Silphidae

Çiftçi, Derya, Růžička, Jan, Hasbenli, Abdullah & Şahin, Ülfet, 2018, The large carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) of Turkey: a review with a new species record, Zootaxa 4441 (3), pp. 555-591: 557-558

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4441.3.10

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:25DC9A68-CA02-4187-A2FB-9D80DF22F8A7

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03DF87ED-F47F-C054-7CF0-FED5FA454974

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Silphidae
status

 

Key to species and subspecies of Silphidae  recorded from Turkey

The characters used in the key were taken from Šustek (1981), Peck (1990), Piloña & Valcárcel (2002), Sikes (2003) and Qubaiová et al. (2015). In Nicrophorus  , characters based on setation of pronotum, metaventrite and abdominal segments are sometimes hardly visible on abraded specimens.

1 Antennomere 2 small and hardly visible, which makes the antenna seemingly 10 segmented (as on Fig. 22 View Figure ). Last four antennomeres abruptly widened into a distinctly swollen club (as on Figs. 1–7View FIGURES 1–4View FIGURES 5–8 and 22–24 View Figure ). Clypeal membrane membranous, sometimes contrastingly coloured (as on Figs. 22–23 View Figure ). Body rounded to oval on transverse section, elytra truncate. Fifth abdominal tergum with a pair of stridularory files. Nicrophorinae  , Nicrophorus  ........................................... 15

- Antennomere 2 fully developed, antenna with 11 distinct antennomeres (as on Fig. 21 View Figure ). Antennal club elongate, antennomeres only gradually widening into club (as on Fig. 21 View Figure ). Clypeal membrane sclerotized (as on Fig. 21 View Figure ). Body flattened, elytra usually covering all or most of abdomen. Fifth abdominal tergum without stridulatory files. Silphinae  ....................... 2

2 Pronotum pale yellow with large median black spot, elytra pale yellow with 4 black spots ( Fig. 11 View Figure )................................................................................................... Dendroxena quadrimaculata 

- Elytra uniformly brown to black.......................................................................... 3

3 Eyes very large, laterally prominent, head abruptly narrowed behind eyes ( Fig. 12 View Figure ). Antennae black with last three antennomeres pale orange ( Fig. 12 View Figure ). Pronotum orbicular, widest toward middle ( Fig. 12 View Figure ). Moderate to large males with metafemora swollen and toothed toward apex........................................................... Necrodes littoralis 

- Eyes smaller, laterally not prominent, head with developed tempora behind eyes (as on Fig. 21 View Figure ). Antennae fully black (as on Fig. 21 View Figure ), some antennomeres brown only in teneral specimens (as on Fig. 18 View Figure ). Pronotum usually widest toward base, not orbicular (as on Fig. 18 View Figure ). Metafemora of males never swollen or toothed............................................. 4

4 Intermediate coxae separated by a space equal or larger than the width of the femora of the same pair.................. 5

- Intermediate coxae separated by a space smaller than the width of the femora of the same pair........................ 8

5 Pronotum orange ( Fig. 21 View Figure ). Head with a short row of prominent longer and more erect setae laterally just behind eyes ( Fig. 21 View Figure ). Third elytral ridge ending on the posterior callus, surface of elytra with velvet pubescence ( Fig. 21 View Figure ). Oiceoptoma thoracicum 

- Pronotum dark brown to black ( Fig. 18–20 View Figure ). Head without a row of prominent longer and more erect setae laterally behind eyes ( Figs. 18–20 View Figure ). Third elytral ridge exceeding the posterior callus more posteriorly, surface of elytron matt ( Figs. 18–20 View Figure ). Thanatophilus  ....................................................................................... 6

6 Surface of elytra between elytral ridges with transverse irregular ripples ( Fig. 18 View Figure )................. Thanatophilus rugosus 

- Surface of elytra between elytral ridges simple, without irregular ripples ( Figs. 19–20 View Figure ).............................. 7

