Tenuipalpus protium, Castro & Beard & Ochoa & Bauchan & Feres, 2018

Castro, Elizeu B., Beard, Jennifer J., Ochoa, Ronald, Bauchan, Gary R. & Feres, Reinaldo J. F., 2018, Two new species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Brazil with a discussion on the ontogeny of leg setae, Zootaxa 4540 (1), pp. 178-210: 179-194

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4540.1.12

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3E7E92B1-36DF-4279-85B9-8F211E837904

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03E887DC-972A-FF85-FF77-A4A6FDC7FA60

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Tenuipalpus protium
status

sp. nov.

Tenuipalpu s protium  sp. nov. Castro, Feres & Ochoa

( Figs 1–14View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6View FIGURE 7View FIGURE 8View FIGURE 9View FIGURE 10View FIGURE 11View FIGURE 12View FIGURE 13View FIGURE 14)

Diagnosis. Female: Prodorsal setae v2 minute; sc1 short, obovate; sc2 elongate, lanceolate-falcate; dorsal opisthosoma with 10 pairs of setae (f2 present); most of the dorsal opisthosomal setae obovate (c3, h1) to elongate oblanceolate (c1, e3, f2, f3), except setae d1, d3 and e1 short to minute and thick, and h2 elongate, filiform; prodorsum with a pair of oblique carinae converging posteriorly from setae sc1 to a short central semicircular carina just anterior to shield margin and sejugal furrow. Opisthosoma with a transverse cuticular crest between setae c1–c1 and d1–d1 and a longitudinal crest between setae e1–e1; palp two segmented; two pairs of ps setae; one pair of 3a and 4a setae. Male: unknown. Immatures: deutonymphs and protonymphs with lateral body projection anterior and adjacent to setae sc2 present (lateral body projection associated with setae c3 absent); dorsal setae similar to those of the female, except sc1 and c1 smaller, and setae d1, d3, e1 finer. Larvae with colliculate cuticle on central prodorsum, dorsal opisthosoma posterior to setae d3 and e1, and over legs.

Female (n = 10) ( Figs 1–10View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6View FIGURE 7View FIGURE 8View FIGURE 9View FIGURE 10). Body size measurements: distance between setae v2 –h1 255 (240–255), sc2–sc2 175 (170–175); other measurements: v2–v2 35 (35–40), sc1–sc1 95 (90–95), c1–c1 50 (42–50), c3–c3 215 (205– 215), d1–d1 42 (40–45), d3–d3 165 (160–165), e1– e1 37 (32–37), e3–e3 130 (120–130), f2–f2 115 (100–115), f3–f3 93 (82–93), h1–h1 50 (45–50), h2–h2 67 (62–67).

Dorsum ( Figs 1–4View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4). Anterior margin of prodorsal shield with two pairs of median lobes, central pair forming a forked projection with a deep notch, and lateral pair forming two shallow notches (see also Fig. 8bView FIGURE 8). Prodorsal margin with one pair of small rounded lateral projections anterior and adjacent to setae sc2; and anterolateral margin of dorsal opisthosoma with a pair of pointed conical ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4) projections posterior and adjacent to setae c3. Prodorsum with a pair of oblique carinae converging posteriorly from setae sc1 to short central semicircular carina just anterior to shield margin and sejugal furrow. Opisthosoma with one transverse semicircular cuticular crest between setae c1–c1 and d1–d1 and one longitudinal crest between setae e1–e1. Prodorsal setae v2 minute, sc1 short, obovate; sc2 elongate, lanceolate-falcate; opisthosomal setae c3, h1 obovate, setae c1, e3, f2 and f3 elongate, oblanceolate; setae d1, d3 and e1 short to minute, and h2 elongate, filiform. Setal measurements: v2 6 (5–6), sc1 11 (10–11), sc2 74 (72–80), c1 56 (47–59), c3 44 (36–50), d1 10 (8–10), d3 6 (6–7), e1 10 (6–10), e3 57 (57–67), f2 57 (57-63), f3 52 (50–52), h1 35 (33–36), h2 140 (120–145).

