Phtheochroa schawerdae (Rebel, 1908) Zlatkov & Huemer, 2017

Zlatkov, Boyan & Huemer, Peter, 2017, Allopatric cryptic diversity in the alpine species complex Phtheochroa frigidana s. lat. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), European Journal of Taxonomy 368, pp. 1-25 : 3-7

publication ID 10.5852/ejt.2017.368

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Phtheochroa schawerdae (Rebel, 1908)

comb. nov.

Phtheochroa schawerdae (Rebel, 1908) View in CoL comb. nov.

Figs 1 View Fig A–D, 2A–B, 3A–B, 4A–C, 5, 8A, 9, 10; Table 1 View Table 1

Conchylis schawerdae Rebel in Schawerda, 1908: 255 View in CoL .

Euxanthis drenowskyi Rebel, 1916: 42 View in CoL . Syn. nov.

Hysterosia drenowskyi – Razowski 1970: 72, pl. 1, fig. 2, pl. 29, fig. 2, pl. 112, fig. 2.

Phtheochroa drenowskyi View in CoL – Razowski 2002: 38.

non Phtheochroa drenovskyi – Razowski 1991a: 103.

non Phtheochroa drenovskii – Razowski 1991b: 166.


Externally, this species resembles P. apenninana sp. nov., with a deep yellow forewing upperside and a dark grey hindwing. The most conspicuous difference can be seen in the vesica: the axes of the right diverticulum and the sclerotized phallus form an angle of 100–120° in P. schawerdae and a maximum of 90° in P. apenninana sp. nov.; the right part of the vesica is larger in P. apenninana sp. nov. Other characters of less importance are the shape of the valva (wider in P. schawerdae , more slender in P. apenninana sp. nov.) and transtilla (short, with wide base in P. apenninana sp. nov. but variable in P. schawerdae ). The ventral phallic process is strongly curved to the right, in contrast to all other species of the group. The upperside wing colour easily distinguishes P. schawerdae from P. alpinana sp. nov., P. frigidana and P. cantabriana sp. nov.

Material examined

BULGARIA: 1 ♂, Rila Mts, Yurushki chal [Ovcharets] summit, 2100 m a.s.l., 24 Jul. 1907, A. Drenowsky leg. ( NMNHS); 1 ♂, Rila Mts, Nalbant [Kovach] summit, 2000 m a.s.l., 1 Aug. 1907, A. Drenowsky leg. ( NMNHS); 3 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Rila Mts, Tiha Rila area, 1850 m a.s.l., 42°08′27′′ N, 23°26′42′′ E, 2 Aug. 2013, B. Zlatkov leg. ( TLMF) (genitalia slide, ♀, 1/ 2.8.2013); 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Rila Mts, Kalin Dam, 42°11′03′′ N, 23°15′42′′ E, 2450 m a.s.l., 20 Aug. 2013, B. Zlatkov leg. ( BFUS) (genitalia slide, ♂, 1/ 20.8.2013); 1 ♂, Rila Mts, Granchar Chalet, 42°07′18′′ N, 23°35′36′′ E, 2200 m a.s.l., 6 Aug. 2013, B. Zlatkov ( BFUS) (genitalia slide, 1/ 6.8.2013); 2 ♂♂, Pirin Mts, Suhodolski preval, 41°47′57′′ N, 23°21′34′′ E, 2600 m a.s.l., 9 Jul. 2012, B. Zlatkov and O. Sivilov leg. ( BFUS).

MACEDONIA: 1 ♂, Mavrovo-Korab, eastern ridge, 41°47′08′′ N, 20°34′46′′ E, ca 2325–2400 m a.s.l., 28 Jul. – 1 Aug. 2011, Huemer and Tarmann leg. ( TLMF) (genitalia slide, 1/28.7- 1.8.2011).


Male ( Fig. 1 View Fig A–B, D)

HEAD. Frons and vertex rust yellow. Labial palps pointed anterad, relatively long, dorsally rust yellow, laterally rust. Scapus and pedicellus dorsally rusty, ventrally creamy, flagellum with yellow scales.

