Paramaka incognita, Domínguez & Grillet & Nieto & Molineri & Guerrero, 2014

Domínguez, Eduardo, Grillet, Maria-Eugenia, Nieto, Carolina, Molineri, Carlos & Guerrero, Edmundo, 2014, Ephemeroptera from the Venezuelan Guayanas´s Uplands: Families Leptophlebiidae, Euthyplociidae and Oligoneuriidae, Zootaxa 3827 (3), pp. 301-317 : 308-313

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.3827.3.1

publication LSID


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Paramaka incognita

sp. nov.

Paramaka incognita sp. nov.

( Figs. 7 View FIGURES 7–15 –22)

Mature nymph ( Fig. 7–8 View FIGURES 7–15 ). In alcohol. Body length: 8.2–9.5 mm. General coloration orange-brown. Head: orangebrown with whitish marks between eyes and lateral ocelli. Blackish line between base of median ocellus and apex of lateral ones, ocelli black. Upper portion of male eyes orange-brown, lower portion black. Eyes of female black. Antennae: scape and pedicel brown, flagellum yellowish-orange. Mouthparts ( Figs. 9–12 View FIGURES 7–15 ): clypeus, labrum ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 7–15 ), incisors, prostheca, base of molars and central area of mandible ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 7–15 ) and setae of maxillae ( Fig. 11 View FIGURES 7–15 ) orangebrown, remaining parts lighter, except base of mandible, maxillae and labium ( Fig. 12 View FIGURES 7–15 ) washed with black. Thorax ( Fig. 8 View FIGURES 7–15 ): terga orange-brown, with anterior margin of pronotum and base and inner margins of wingpads blackish; pleura and sterna yellowish-white. Legs: dark orange-brown with apex of femora and base and apex of tarsi yellowish white. Claws yellowish white with denticles orangish, with very small accessory denticles near apex of claw ( Fig. 13 View FIGURES 7–15 ). Abdomen ( Fig. 8 View FIGURES 7–15 ): terga yellowish-orange, darker posteriorly; posterolateral angles washed with black, posterior margin of each segment bordered with a row of triangular spines and setae ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 7–15 ). Sterna yellowish-white, with blackish lines along lateral margins of segments VIII–IX. Gills oval, grayish ( Fig. 7–8 View FIGURES 7–15 ), present on segments I–VI, smaller posteriorly, without thin and pointed projection. Posterolateral projections strong, clearly diverging from the abdomen and present on segments VII–IX ( Fig. 14 View FIGURES 7–15 ). Caudal filaments orangish, except basal segments ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 7–15 ).

Female imago. In alcohol. Length: body, 11.2–11.3 mm; fore wings, 13.0–13.2 mm; hind wings, 1.7–1.8 mm. General coloration ( Figs. 16–17 View FIGURES 16–19 ) yellowish-white, with brown markings. Head: whitish, with brownish marks between ocelli, posterior margin of head and between eyes and posterior margins of lateral ocelli; ocelli white, with inner margins black. Eyes black. Antennae: scape and pedicel brownish [flagellum broken-off and missing]. Thorax: pronotum whitish with lateral margins and central area tinged with black. Mesonotum with central area light orangebrown, surrounded with white towards the margins, posterior margins blackish. Metanotum yellowish, with central longitudinal stripe darker. Pleura and sterna mainly blackish-brown, with membranous areas yellowish-white. Wings: membranes hyaline. Base of fore wings with a brown spot; veins C, Sc and R 1 brownish, lighter apically; other veins translucent white. Hind wings with a basal brown spot; veins C, Sc and R 1 brown up to costal projection, remaining of this veins and rest of veins translucent. Legs: in leg I, coxa and trochanter yellowish white, washed with black, femur yellowish with base, apex and margins brownish, that surround the oval yellowish area; tibia brownish, tarsus I yellowish. Coxae and trochanters of legs II and III yellowish, heavily washed with brown. [Remaining parts of legs broken-off and missing]. Abdomen ( Figs. 16–17 View FIGURES 16–19 ): terga I–VI and X light brown, with medial area darker, and posterior margin of each segment darker; terga VII–VIII yellowish, heavily washed with black, especially in the postero-central area; terga IX yellowish. Sterna yellowish, with strong brown lateral marks on segments VII–IX. IX abdominal sternite widely cleft apically ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 16–19 ). [Caudal filaments broken-off and missing].

