Scaria jonasi Cadena-Castañeda, Mendes & Silva, 2019

Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J., Mendes, Diego Matheus De Mello, Silva, Daniela Santos Martins, Granda, Juan Manuel Cardona, García, Alexander García & Tumbrinck, Josef, 2019, Systematics and biogeography of the genus Scaria Bolívar, 1887 (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae: Batrachideinae), Zootaxa 4675 (1), pp. 1-65 : 47-52

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4675.1.1

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Scaria jonasi Cadena-Castañeda, Mendes & Silva

sp. nov.

Scaria jonasi Cadena-Castañeda, Mendes & Silva sp. nov.

( Figs. 27 View FIGURE 27 , 28 View FIGURE 28 , 37 View FIGURE 37 , 38 View FIGURE 38 ) Orthoptera

Type specimens. Holotype: ♂. Brazil, Amazonas , Tefé, 3°19’45”S– 64°41’13”W, 01–05.xi.2016, Arm. Malaise, J.A. Oliveira & D.M.M. Mendes leg. ( INPA). GoogleMaps

Paratypes: idem, 05.xi.2016 (1♀ — INPA) ; idem, 14–30.xi.2017 (1♀ — CAUD) ; idem, 1–22.xii.2017 (1♂ — CAUD) ; idem, 01–05.xi.2016 (4♂ — INPA) ; idem, 03–17.xii.2016 (3♀ — INPA) ; idem, viii.2018 (2♀ and 1♂ — INPA) ; idem, Uarini, Floresta de várzea, 06.ix.2018, coleta manual em cópula (1♀ and 1♂ — INPA) ; idem, 06.ix.2018 (3♀ and 3♂ — INPA) .

Description. Male. Pronotal disc and lower margin of the lateral lobes of the pronotum greenish-white. Face, vertex, lateral margin of tergites and sternites yellowish-green, postocular strip, upper half of the lateral lobes of the pronotum, tegmina, wings and dorsal section of the tergites black, although over the humero-apical carinae, scapular area and a small portion of the pronotum the back strip of the upper half of the lateral lobes of the pronotum stops. This interruption is usually brown (but in preserved specimens the pronotal coloration is lost and the pronotal disc and the interruption of the lateral strip look greenish-black) ( Figs.27A,D View FIGURE 27 ); the tegmina also has a greenish-yellow strip between the Cu vein and which runs all the way from the base to the tip (similar to S. granti sp. nov.); a subapical round spot and yellow punctations ranging from the base to the spot, usually scattered along the M vein also occur ( Fig. 27C View FIGURE 27 ); legs light brown, hind femora with a black strip that runs from the base to the upper half of the ventro-inferior carina. Head, moderately elongated, eyes globose and prominent, not expanding notoriously towards the sides; frontal costa rounded in side view, slightly truncated in the dorsal margin near the connection with the fastigium. In frontal view the fascial carina is parallel, forming a narrow scutellum. Frontal carina short and diverging towards the clypeal triangle, dorsal carina short and inconspicuous ( Fig. 27B View FIGURE 27 ). Pronotum, flat and not tectate, extending noticeably beyond the abdomen tip; medial line of the pronotal disc running from the anterior to the posterior margin, with a slight black margin at the level of the second and third coxae ( Fig. 23D View FIGURE 23 ); anterior spine stout, anterior arcuate, ascendant to anterior edge, slightly curing downwards in the distal portion; lateral lobes of the pronotum wider than tall; lateral shoulder carina rounded and moderately prolonged ( Fig. 27C View FIGURE 27 ). Tegmina ovoid, running until half the first abdominal tergite ( Fig. 27C View FIGURE 27 ). Legs slender and elongate, fore femora with a very poorly developed sulcation above, without apical spine; mid femora with a very well developed internal dorso-apical spine; hind femora with a developed pregenicular spine. Abdomen. Subgenital plate as wide as long, almost subarcuate ( Figs. 27 View FIGURE 27 E–G); penultimate sternite with a developed projection (although not as conspicupuous as in S. granti sp. nov.), lateral margins of the sternite slightly overcoming the dorsal margin ( Fig. 27F View FIGURE 27 ); cylindrical cerci tapering from base to tip, distal portion rounded ( Figs. 27E,G View FIGURE 27 ); epiproct lance-shaped with a rounded tip.

Female. Similarin shape, size and coloration to the male but differs in the ambisexual characters ( Figs. 28 View FIGURE 28 A–D): subgenital plate rectangular, longer than wide and with the distal margin “W” shaped ( Fig. 28E View FIGURE 28 ). Ovipositor moderately stout (contrasting with S. rafaeli sp. nov.), cerci short and stout, epiproct triangular with a pointed tip ( Fig. 28F View FIGURE 28 ).

Measurements: CFP: 14,1-13,7; PL: 13,4-12,5; PLB: 2,8-2,5; FF: 3,2-2,9; FL: 3-2,5; MFL: 3,3-2,9; MTL: 2,9-2,7; HL: 6,9-6,6; HW: 2,1-1,9; HL: 6,2-5,6.

Distribution. Only known from type locality.

Etymology. This species is dedicated to its collector, Jonas Alves de Oliveira, from the Instituto de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá (IDSM), Brazil, in recognition to his important contributions and support in collecting insects in seasonally flooded white-water forests from Tefé.

Behavioral notes. The specimens were collected in lowland floodplains in areas of the middle Solimões River. This environment is characterized by seasonal floods that last from 6 to 8 months and range from 1 to 7 m depth ( Ayres, 1993). The specimens of S. jonasi sp. nov. were collected diurnally, near the buttressed roots (sapopemas) of large trees and mainly on trunks at the early stages of decomposition (fig. 38A), where sometimes several specimens were seen close together and with other pygmy grasshoppers, such as Amorphopus Serville, 1838 . During the field observations, it was seen that several specimens constantly fed on lichens and small fungi growing on the bark of fallen logs. Male and female in copula was observed in a fallen trunk on a small stream and even during the copula the female continued to feed on the fungi in the bark. Due to the seasonal flooding of the floodplain environment, many terrestrial species perform vertical migrations (temporary rise to tree trunks and canopy) or develop adaptations that allow adults or more often the immature stages to survive flooding ( Adis, 1997). It is possible that S. jonasi sp. nov. has developed similar strategies to inhabit this seasonally unstable environment.


Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia