodrigo, Siccha-Ramirez, Raquel & Oliveira, Claudio 2016

2016
Loc

Peprilus paru

Mabragana 2011: 9Fischer 2011: 101
Menezes 2003: 104
Figueiredo 2002: 221
Camargo 2001: 148
Figueiredo 2000: 32
Haimovici 1994: 66
Cerqueira 1990: 599
Valdez 1987: 162
Menni 1984: 196
Uyeno 1983: 429
Lopez 1980: 281
Haedrich 1972: 32
Cervigon 1971: 22
Horn 1970: 202
Haedrich 1967: 106

1967
Loc

Peprilus crenulatus

De 1963: 222Cuvier 1829: 214

1963
Loc

Rhombus argentipinnis

De 1963: 222Cuvier 1833: 405

1963
Loc

Stromateus paru

Pozzi 1935: 164
Ihering 1897: 43

1897
Loc

Rhombus crenulatus

Cuvier 1833: 410

Loc

Stromateus gardenii Günther, 1860 : 399

Gunther 1860: 399

Loc

Rhombus orbicularis

Guichenot 1866: 245

Loc

Rhombus paru

Devincenzi 1924: 220

Loc

Seserinus paru

Ringuelet 1961: 83