Tillandsia izabalensis Pinzón, I.Ramírez & Carnevali, 2012

Pinzón, Juan P., Ramírez, Ivón M. & Carnevali, Germán, 2012, The re-establishment of Tillandsia cucaensis (Bromeliaceae), a good species formerly confused with a new species from the Gulf of Honduras, Phytotaxa 61, pp. 1-16 : 11-14

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https://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.61.1.1

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Tillandsia izabalensis Pinzón, I.Ramírez & Carnevali

spec. nov.

Tillandsia izabalensis Pinzón, I.Ramírez & Carnevali , spec. nov. (Living plants: Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ).

A species similar to Tillandsia cucaensis , from which it differs by its open rosette with flexible leaves, white or whitish green petals, lighter than the sepals, and veined floral bracts in dried specimens. It is also similar to T. dasyliriifolia and T. limbata , differing from the former by having an open rosette with flexible leaves, and from the latter by lacking the vinaceous tinges in the inflorescence and floral bracts; it also differs from both species by being monocarpic and having longer floral bracts and calyces.

Type:— HONDURAS. Islas de la Bahía: Cayos Cochinos, Cochino Pequeño , estación científica, island group NE of La Ceiba , S of Isla Roatán , ~ 20 km N of mainland, 1–145 m, 8 May 1995, Foster 15523 (holotype TEFH!) ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ) .

Herb, epiphyte, 70–300 cm tall when flowering, apparently monocarpic. Rosette open, acaulescent. Leaves recurved, 22.0– 85.8 cm long; sheaths elliptic, 45–165× 28–75 mm, abaxially whitish-green to castaneous, smooth, densely lepidote, adaxially light castaneous to dark brown, with or without violaceous tinges, smooth to slightly veined upon drying, densely to sparsely lepidote, scales appressed, with inconspicuous wings; blades narrowly triangular, 2.9–5.4 times longer than the foliar sheath, 19–63 mm wide at the junction with the sheaths, flexible to subcoriaceous, apex attenuate, not pungent, abaxially whitishgreen, slightly veined, densely lepidote throughout, with cinereous, spreading scales, homogeneously distributed, adaxially green, smooth, finely veined in dried specimens, densely lepidote in the basal third, sparsely lepidote or glabrous in the central and apical thirds, with subcinereous or hyaline, spreading or appressed scales; foliar scales with verrucose wing cells, margins entire. Peduncle erect, 3.9–11.3 mm diameter at the apex, dull pink to red, smooth, glabrous, rigid; basal bracts of the peduncle foliose, abaxially whitish-green, smooth to finely veined upon drying, densely lepidote on both sides, imbricate, blade arching to pendant, apex subulate; apical bracts of the peduncle ovate-lanceolate, abaxially green with pinkish or reddish tinges, smooth or finely veined upon drying, glabrous or sparsely lepidote, not pungent, adaxially lepidote, base partially or totally amplexicaul, apex acuminate to acute, remote. Inflorescence a panicle, once divided; axis straight, 3.0– 6.3 mm diameter in the middle, green to bright pink, smooth, glabrous, internodes 26.6–64.0 mm (x =45.5 ± 10.8 mm, N = 28) long; primary bracts ovate-lanceolate, 25.9–55.0 mm (x =37.3 ±6.8

mm, N = 42), abaxially green with or without pink-red tinges or totally red, smooth, glabrous, adaxially lepidote, apex acuminate to acute; branches ascendant, straight 12.0– 65.5 cm (x =31.9 ± 11.7 cm, N = 39), with a basal sterile zone of 24.0– 179.3 mm (x =71.0 ± 35.9 mm, N = 38), the longest in the basal branches, the shortest in the apical ones; rachis flexuous, flat next to the flowers, 1.2–3.4 mm (x =2.3 ± 0.5 mm, N = 37) diameter in the middle, green to bright pink, glabrous, internodes 11.4–31.0 mm (x =18.3 ± 3.9 mm, N = 226) long; floral bracts ovate-lanceolate to ovate, 19.0–40.0 mm (x =27.1 ± 3.5 mm, N = 218) long, 5.9–11.8 mm (x =8.1 ± 1.2 mm, N = 219) in half width, on average longer than the rachis internodes, abaxially green or yellowish-green, with or without pinkish or reddish tinges, smooth, glabrous, adaxially densely lepidote, base totally amplexicaul, not keeled, coriaceous, apex acute to obtuse, margins hyaline. Flowers distichous, 72 mm long, appressed to the rachis, sessile; sepals obovate, 20.9–39.0 mm (x =29.0 ± 3.2 mm, N = 223)× 10 mm, abaxially green, smooth, glabrous, adaxially lepidote, not keeled, coriaceous, apex rounded, margins hyaline; corolla tubular, actinomorphic or slightly zigomorphic, constricted at the height of the ovary’s apex, erect or slightly curved at the apex of the sepals; petals 40.0– 41.8 mm long, white, whitish green or cream colored, apex rounded and erect, margins hyaline; stamens exserted in two series of unequal length; filaments 52.6–57.0 mm long, with the same width in all of their longitude, rounded in cross section, pale green; anthers oblong, subbasifixed, versatile, black or brown; style exserted, 63.1 mm long, longer than the stamens, pallid green; stigma green, lobes conduplicate, spread, not spiraled, papilose. Capsules cylindrical, 45.0– 70.6 mm (x =57.6 ± 8.4 mm, N = 12) long, externally castaneous, internally black, shiny, smooth, apex mucronate. Seeds fusiform, brown, with two plumose appendages, the apical one shorter than the body of the seed, the basal one long and comose.