Female subimago. In alcohol. Length: body, 10.3–11.1 mm; fore wings, 12.5–13.0 mm; hind wings, 1.5–1.6 mm. General coloration ( Figs. 18–19 View FIGURES 16–19 ) similar to male subimago, except head and abdomen as in female imago, but colors duller.

Male subimago. In alcohol. Length: body, 10.1–10.5 mm; fore wings, 10.8–11.3 mm; hind wings, 1.4–1.5 mm. General coloration ( Figs. 20–21 View FIGURES 20–21 ) yellowish-white, with brown marks. Head: whitish, with thin stripes in front and lateral of ocelli. Upper portion of eyes orange-yellow, lower portion black. Ocelli white, with inner margins black. Antennae: scape and pedicel brown [flagellum broken-off and missing]. Thorax as in female imago, but paler. Wings as in female imago, but membrane translucent white, and coloration of C, Sc and R 1 of both wings fainter. Legs: mainly brownish-black, except femora yellowish-white, with base and apex brownish-black, this darker area more extended on posterior legs. Abdomen ( Figs. 20–21 View FIGURES 20–21 ): terga I–V translucent white, terga I almost completely tinged with black, terga II–V with oval posterolateral marks and posterior margins black; terga VI–X yellowish, terga VI with black markings similar to anterior terga, terga VII–IX with anterior ¾ of each segment washed with brown, and posterior margins black; tergum X with central area washed with black, lateral areas yellowish. Sterna whitish, sternum I almost completely washed with black, sterna II–VI translucent, sterna VII–VIII with broad lateral stripes that cover around 1/3 of segment width. Genitalia (Fig. 22): Styliger plate more diffusely tinged than precedent sterna. Forceps whitish, tinged with black, especially segments I and II. Penes white, with ventral spines yellowish. Caudal filaments black.

Variations. In the nymphs, there is a gradual darkening from the young to the more mature nymphs, especially on the male eyes upper portion, legs, abdomen and caudal filaments.

Material. Holotype, male nymph. Venezuela, Edo Bolívar. Tarotá stream, 5º49’15’’N – 61º25’04’’W, 1324 m, 18/III/2006. Collectors: MEG, EG and AMO GoogleMaps . Paratypes: 21 nymphs, same data as holotype GoogleMaps ; 1 female imago, 3 male and 2 female subimagos, 38 nymphs, except date: 27/ VI /2007. 1 nymph, Maraupan stream, 05º12’36’’N – 61º05’38’’W, 1194 m, 20/ III /2006. 9 nymphs, Pacheco stream, 5º10’29’’N – 61º29’51’’W, 1144 m, 21/ III /2006. The association of nymph and adult was made by similar color pattern of specimens from the same locality GoogleMaps . Holotype and half of paratypes were deposited at the MLBV ( Venezuela), whereas the other paratypes were placed at the IBN ( Argentina) .

Etymology. Incognita, from the Latin, incognitus, unknown, strange. Because was difficult to determine, due to the absence of male imagos, and some unusual nymphal characters.

Discussion: The nymphs of this species can be separated from the other species of the genus by the following combination of characters: 1) Gills oval, without terminal filaments, present on abdominal segments I–VI ( Figs. 7–8 View FIGURES 7–15 ); 2) claws with very small accessory denticles near apex of claw ( Fig. 13 View FIGURES 7–15 ); 3) posterolateral projections strong, clearly diverging from the abdomen and present on segments VII–IX ( Fig. 14 View FIGURES 7–15 ); and 4) posterior margin of each abdominal tergite bordered with a row of triangular spines and setae ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 7–15 ). The female of this species is the first known for the genus. It may be characterized mainly based on the abdominal coloration, shown in figures 16–17.

Ecology. Imagos and nymphs of this new species were collected during the dry (March 2006) and rainy (June 2007) season. They were found in small to medium size streams (7–54 m wide) of acidic waters (pH = 5) flowing through the savanna area (1144–1324 m), having a bottom mainly composed of bed-rock, and a water channel partially or totally uncovered ( Figs.23–26 View FIGURES 23–26 ).


Herbario AMO


Mykotektet, National Veterinary Institute

GBIF Dataset (for parent article) Darwin Core Archive (for parent article) View in SIBiLS Plain XML RDF