Empoasca joshuai, Southern, Phillip Sterling, 2006

Southern, Phillip Sterling, 2006, Three new species of Empoasca (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Empoascini) from northern South America, Zootaxa 1314, pp. 41-51: 42-45

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.173930

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scientific name

Empoasca joshuai

n. sp.

Empoasca joshuai   n. sp.

Body (male): Length: 4.3–4.7 mm; pronotal width: 0.93–1.10 mm; crown length: 0.23–0.29 mm; crown production: 0.09–0.14 mm; crown production ratio: 0.38–0.58; interocular width: 0.51–0.58 mm; face length: 1.04–1.13 mm; interantennal width: 0.38–0.44 mm. A large species, dried specimens yellow­green or yellow brown with brown or yellow­brown markings. Crown with a diffuse brown or orange spot along anterior margin, in some specimens with narrow brown line along medial suture expanded to form the marginal spot. Pronotum yellow­green along anterior margin with bell­shaped posteromedial area brown or subhyaline. Scutum and scutellum yellow­green or marked with brown. Forewings greenish yellow and subhyaline in basal 2 / 3, hyaline but dusky in apical 1 / 3; with two diffuse dusky spots along commissural margin, one spot near apex of claval suture, the other more basad; third apical cell stalked (3 rd and 4 th apical veins fused basally) arising from cell R. Hind wings characteristic of genus.

Pygofer in lateral view ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 a) tapered to rounded point, posterodorsal margin concave; macrosetae (17–24) larger than B­group setae of plate, scattered over posterior 1 / 3 of pygofer but most numerous along posterodorsal margin. Plate expanded dorsolaterally near base, thence tapered very gradually to rounded apex; apically curved strongly upward to near apex, extending dorsad of apex of pygofer. A­group setae (4–5) very similar to B­group setae except in position and slightly finer; B­group setae (24–30) uniseriate; C­group setae (17–23) roughly biseriate basally, becoming uniseriate apically; D­group setae (35–50) roughly biseriate over most of plate, but with loose cluster of 6­10 near anterolateral margin of plate. Style in lateral aspect ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 c) with body bowed downward, parallel­sided, dentifer bowed upward, tip rounded; in ventral view ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 d) style bowed mediad with apex of dentifer directed posterolaterad; teeth very small, 3­4 grouped at apex of dentifer, 1–2 vestigial teeth widely spaced more basad; apex of style with clubbed appearance; setae (5–6) in row along lateral margin of body. Pygofer process in lateral view ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 e) curved upward near base, thence nearly straight, tapering gradually to sharp apex, long, extending nearly to apex of plate; in ventral view ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 f) apically curving somewhat outward and tapered to thin sharp apex; apical portion of process flattened dorsoventrally and bladelike in posteroventral view, with minute serrations on medial margin; aculeae very numerous on dorsal and medial surface of process, extending from near apex basad at least three­fourths length of process. Anal hook bifurcate in transverse plane; in lateral view ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 g) base of hook bowed posteriorly, outer ramus a long, thin process directed generally cephalad, straight or bowed slightly upward, inner ramus very short; in posteroventral view ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 i) inner ramus short, triangular, less than half length of outer ramus, outer ramus thin, straight or bowed outward. Aedeagus in lateral aspect ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 h) with shaft diverging from atrial complex at nearly a right angle, shaft parallel­sided basally, thence expanded dorsad to broadly rounded apex; in posteroventral view ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 i) preatrium relatively thin, expanding gradually to atrium, shaft thin and subparallel­sided. Connective ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 j) roughly trapezoidal, nearly as wide as long, apical notch broad and deep; with strong basal sclerotization but little or no sclerotization along midline. Dorsum of genital capsule ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 k) with horns widely separated basally, each tapering to rounded apex; bridge between anterior margin and transverse bar distinct.

First sternal complex ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 m) with dorsal apodeme well developed, two transverse sclerotized bars evident in some specimens, shape of medial notch variable but in most specimens constricted above base forming a two­stepped taper. Second sternal apodemes ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 n) reaching abdominal segment 5 to 6 (length: 0.52–0.69 mm, width: 0.45–0.50 mm), subparallel­sided to rounded apices. Second tergal apodeme developed as vertical transverse wall with relatively straight or slightly concave ventral margin; in some specimens (including holotype) a small triangular projection or tooth extends ventrad from this margin on either side of midline, apodeme with lightly sclerotized spot just above each projection ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 p). Third tergal apodemes occurring primarily as low ridge, but in some specimens ridge flattened laterally into very short horizontal plate extending caudad.