Other specimens examined (paratypes): — BELIZE. El Cayo: Augustine, Mountain Pine Ridge , 457 m, 26 March 1960, Hunt 612 (US) . Toledo: Punta Gorda , W of beach rd., 23 March 1967, E. Dwyer & M. Dwyer 623 ( MO) . COLOMBIA. San Andrés y Providencia: Isla de Providencia , 13º21’N, 81º23’W, 29 March–9 May 1948, Proctor 3480 (PH) GoogleMaps . CUBA. Without precise locality: 1968, Schubert s.n. ( HAL) . GUATEMALA. Baja Verapaz: Purulhá , 12 June 1980, Luther s.n. ( SEL) . El Progreso: El Rancho, 500 m, March 1993, Salazar s.n. ( MEXU) . Izabal: Río Dulce , 1992, K. & R. Ehlers EG922001 View Materials ( WU) ; vicinity of Quiriguá , 75–223 m, 15–30 May 1922, Standley 24228 ( US) ; between Milla 49.5 and ridge 6 miles from Izabal, Montaña del Mico , 65–600 m, 1 April 1940, Steyermark 38542 ( F) ; Livingston , 150 m, 2 August 1998, Véliz s.n. ( MEXU) . Without precise locality: Eastern portions of Vera Paz and Chiquimula, 1885, Watson 49 ( US) . HONDURAS. Gracias a Dios: Arroyada del río Dursuna ; 70 km al O de Puerto Lempira, 15º00’N, 85º13’W, 7 April 1972, Nelson 816 ( TEFH) GoogleMaps ; Puerto Lempira, orilla laguna de Catarasca, 15º15’32”N, 83º46’04”W, 6 m, 5 September 1978, Nelson 4824 ( TEFH) GoogleMaps . Islas de la Bahía: Camino entre New Port Royal y Alligator Nose Beach , 0–95 m, 14 September 1982, Nelson 8441 ( SEL, US) ; origin. coll. Cayos Cochinos, Perqueno [ Pequeño ], 0–3 m, 16 July 2007, Luther s.n. ex Foster s.n. ( WU) . Olancho: Near Río Pueblo Viejo, between Dulci Nombre de Culmi and La Colonia , 7 February 1982, Blackmore & Heath 1738 ( MO) . NICARAGUA. Zelaya: in and around the Miskito Indian village of Karatá on the southeastern shore of Laguna de Karatá on sandy soil associated with coastal mangrove and inland pine forest and savanna, south of Puerto Cabezas , 13º55’30”N, 28º29’00”W, 0–5 m, 15–18 March 1994, Grant et al. 94–02319 ( SEL) GoogleMaps .

Etymology: —The specific epithet makes reference to the Department of Izabal, in Guatemala, where this plant is abundant, according to information in herbarium specimens labels.

Phenology: —Most flowering specimens of the species have been collected between January and May, with odd flowering specimens in July. Fruiting specimens have been collected in August and September.

Variation: —The total height of Tillandsia izabalensis ranges between 70–300 cm when flowering, in a similar way as in T. dasyliriifolia . According to the information from the herbarium specimens and photographs, the coloration of the inflorescence (axis, rachis) can be green or dull to bright pink; the floral bracts are usually green but may be suffused with bright pink; the petals are white to pale green, always lighter than the sepals, which are apple green.

Ecology and distribution: —This species is distributed along the Caribbean coast, from southern Belize to northern Nicaragua, including the Islas de la Bahía in Honduras and Isla de Providencia ( Colombia) ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ). It is reported in Cuba by a single specimen, which, however, lacks a precise locality. Most of the specimens examined are located within the Eastern Central America biogeographical province ( Morrone 2001). The plants of this species are epiphytes, growing in tropical rain forests, mangroves, or tropical pine forests, at elevations between 3 and 550 m, in a tropical wet climate.

IUCN conservation assessment: —Least concern (LC). The distributional area of Tillandsia izabalensis (extent of occurrence) far exceeds 20000 km 2 (104000 km 2) and the area of occupancy spreads through most of this area. The species occurs in a variety of ecosystems at low elevations (see above). It is fairly common in many places; there is evidence that Tillandsia izabalensis forms large populations in mangrove associations and in tropical pine stands. It is also not subject to significant collecting pressures.


University of New England


Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History


Nanjing University


Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras


Naturhistorisches Museum Wien


Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh


Botanische Staatssammlung München


Missouri Botanical Garden




Marie Selby Botanical Gardens


Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México


Royal Botanic Gardens


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Wayland University


Field Museum of Natural History, Botany Department


Botanical Museum - University of Oslo