Calyptotheca triangulata ( Canu & Bassler, 1928 ), Almeida & Souza & Farias & Alves & Vieira, 2018

Almeida, Ana C. S., Souza, Facelucia B. C., Farias, Jamile, Alves, Orane F. S. & Vieira, Leandro M., 2018, Bryozoa on disarticulated bivalve shells from Todos os Santos Bay, northeastern Brazil, with the description of two new species, Zootaxa 4434 (3), pp. 401-428: 413-415

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4434.3.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:4E6E9F71-801E-4657-91DA-51F0B06807F6

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03E087AD-FFC9-921C-13ED-1C34FD0F3BC4

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Calyptotheca triangulata ( Canu & Bassler, 1928 )
status

n. comb.

Calyptotheca triangulata ( Canu & Bassler, 1928)   n. comb.

( Fig. 7A –F View FIGURE 7 ; Table 8)

Cribella triangulata CANU & BASSLER, 1928   : P. 82, PL. 4, fIg. 10.

Escharina krampi   : MARCUS, 1939: P. 138, PL. 4, fIg. 12.

Calyptotheca tenuata   : HARMER, 1957: P. 1016 ( PART), PL. 68, fIgS 16, 17.

Cribellopora triangulata   : VIEIRA et al., 2008: P. 31.

Calyptotheca tenuata   : CUMMINg & TILBROOK, 2014: P. 160, fIg. 5.

? Escharina krampi   : MARCUS, 1937B: P. 216, fIg. 17A –C.

Material examined. UFBA 1624, UFBA 3354–3356, on valves of Pinctada imbricata   .

Comparative material: USNM 8553, Cribella triangulata   , holotype, F. Canu & R. Bassler det., Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, coll. 1876 by Richard Rathbun.  

Redescription. Colony encrusting ( Fig. 7A, E View FIGURE 7 ), unilaminar. Autozooids ( Fig. 7B, E View FIGURE 7 ) subquadrangular to hexagonal, delineated by raised lateral walls. Frontal wall perforated by large pseudopores, sometimes absent below the orifice in older zooids; marginal pores frequently elongate, slightly larger at zooidal corners. Primary orifice ( Fig. 7C, D View FIGURE 7 ) transversely oval, wider than long, with two small, rounded proximolateral condyles and broad, shallow sinus; narrow shelf inside distal margin of peristome ( here referred to as a ‘lunula’, following Cumming & Tilbrook 2014)   . Primary orifice with a raised, thickened, crescent nodular ridge proximally and laterally. Zooids bear single frontal avicularium (often absent), proximolateral to orifice, pointing proximomedially ( Fig. 7C View FIGURE 7 ) or distomedially ( Fig. 7D View FIGURE 7 ); rostrum rounded proximally, long-triangular distally, foramen subcordate, occupying approximately one-third of avicularium length, palate semicircular, with median pore. Ovicell ( Fig. 7A, F View FIGURE 7 ) hyperstomial; ooecium globose, covered with pseudopores similarly to frontal wall; secondary calcification cormidial (i.e. with Y-shaped sutures of calcification, see arrow in Fig. 7F View FIGURE 7 ), closed by zooidal operculum. No orifice dimorphism.

Remarks. The generic placement of this species is historically controversial. It was originally described in the genus Cribella   Jullien & Calvet, 1903, which lacks diagnostic morphological characters and whose identity is doubtful ( Canu & Bassler 1927; Harmer 1957). Marcus (1939) later misidentified specimens from São Paulo ( SE Brazil) as Escharina krampi   Marcus, 1937b, originally described from Santa Helena ( Marcus, 1937b). However, the Brazilian specimens ( Marcus, 1939; present study) clearly do not belong to Escharina   Milne Edwards, 1836, since they have a pseudoporous frontal wall, no oral spines, and porous ooecia. Vieira et al. (2008) reassigned it to Cribellopora   Gautier, 1957 species that have an imperforate frontal wall, oral spines and narrow orificial sinus. Specimens from Bahia found on shells of Pinctada imbricata   ( Fig. 7A –D View FIGURE 7 ) fit all characters of the holotype ( Fig. 7E –F View FIGURE 7 ), which is also from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia ( Canu & Bassler 1928).

Morphological characters observed in the holotype and in additional material from Bahia—i.e. pseudoporous frontal wall, primary orifice with distal lunula, proximal sinus and prominent lateral condyles, absence of oral spines, and pseudoporous ovicell with cormidial secondary calcification—allow us to formally reassign Cribella triangulata Canu & Bassler, 1928   to Calyptotheca   Harmer, 1957 ( acc. Cumming & Tilbrook 2014; Cumming 2015).