Holotype male: ECUADOR: 30 mi./ SW. of Alausi./ Chimborazo/ 2500 m. II­ 14­55 // E.I. Schlinger/ & E.S. Ross/ collectors// PSS RESEARCH / 05­ 212 ­ 7 // HOLOTYPE / Empoasca   / joshuai   n. sp. / P.S. Southern 2006 ( CAS). Paratypes: 1 male same collection data as holotype, 25 males ECUADOR: 16 / mi. N. Latacunga/ Cotopaxi/ 3000 m. II­ 21­55 ( CAS, NCSU), 1 male ECUADOR:/ 40 mi. S Alausi,/ Chimborazo/ II­ 20 ­955 ( CAS), 4 males Colombia / 15 III 12 S. A. (CU), 2 males Colombia / 11 III 12 S. A. (CU), 1 male Almaguer Cauca/ 10500 ft. Colombia / Mar 11 ’ 12 Lloyd (CU), 1 male Ecuador Miza/ Chica Val Tung­/ urahua 3500 M 4­7 ­ 39 / FM & HH Brown ( NCSU), 1 male Ecuador Cuico­/ cha Imbabura/ 3300 M 5­30 ­ 39 / FM & HH Brown ( NCSU), 1 male Colombia: 32 / mi. N. La Union/ Narino. 760 m. / III­ 4­1955, near/ Rio Sambingo (CU).

The specific name joshuai   is a masculine noun in the genitive case. Entomologists are often supported in their work by their children who assist them in the field and laboratory and who share their parent’s attention with the demands of a career. This and the following species are named in honor of my children who have supported me in many ways. Empoasca joshuai   is named for my son, Joshua Southern.

In the key to Empoasca   of eastern Peru ( Southern, 1982), E. joshuai   keys to couplet 42 and E. neogaea Southern   , to which it is closely related. This species differs from E. neogaea   in being larger (body length 4.3–4.7 mm. vs. 3.7 mm); in the length of the pygofer process, which is much longer than the style; in the wider (extending more basad) distribution of the aculeae on the pygofer process; in the shape of the anal hook in posteroventral view, with the inner ramus less than half the length of the outer ramus; in the shape of the second tergal apodeme; and in the length of the second sternal apodemes, which extend beyond the fifth abdominal segment (often reaching the sixth segment). Specimens lacking the small toothlike projection on the second tergal apodeme also tend to have slightly shorter second sternal apodemes (reaching 5.00– 5.5) and to lack the brown line along the medial suture of the crown. It is possible these specimens represent a separate species. However, because they are almost identical with the holotype in the characters of the genital capsule they are included within the species concept of E. joshuae   and within the series of paratypes listed above. These specimens include all those from Colombia and two Ecuadorian specimens (Miza Chica and Cuicocha).

E. joshuai   , E. neogaea   , E. anfracta Southern 1982   , E. celta Southern 1982   , E. dolonis   Oman 1936, E. hardini Langlitz 1966   , E. lecta Southern 1982   , E. parvicornis Southern 1982   , E. plex Southern 1982   , and additional undescribed species are members of an unnamed group of species. This group is characterized by the occurrence of transversely bifurcate anal hooks; aculeae on the dorsal surface of dorsoventrally flattened pygofer processes; the presence of fine serrations apically on the medial margin of the pygofer processes; styles with the dentifer bowed upward in lateral view, the tip rounded, and the teeth reduced and largely confined to a small area at the apex of the dentifer; the second tergal apodeme developed as a transverse wall of variable shape; and sclerotization of the ninth tergum, with horns relatively narrow and separated basally.


Paleontology and Stratigraphic Section of the Geological Institute of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences


California Academy of Sciences


North Carolina State University Insect Museum














Empoasca joshuai

Southern, Phillip Sterling 2006

E. anfracta

Southern 1982

E. celta

Southern 1982

E. lecta

Southern 1982

E. parvicornis

Southern 1982

E. plex

Southern 1982

E. hardini

Langlitz 1966