Venter ( Figs 5View FIGURE 5, 6View FIGURE 6). Ventral integument with fine striae centrally and densely colliculate cuticle laterally ( Fig. 6aView FIGURE 6); ventral and genital plates not thickened but membranous genital flap is present ( Fig. 6bView FIGURE 6) that appears to form part  of a large membranous plate bearing setae ag, g1, g2, which is clearly delimited laterally by the (longitudinal) folded cuticle of the ovipore; entire membranous flap with fine transverse striae; membranous anal valves with fine longitudinal striae; setae 1a, 4a filiform; coxal setae 1c, 2c, 3b and 4b and trochanter setae barbed; coxal setae 4b inserted much closer to 4a than 3b to 3a. Setal measurements: 1a 80 (65–85), 1b 9 (8–10), 1c 21 (21–24), 2b 25 (18–25), 2c 30 (30–31), 3a 13 (9–13), 3b 35 (28–35), 4a 100 (70–105), 4b 25 (25–29), ag 10 (8–10), g1 13 (11–13), g2 15 (12–16), ps2 10 (9–10), ps3 13 (10–13).

Gnathosoma  ( Figs 7View FIGURE 7, 8View FIGURE 8). Palps two segmented, first (basal) segment short; second (distal) segment elongate and bearing one long, barbed seta d 10 (10–11) ( Figs 7View FIGURE 7, 8View FIGURE 8) and two eupathidia, ul ′ 4 (4–5), ul ′′ 1 (1–2). Ventral infracapitulum setae m 13 (11–13), barbed ( Figs 7View FIGURE 7, 8aView FIGURE 8); distance between setae m –m 19 (19–20).

Legs ( Fig. 9View FIGURE 9). Setation (from coxae to tarsi): I 2–1 –4–3–5–8(1), II 2–1 –4–3–5–8(1), III 1–2 –2–1–3–5, IV 1– 1 –1–0–3–5. Tarsi I–II each with one solenidion ω” 6 (5–6) (for both tarsi I–II) and two eupathidia pζ′–pζ” (5–6 each); femur I with two enlarged oblanceolate setae, d and l′, and two strongly barbed ventral setae (v′, bv″); femur II with three enlarged oblanceolate setae, d, l′, bv″, and one strongly barbed ventral seta (v′); trochanter III with one enlarged oblanceolate to obovate seta, l′; and femur III with one enlarged oblanceolate seta, d. Femora and genua with setae d inserted in lateral position on tubercles. Detail of the pattern of additions in leg setae in Table 1.

Microplates ( Fig. 3bView FIGURE 3). Microplate layer forms a reticulate network of thick ridges covered in small single irregularly shaped wax-like crystals or masses, overlaying a base layer with a smooth even surface made of minute crystals. The ridges appear to be formed by a series of thin, parallel ridges of various lengths that are aligned to form thicker  ridges.

Color ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2). Body pinkish-red with dark spots laterally, eyes red, and legs orange. Dorsal body setae and leg setae white.

Eggs ( Fig. 10View FIGURE 10). Elongate; dorsal surface with strong, thick, longitudinal ridges the full length of the egg. The ridges have a coating of microplates forming a minute network of irregular ridges that form weak  reticulation or a finely rugose texture, interspersed with large smooth regions ( Fig. 10bView FIGURE 10). The eggs are red, and mostly found in association with the veins of the host plant leaves.

Male: Unknown.

Deutonymph (n = 3) ( Figs 11View FIGURE 11, 12View FIGURE 12): Body size measurements: distance between setae v2 –h1 270–300, sc2–sc2 150–155; other measurements: v2–v 2 27–30, sc1–sc1 75–80, c1–c1 40–43, c3–c3 190–205, d1–d 1 25–28, d3–d3 135–145, e1– e 1 25–28, e3–e3 95–100, f2–f2 85–88, f3–f3 65–68, h1–h 1 22–25, h2–h2 40–45.