7 Lateral portion of pronotum and elytra red-brown in fully mature specimens ( Fig. 20 View Figure ). Third elytral ridge shorter, not exceeding the callus ( Fig. 20 View Figure ). Second elytral ridge straight ( Fig. 20 View Figure ). Elytral shoulders rounded ( Fig. 20 View Figure ). Thanatophilus terminatus 

- Lateral portion of pronotum and elytra black ( Fig. 19 View Figure ) (brown only in teneral specimens). Third elytral ridge exceeds the callus posteriorly ( Fig. 19 View Figure ). Posterior portion of second elytral ridge curved outwards ( Fig. 19 View Figure ). Elytral shoulders with small tooth ( Fig. 19 View Figure )........................................................................... Thanatophilus sinuatus 

8 Labrum deeply grooved, dorsally elevated ( Fig. 10 View Figure ). Head distinctly transverse, pronotum about twice as broad as head across eyes ( Fig. 10 View Figure ). Tempora not narrowed behind the eyes. Elytra with irregular ripples and wrinkles between ridges ( Fig. 10 View Figure ). Phytophagous species...................................................................... Aclypea undata 

- Labrum weakly grooved, flat (as on Figs 8 View Figure , 13–15 View Figure ). Head less transverse, pronotum about 2.5 to 3.5 as broad as head across eyes ( Figs. 8–9View FIGURES 5–8View FIGURES 9–12, 13–17View FIGURES 13–16View FIGURES 17–20). Elytra smooth.................................................................... 9

9 Head not prolongated, about as long as wide across eyes, tempora behind eyes short ( Fig. 14–17View FIGURES 13–16View FIGURES 17–20). Unmodified polyphagous species. Silpha  ....................................................................................... 12

- Head distinctly prolongated, longer than wide across eyes, tempora behind eyes elongated. Head adapted to predation of snails in shells ( Figs. 8–9View FIGURES 5–8View FIGURES 9–12, 13 View Figure )............................................................................... 10

10 Elytra with distinctly developed, elevated ridges ( Fig. 13 View Figure ). First antennomere as long as combined length of antennomeres 2–4.................................................................................. Phosphuga atrata atrata 

- Elytra without elevated ridges ( Figs 8–9View FIGURES 5–8View FIGURES 9–12). First antennomere slightly longer than combined length of antennomeres 2–3. Ablattaria  . .............................................................................................. 11

11 Pronotum with evenly distributed, homogenous, distinct punctures on whole dorsal surface ( Fig. 9 View Figure ). Elytra with medium-sized, distinct punctures of similar size ( Fig. 9 View Figure )................................................... Ablattaria laevigata 

- Pronotum with only very superficial, very fine punctures medially on disc (which looks impunctate under lower magnification), much larger punctures on whole dorsal surface ( Fig. 8 View Figure ). Elytra with fine punctures, intermixed with larger ones, dispersed mostly toward the inner elytral margin ( Fig. 8 View Figure ).......................................... Ablattaria arenaria 

12 Elytral punctures without anterior shining granule. Rows of punctures along elytral ribs distinctly smaller than on interstriae ( Fig. 14–15 View Figure )........................................................................................ 13

- Elytral punctures with anterior shining granule present. Rows of punctures along elytral ribs equal in size with ones on interstriae, sometimes with intermixed large punctures ( Figs 16 View Figure , 17 View Figure )................................................ 14

13 Elytra dull with small, oval punctures, surface between elytral punctures smooth ( Fig. 14 View Figure ).......... Silpha obscura obscura 

- Elytra shiny with larger, mostly subquadrate punctures, surface between elytral punctures with granulation ( Fig. 15 View Figure )......................................................................................... Silpha obscura orientalis 

