Pleurocodonellina marcusi, Almeida & Souza & Farias & Alves & Vieira, 2018

Almeida, Ana C. S., Souza, Facelucia B. C., Farias, Jamile, Alves, Orane F. S. & Vieira, Leandro M., 2018, Bryozoa on disarticulated bivalve shells from Todos os Santos Bay, northeastern Brazil, with the description of two new species, Zootaxa 4434 (3), pp. 401-428: 411-413

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4434.3.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:4E6E9F71-801E-4657-91DA-51F0B06807F6

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03E087AD-FFCF-921E-13ED-19D9FC7138D8

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Pleurocodonellina marcusi
status

n. sp.

Pleurocodonellina marcusi   n. sp.

( Fig. 6A –F View FIGURE 6 ; Table 7)

Schizoporella horsti   : MARCUS, 1937A: P. 87, PL. 18, fIg. 46; 1938, P. 39; 1939, P. 139, PL. 4, fIg. 13.

Schizoporella horsti   : GUIMARãES & ROSA, 1941: P. 308.

Smittina signata   : MACHADO & SOUZA, 1994: P. 259.

Rimulostoma horsti   : VIEIRA et al., 2008: P. 27.

Rimulostoma horsti   : ALMEIDA et al., 2015A: P. 4.

NOT Schizopodrella horsti   OSBURN, 1927: P. 127, fIgS 3–5.

Material examined. Holotype: UFBA 1641, on valve of Dallocardia muricata   . Paratype: UFBA 1648, on valve of Dallocardia muricata   .

Comparative material: USNM 11838 View Materials , Schizopodrella horsti   , holotype, det. R.C. Osburn, Spanish Water, CuraÇao, coll. May 18, 1920   .

Type locality. Itaparica Beach, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia State, NE Brazil.

Etymology. Named after Ernst Gustav Goltthelf Marcus (1893–1968) for his invaluable contributions to zoology.

Description. Colony encrusting ( Fig. 6A View FIGURE 6 ), unilaminar. Autozooids ( Fig. 6B View FIGURE 6 ) long-ovoid to hexagonal, surrounded by 16–22 large, marginal pores. Frontal wall centrally imperforate, rough, tessellated. Primary orifice ( Fig. 6C View FIGURE 6 ) subcircular to circular in outline, distal rim smooth, arched, with broad, U-shaped sinus, semicircular in outline, flanked by two small, pointed proximolateral condyles with serrated tips; 1–2 oral spines, mostly obscured later in ontogeny. Secondary orifice ( Fig. 6D View FIGURE 6 ) formed by complete, low collar of calcification around the primary orifice, cormidial (i.e. with a distal contribution from the next distal zooid), sometimes obscuring the primary orifice. Frontal avicularia small, single, located just proximolateral to the orifice on one side, directed proximolaterally; rostrum with long-subtriangular to sublanceolate mandibular portion, foramen oval, crossbar complete, with calcified palate occupying approximately half of avicularium chamber. Other avicularia absent. Ovicell ( Fig. 6D, E View FIGURE 6 ) prominent, surrounded peripherally by frontal calcification from adjacent zooids; ectooecium perforated by 24–42 small rounded pseudopores.

Remarks. Among species in Pleurocodonellina   Soule & Soule, 1973, P. marcusi   n. sp. most resembles Pleurocodonellina horsti   ( Osburn, 1927), a species traditionally considered to be widely distributed through the Western Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean and Brazil ( Marcus 1937a; Winston & Håkansson 1986). Unfortunately, the holotype of P. horsti   is mounted in a balsam slide and few fragments remain entire, preventing SEM observation. However, under a stereomicroscope, some morphological characters can be seen to distinguish P. hosti   from P. marcusi   n. sp. Pleurocodonellina horsti   has adventitious avicularia with the rostrum distally acute ( rounded in P. marcusi   n. sp.); no oral spines are evident in the type of P. horsti   ( P. marcusi   n. sp. has 1–2 oral spines); the frontal calcification of P. horsti   varies from granular to nodular ( the frontal wall is tesselated in P. marcusi   n. sp.); and P. horsti   has a longer primary orifice, about 0.16 mm long ( Osburn 1927) (0.11 mm long in P. marcusi   n. sp.).