Dorsum. Anterior margin of prodorsum with single pair of short central lobes, forming short notch; pair of lateral body projections anterior and adjacent to setae sc2 present. Central prodorsal region smooth to setae c1, with appearance of a subrectangular shield ( Fig. 12View FIGURE 12); region between setae sc2–c3 and c1–d1 forming a broad band of oblique to transverse striations across the body; dorsal opisthosoma posterior to setae d1–c3 smooth, with appearance of a pygidial shield ( Fig. 12View FIGURE 12). Dorsal setae similar to that of female, except sc1 slightly smaller and c1 much smaller than female. Setal measurements: v2 2–3, sc1 4–5, sc2 68–73, c 1 11–13, c 3 25–29, d1 4, d3 3–4, e1 3 –4, e3 36 –40, f 2 30–35, f3 32–33, h 1 20–23, h2 65–80.

Gnathosoma  . Palps similar to those of female. Setae d on second segment 7–8 long and eupathidia ul ′ 4–5, ul ′′ 1–2. Ventral infracapitulum setae m 6–8; distance between setae m –m 12–16.

Venter. Cuticle covered with fine and mostly transverse striae. Coxal, genital and anal setae fine; setae 1a, 4a elongate, filiform. Setal lengths: 1a 80–90, 1b 6–7, 1c 11–13, 2b 10–14, 2c 14–16, 3a 6–9, 3b 13–16, 4a 45–70, 4b 7–11, ag 4–7, g1 5, ps2 5–8, ps3 5–7. Setae g2 absent.

Legs ( Fig. 11View FIGURE 11). Setation (from coxae to tarsi): I 2–1 –4–3–5–8(1), II 2–1 –4–3–5–8(1), III 1–2 –2–1–3–5, IV 1 –0–1–0–3–3. Leg chaetotaxy similar to that of female, except trochanter IV nude and tectal pair of setae tc absent on tarsus IV; tarsi I–II each with one solenidion ω” 4–5 (for both tarsi I–II) and two eupathidia pζ′–pζ” (5–6, 5–6; 5, 5 respectively). Detail of the pattern of additions of leg setae in Table 1.

Protonymph (n = 3) ( Fig. 13View FIGURE 13): Body size measurements: distance between setae v2 –h1 205–225, sc2–sc2 120–130; other measurements: v2–v 2 25–30, sc1–sc1 60–65, c1–c1 35–38, c3–c3 145–160, d1–d 1 20–23, d3–d3 105–115, e1– e 1 17–20, e3–e3 77–83, f2–f2 67–73, f3–f3 55–58, h1–h 1 17–20, h2–h2 35–40.

Dorsum. Anterior margin of prodorsum with single pair of short central lobes, forming a short notch; marginal body projections anterior and adjacent to setae sc2 present. Central prodorsum smooth to setae c1, with appearance of a weakly formed shield; region between setae sc2–c3 and c1–d1 forming a broad band of oblique to transverse striations across the body; dorsal opisthosoma posterior to setae d1–c3 smooth, with appearance of a weakly formed pygidial shield; dorsal setae similar to that of female, except sc1 slightly smaller, c1 much smaller than female, and c3 lanceolate not obovate. Setal measurements: v2 2, sc1 3–4, sc2 53–56, c1 4–5, c 3 21–26, d1 2–3, d3 3–4, e1 2 –3, e 3 25 –30, f 2 23–25, f 3 21–24, h 1 14–15, h2 50–70.

Gnathosoma  . Palps similar to those of female. Setae d on second segment 7–8 and eupathidia ul ′ 2–3, ul ′′ 1–2. Ventral infracapitulum setae m 6; distance between setae m –m 13.

Venter. Cuticle covered with fine and mostly transverse striae. Coxal, genital and anal setae fine. Setal measurements: 1a 45–75, 1b 5–6, 1c 7–10, 2c 11–12, 3a 6–7, 3b 8–10, ag 5–6, ps2 4–5, ps3 4–5. Setae 2b, 4a, 4b, g1 and g2 absent.