Among Calyptotheca   species worldwide, Calyptotheca tenuata Harmer, 1957   , originally described from Indonesia, is morphologically and morphometrically indistinguishable from C. triangulata   n. comb. ( Harmer 1957; Cumming & Tilbrook 2014). As stated by Cumming & Tilbrook (2014), Calyptotheca tenuata   is diagnosed by having relatively large dimensions of zooids and pseudopores, primary orifice oval and with wide shallow sinus and acuminate basally curved avicularia. All these characters fit specimens originally studied by Canu & Bassler (1928) and additional material studied here. In this sense, following the principle of priority of ICZN (1999, Art. 23), Calyptotheca tenuata Harmer, 1957   is here considered a junior synonym of Cribella triangulata Canu & Bassler, 1928   .

Under the name Calyptotheca tenuata   , C. triangulata   n. comb. was already reported from Indonesia, Australia and China ( Liu et al. 2001; Cumming & Tilbrook 2014). The unusual geographic distribution and difficulties in traditional morphologic-morphometric distinction between specimens from the Indo-Pacific and the Atlantic oceans suggest that C. triangulata   n. comb. could be a widespread cryptogenic species ( with unknown natural origin). Although having coronate short-lived larvae ( not allowing long-range dispersal), some cheilostome bryozoans are known to occur in different geographic locations in all oceans and sometimes related with bioinvasion events (e.g. Harmelin et al. 2012; Almeida et al. 2017b; Miranda et al. 2018). On the other hand only integrative approaches, including both morphological and genetic analyses of C. triangulata   n. comb., will allow to infer if this species is cryptic, exotic and / or invasive in some localities ( Harmelin et al. 2012; Miranda et al. 2018).

At least two other species of Calyptotheca   are known from Brazil, C. ornatissima   ( Canu & Bassler, 1928) and C. vaginata   ( Canu & Bassler, 1928). Calyptotheca ornatissima   is readily distinguished from C. triangulata   n. comb. in having four types of avicularia (suboral, other frontal, lateral and vicarious) and dimorphic orifices (wider in ovicelled than in non-ovicelled autozooids). No avicularia are known to occur in C. vaginata   (teardrop-shaped avicularia occur in C. triangulata   n. comb.), which also has hexagonal autozooids (subquadrangular in C. triangulata   n. comb.) with a broader orificial sinus than in C. triangulata   n. comb.

Calyptotheca triangulata   n. comb. is frequently found on hard substrata, including shells and stones ( Marcus 1939).

Distribution. Western Atlantic: Brazil ( Bahia and São Paulo) ( Vieira et al. 2008); Indo-Pacific: Indonesia,

Australia and China ( Cumming & Tilbrook 2014).  

CANU

University of Canterbury

Bay

Mus�um d'Histoire Naturelle de Bayonne

Canu

University of Canterbury

not

Nottingham City Natural History Museum

acc

Oak Hill Park Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Bryozoa

Class

Gymnolaemata

Order

Cheilostomatida

Family

Lanceoporidae

Genus

Calyptotheca

Loc

Calyptotheca triangulata ( Canu & Bassler, 1928 )

Almeida, Ana C. S., Souza, Facelucia B. C., Farias, Jamile, Alves, Orane F. S. & Vieira, Leandro M. 2018
2018
Loc

C. triangulata

Almeida & Souza & Farias & Alves & Vieira 2018
2018
Loc

C. triangulata

Almeida & Souza & Farias & Alves & Vieira 2018
2018
Loc

C. triangulata

Almeida & Souza & Farias & Alves & Vieira 2018
2018
Loc

C. triangulata

Almeida & Souza & Farias & Alves & Vieira 2018
2018
Loc

Calyptotheca

Harmer 1957
1957
Loc

Calyptotheca tenuata

Harmer 1957
1957
Loc

Calyptotheca tenuata

Harmer 1957
1957
Loc

Calyptotheca tenuata

Harmer 1957
1957
Loc

Calyptotheca tenuata

Harmer 1957
1957
Loc

Escharina krampi

Marcus 1938
1938
Loc

Cribella triangulata CANU & BASSLER, 1928

Canu & Bassler 1928
1928
Loc

Cribella triangulata

Canu & Bassler 1928
1928