Brazilian specimens reported by Marcus (1937a, 1938, 1939) as Schizoporella horsti   have a semicircular sinus, oblong to sublanceolate avicularia, tessellated frontal wall and smaller orifice than in Osburn’s P. horsti   ( Marcus 1937a, 1939), and we here reassign them to P. marcusi   n. sp. In addition, unregistered specimens in the UFBA collection identified as Smittina signata   (recognized as Pleurocodonellina signata   (Waters, 1889)) by Machado & Souza (1994) were examined and clearly belong to P. marcusi   n. sp. Differences between P. signata   and P. marcusi   n. sp. include the number of oral spines (1–3 in P. signata   , 1–2 in P. marcusi   n. sp.), shape of the orificial sinus (drop-shaped in P. signata   , semicircular in P. marcusi   n. sp.), the presence of large adventitious avicularia (absent in P. marcusi   n. sp.) and the number of ooecial pseudopores (60–70 in P. signata   , 24–42 in P. marcusi   n. sp.).

Pleurocodonellina marcusi   n. sp. differs from all congeners in the combination of: semicircular sinus; 1–2 oral spines; small, oblong to sublanceolate avicularium; ooecia perforated by 24–42 small pseudopores. At least three Pleurocodonellina   ( P. clavicula   Ryland & Hayward, 1992; P. laciniosa   Hayward & Ryland, 1995; P. lahainae   Soule & Soule, 1973) have dimorphic avicularia and a larger sinus than in P. marcusi   n. sp. An acute avicularium and robust condyles are present in P. californica   Soule, Soule & Chaney, 1995, P. longirostrata   ( Hincks, 1882), P. macroperforata   Tilbrook, 2006 and P. microperforata   Tilbrook, 2006.

Caribbean specimens of Pleurocodonellina   are found encrusting clay nodules and sand grains ( Osburn 1927; Winston & Håkansson 1986), and species from the Pacific Ocean are common in coral reefs ( Tilbrook 2006). Along the Brazilian coast, P. marcusi   n. sp. had already been reported (as Schizoporella horsti   ) attached to crabs ( Guimarães & Rosa 1941). This is the first record of this species living on shells.

Distribution. Atlantic: Brazil ( Rocas Attol, Bahia and São Paulo).

NOT

Nottingham City Natural History Museum

Bay

Mus�um d'Histoire Naturelle de Bayonne

for

Forssa Museum of Natural History

rim

L'Ecole d'Agriculture

has

Funda��o Zoobot�nica do Rio Grande do Sul

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Bryozoa

Class

Gymnolaemata

Order

Cheilostomatida

Family

Smittinidae

Genus

Pleurocodonellina

Loc

Pleurocodonellina marcusi

Almeida, Ana C. S., Souza, Facelucia B. C., Farias, Jamile, Alves, Orane F. S. & Vieira, Leandro M. 2018
2018
Loc

Pleurocodonellina marcusi

Almeida & Souza & Farias & Alves & Vieira 2018
2018
Loc

P. marcusi

Almeida & Souza & Farias & Alves & Vieira 2018
2018
Loc

P. marcusi

Almeida & Souza & Farias & Alves & Vieira 2018
2018
Loc

P. macroperforata

Tilbrook 2006
2006
Loc

P. microperforata

Tilbrook 2006
2006
Loc

P. laciniosa

Hayward & Ryland 1995
1995
Loc

P. californica

Soule, Soule & Chaney 1995
1995
Loc

P. clavicula

Ryland & Hayward 1992
1992
Loc

Pleurocodonellina

Soule & Soule 1973
1973
Loc

P. lahainae

Soule & Soule 1973
1973
Loc

Pleurocodonellina

Soule & Soule 1973
1973