THORAX. Dorsally, including tegulae, rusty yellow, ventrally, mid- and hindlegs creamy, forelegs rusty. Forewing length 7.3–9.6 mm (x =8.1, n =11), upperside deep yellow, rarely rust, with more or less pronounced dorsal blotch, cilia concolourous with wings, underside dark grey, with creamy line in costal area. Hindwing upperside dark grey, cilia pale grey, with darker basal part, underside dark grey, with creamy costal area, sometimes with short white longitudinal line near end of vein M 2.

ABDOMEN. Grey with scattered white scales.

GENITALIA ( Fig. 2 View Fig A–B). Valva with weak dorsal curvature, round apically, with parallel costa and sacculus, both moderately sclerotized. Valva may appear wider or narrower depending on preparation. Uncus relatively well sclerotized, tapered apically. Socii rounded, convergent and connected medially with membrane. Transtilla ( Fig. 3 View Fig A–B) dorsally spinulous, variably shaped in specimens from same population: apically rounded or relatively angled, wider or narrower. Phallus ( Fig. 5 View Fig ) slightly curved ventrally, medioventrally with large, slender, sharp-tipped process ( Fig. 4 View Fig A–C), with apex curved to the right at nearly right angle. Vesica with large main part protruded at right from sclerotized phallus and two large diverticula bearing long, robust cornuti. Small conical, undulating structure (diverticulum) emerges ventrally from main part. Gonopore located dorsally, surrounded by semicylindrical sclerotized plate with minute lentiform tubercles. Main part medially constricted by circular furrow in which gonopore is sunk. Diverticula emerge close to each other from right side, right one straight and directed posterolaterally, left one curved and pointed laterally. In lateral left view, main part of vesica looks ovoid or subspherical. Diverticula may vary in width, but their length and orientation are constant. In dorsal view, axes of right diverticulum and sclerotized phallus form angle of 100–120°. Cornuti aciculate,

capitate, of equal length, left one slightly bent. Barely discernible acanthae present on left portion of main part of vesica and at end of diverticula.

Female ( Fig. 1C View Fig )

Generally resembles male, but forewing length 7.3–9.2 mm (n= 2), underside with larger creamy area, hindwing underside creamy or whitish. Female genitalia ( Fig. 8A View Fig ) with tergum 8 medially membranous, sterigma with two lateral protuberances, antrum nearly rectangular, with round anterior angles. Apophyses anteriores longer than apophyses posteriores. Ductus bursae ventrally membranous, with conical diverticulum of thick cuticle curved to the left and triangular sclerite dorsally. Corpus bursae with large sclerite on ventral side forming several (5–6) folds at the right, then expanding medially and dorsally on left side, reaching dorsal area of ductus bursae. Right side of corpus bursae with extensively folded membranous area. Ductus of accessory bursa emerges medioventrally, folded cuticle and small spines present to the left of its emerging area. Ductus seminalis inserted on ventral side.

Molecular data ( Table 1 View Table 1 , Fig. 9 View Fig )

BIN URI: BOLD:ABA3262. The maximum intraspecific divergence of the barcode region is considerable with 1.59% (n=4), supporting two geographically separated clusters in the Dinaric Mts. and Rila Mts. The minimum distance to the nearest neighbour, P. apenninana sp. nov. is 3.69%.


The moths fly in July–August at daytime, in the morning and late afternoon until twilight, in sunny, calm weather. Preimaginal stages and larval host plant are unknown. Habitat: humid subalpine meadows at altitudes from 2000 to 2600 m a.s.l.

Distribution ( Fig. 10 View Fig )

Known from the highest Balkan mountain systems: Dinaric Mts, Rila Mts, Pirin Mts, and most probably Carpathian Mts (material not checked by us).


Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum


Nanjing University


Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh


Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universitaet


Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum


University of Sofia, Biology Faculty


Botanical Museum - University of Oslo














Phtheochroa schawerdae (Rebel, 1908)

Zlatkov, Boyan & Huemer, Peter 2017

Phtheochroa drenowskyi

Razowski J. 2002: 38

Phtheochroa drenovskyi

Razowski J. 1991: 103

Phtheochroa drenovskii

Razowski 1991: 166

Hysterosia drenowskyi

Razowski J. 1970: 72

Euxanthis drenowskyi

Rebel H. 1916: 42

Conchylis schawerdae Rebel in Schawerda, 1908: 255

Schawerda K. 1908: 255
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