Legs ( Fig. 13View FIGURE 13). Setation (from coxae to tarsi): I 2 –0–3–1–5–6(1), II 1 –0–3–1–5–6(1), III 1 –0–2–0–3–3, IV 0–0–1–0–3–3. Tarsi I–II each with one solenidion ω” 3–4 (for both tarsi I–II) and two eupathidia pζ′–pζ” (5, 5; 4–5, 4–5 respectively). Detail of the pattern of additions of leg setae in Table 1.

Larva (n = 3) ( Fig. 14View FIGURE 14): Body size measurements: distance between setae v2 –h1 170–180, sc2–sc2 100–105; other measurements: v2–v 2 15–18, sc1–sc1 52–53, c1–c 1 27–33, c3–c3 120–125, d1–d 1 15–18, d3–d3 82–85, e1– e 1 10–13, e3–e3 72–75, f2–f2 62–65, f3–f3 47–50, h1–h 1 12–13, h2–h 2 27–30.

Dorsum. Anterior margin of prodorsum smoothly rounded without lobes or projections. Prodorsal region with colliculate integument anteromedially, and with region of smooth integument just anterior to c1–c1; region between setae sc2–c3 and c1–d1 with broad band of oblique and transverse striations; integument d1–e1 smooth; integument posterior to setae e1–c3 colliculate. Setae sc1 and c1 minute, c3 lanceolate; other dorsal setae similar to those of female, except smaller. Setal measurements: v2 2–3, sc1 2–3, sc2 41–45, c1 2–3, c 3 18–20, d1 2–3, d3 2, e1 2, e 3 22 –24, f 2 21–23, f 3 19–20, h 1 12–14, h2 45–65.

Gnathosoma  . Palps similar to those of female. Seta d on second segment 6–7 long and eupathidia ul ′ 3–2, ul ′′ 1. Ventral setae m absent.

Venter. Cuticle covered with fine and mostly transverse striae. Coxal, genital and anal setae fine. Setal measurements: 1a 50–65, 1b 5–7, 3a 5–6, ps1 4, ps2 4–5. Setae 1c, 2b, 2c, 3b, 4a, 4b, ag, g1 and g2 absent.

Legs ( Fig. 14View FIGURE 14). Setation (from coxae to tarsi): I 2 –0–3–1–5–6(1), II 0–0–3–1–5–6(1), III 0–0–2–0–3–3. Tarsi I–II each with one solenidion ω” 3–4 (for both tarsi I and II) and two eupathidia pζ′–pζ” (4–5, 4–5; 4–5, 4–5 respectively). Cuticle of all legs colliculate. Detail of the pattern of additions of leg setae in Table 1.

Type material. Holotype:  adult female collected on Protium heptaphyllum ( Burseraceae  ), from S„o Roque de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, (20°10’S, 46°26’W), 9 September 2016, coll. E.B. Castro (DZSJRP). Paratypes: nine females, three deutonymphs, three protonymphs and three larvae, same data as the holotype (DZSJRP, NMNH).

Etymology. The specific name protium  refers to the genus of the host plant, Protium heptaphyllum ( Burseraceae  ).

Differential diagnosis. This new species resembles Tenuipalpus kitajimai  sp. nov. (herein described) as they both have cuticular crests on the opisthosoma (one transverse, one longitudinal), but differs from T. kitajimai  sp. nov. in that the transverse crest between setae c1–c1 and d1–d1 is narrower, being as wide as distance c1–c1 ( Fig. 4aView FIGURE 4) (transverse crest is slightly wider than distance c1–c 1 in T. kitajimai  sp. nov. (Fig. 18)); setae c1 elongate oblanceolate (47–59 long) in T. protium  sp. nov. versus obovate (38–42 long) in T. kitajimai  sp. nov.; setae h2 longer in all stages of T. protium  ; the pattern of microplates is also different between these two species as seen in Figures 3bView FIGURE 3 and 17bView FIGURE 17. Tenuipalpus protium  also resembles the type species for the genus, T. caudatus (Dugès)  , but differs in the shape and size of the opisthosomal setae d1, which are minute to short (8–10 long) in protium  and narrowly obovate to oblanceolate (52–57 long) in caudatus  .