14 Pronotal punctuation dense and deep, the distance between adjacent punctures smaller than the diameter of a puncture ( Fig. 17 View Figure ). Elytral punctuation arranged in regular pattern, diameter of punctures uniform ( Fig. 17 View Figure ). Surface between adjacent punc- tures smooth and flat. Elytral ridges distinctly marked ( Fig. 17 View Figure )....................................... Silpha tristis  - Pronotal punctuation very fine and superficial, the distance between adjacent punctures larger than the diameter of a puncture ( Fig. 16 View Figure ). Elytral punctuation arranged in irregular pattern; punctures fine and superficial, with irregularly intermixed larger punctures close to ridges ( Fig. 16 View Figure ). Surface between adjacent punctures irregular and convex. Elytral ridges more superficial, less elevated ( Fig. 16 View Figure )....................................................................... Silpha olivieri 

15 Elytra uniformly black or black with reddish-orange isolated spots ( Figs. 2–3 View Figure )................................... 16

- Elytra with two orange or yellowish bands interrupting black coloration, sometimes fused, then most of elytra with orange pattern ( Figs. 1, 4–7View FIGURES 1–4View FIGURES 5–8, 22–24 View Figure ).............................................................................. 17

16 Antennal club with basal antennomere black, apical three antennomeres orange ( Fig. 3 View Figure ). Elytral epipleura black. Elytral disc black, only rarely with orange spots ( Fig. 3 View Figure ). Metatibia straight on outer margin, simply expanding posteriad ( Fig. 3 View Figure )............................................................................................ Nicrophorus humator 

- Antennal club black ( Fig. 2 View Figure ). Elytral epipleura orange. Elytral disc black, in Turkey quite frequently with isolated, orange-reddish spots ( Fig. 2 View Figure ). Metatibia swollen at middle of outer margin ( Fig. 2 View Figure )...................... Nicrophorus germanicus 

17 At least anterior margin of pronotum with dense, long golden setation ( Figs. 1 View Figure , 6–7 View Figure , 23 View Figure )............................. 18

- Pronotum glabrous or with only a few short hairs near the anterior angles ( Figs. 4–5View FIGURES 1–4View FIGURES 5–8, 22, 24 View Figure )......................... 21

18 Metatibiae curved ( Figs. 6 View Figure , 23 View Figure ). Pronotum with dense, long golden setation only along anterior margin ( Fig. 6 View Figure , 23 View Figure )....... 19

- Metatibiae straight ( Figs. 1 View Figure , 7 View Figure ). Pronotum with long golden hair on both anterior and posterior margin................. 20

19 Antennal club black ( Fig. 6 View Figure ). Metatibiae with accessory spine short, not surpassing apex.......... Nicrophorus nigricornis 

- Antennal club with basal antennomere black, apical three antennomeres orange ( Fig. 23 View Figure ). Metatibiae with accessory spine long, surpassing apex................................................................... Nicrophorus vespillo 

20 Antennal club entirely orange ( Fig. 1 View Figure ).................................................. Nicrophorus antennatus 

- Antennal club with basal antennomere black, apical three antennomeres orange ( Fig. 7 View Figure )............ Nicrophorus vestigator 

21 Antennal club entirely black ( Fig. 24 View Figure ). Clypeal membrane black ( Fig. 24 View Figure )..................... Nicrophorus vespilloides 

- Antennal club with basal antennomere black, apical three antennomeres orange ( Figs. 4–5View FIGURES 1–4View FIGURES 5–8, 22 View Figure ). Clypeal membrane orange (as on Fig. 22 View Figure ).......................................................................................... 22

22 Metaventrite with extremely short, yellow setae behind metacoxae. All abdominal segments with black setae on posterior margins ( Fig. 22 View Figure )......................................................................... Nicrophorus sepultor 

- Metaventrite with long, yellow setae behind metacoxae. At least the apical abdominal segment posteriorly with yellow setae ( Figs. 4–5View FIGURES 1–4View FIGURES 5–8)......................................................................................... 23

23 Metaepimera with posterior lobe glabrous or with a very few short setae. Abdomen with posterior margins of segments with yellow setae only on last visible segment, other segments with black setae ( Fig. 5 View Figure )............... Nicrophorus investigator 

- Metaepimera with posterior lobe with many long setae. Abdomen with posterior margins of segments with yellow setae at least on several apical segments, usually on all visible segments ( Fig. 4 View Figure )........................... Nicrophorus interruptus