Neoleucinodes galapagensis, Bernard Landry, 2016

Bernard Landry, 2016, Taxonomic revision of the Spilomelinae (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae s. l.) of the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Revue suisse de Zoologie 123 (2), pp. 315-399: 357-361

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.155309

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scientific name

Neoleucinodes galapagensis

sp. n.

Neoleucinodes galapagensis  sp. n.

Figs 38, 39View Figs 33 - 40, 86View Figs 81 - 91, 116View Figs 116 - 118, 162View Figs 158 - 162

Material examined:

Holotype: ♂, ‘ ECU [ADOR]., GALAPAGOS | Santiago, Central [camp] | 700 m elev[ation]., 9. iv.1992 | M[ercury] V[apour]L[ight], leg[it]. B. Landry’; ‘[slide] MHNG | ENTO ♂ | 00009025 ’; ‘genitalia slide | BL 1244 ’ (upside down); ‘HOLOTYPE | Neoleucinodes  | galapagensis  | B. Landry’. Deposited in MHNG. 

Paratypes: 4 ♂, 38 ♀ from the Galápagos Islands. – Fernandina: 1 ♀, SW side, crater rim, GPS: 1341 m elev[ation]., S 00° 21.910’, W 91° 34.034’, 13.ii.2005, u[ltra]v[iolet]l[ight] (B. Landry, P. Schmitz); 3 ♂ (one dissected, slide MHNG-ENTO-8690), 2 ♀, SW side, crater rim, reared from young green fruits of Solanum erianthum  , coll[ected]. 12.ii.2005, em[erged]. 28.ii.2005 (P. Schmitz). – Isabela: 11 ♀ (one dissected, slide MHNG- ENTO-8692), NE slope Alcedo, ca. 400 m up (S) Los Guayabillos camp, GPS: 892 m elev., S 00° 25.208’, W 91° 04.765’, 1.iv.2004, uvl (B. Landry, P. Schmitz); 2 ♀, Alcedo, lado NE, 700 m, camp guayabillos, 16.iv.2002, uvl (B. Landry, L. Roque); 1 ♀, V[olcan]. Darwin, 630 m elev., 17.v.1992, M[ercury]V[apour]L[ight] (B. Landry); 1 ♀, V. Darwin, 300 m elev., 20.v.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♀, ± 15 km N P[uer]to Villamil, 25.v.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♀, Sierra Negra, Corazon Verde (T.J. de Vries, B.M. 1976-58); 2 ♀, idem except 19-20.xii.1975. – Pinta: 8 ♀ (one dissected, slide MHNG-ENTO-8691), 400 m elev., 17.iii.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 6 ♀, idem except 18.iii.1992. – Santa Cruz: 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Hacienda Schiess, xi.1974 (B.M. 1975-7, Ref. L.). – Santiago: 1 ♀, same data as holotype. Deposited in BMNH, CDRS, CNC, and MHNG.

Other specimens: 1 ♀ with label ‘179’ referring to notebook entry ‘Isa, Nov., Dec. ‘74’.

Diagnosis: This species ( Figs 38, 39View Figs 33 - 40) differs from the hyaline white-winged N. elegantalis (Guenée)  , N. dissolvens (Dyar)  , N. imperialis (Guenée)  , and N. silvaniae Díaz & Solis, 2007  by virtue of the more abundant suffusion of darker scales on both wings, with the paler areas harbouring a brownish shade. In male genitalia N. galapagensis  ( Fig. 116View Figs 116 - 118) is similar to N. elegantalis  ( Fig. 115View Figs 113 - 115), N. dissolvens  , N. prophetica (Dyar)  and N. silvaniae  , all of which have a single long, spine-like cornutus on the vesica. They differ especially in details of the position and shape of the fibula, and shape of the valva, tegumen, and uncus. Neoleucinodes elegantalis  is most similar in genitalia, but the basal patch of the forewing is a mixture of rust, taupe and white scales while the mediodorsal, triangular patch is rust brown except for a row of taupe brown along the patch’s margins (see Fig. 37View Figs 33 - 40); in male genitalia N. elegantalis  differs in having a narrower valva, the fibula situated before mid-length, narrower and apically rounded, and the phallus about twice as long. In female genitalia, the above-mentioned species are all similar, with a long corpus bursae without signum, but N. galapagensis  ( Fig. 162View Figs 158 - 162) differs from N. elegantalis  ( Fig. 161View Figs 158 - 162) in the slightly bent posterior apophyses, the straighter and apically pointed anterior apophyses, the narrower ventral plate on segment VIII, the more thickly sclerotized band along the ventral margin of the ostium bursae, and the comparatively shorter ductus bursae.

Etymology: The new name refers to the area of occurrence and highlights the endemic status of the species.

Description: Male (n=5) ( Fig. 38View Figs 33 - 40). Head with frons gently rounded, not projecting, vestiture on frons pale, appressed, short scaled, mottled white and pale yellowish brown, with few greyish brown scales, with longer narrow scales behind eye yellowish brown ventrally, white dorsally and directed anterodorsally, with occipital scales reaching between antennal bases, white to yellowish brown; antenna filiform, with ventral ciliation short, slightly shorter than width of corresponding flagellomeres, vestiture mottled with white, cream and different shades of pale brown on scape, dirty white with single darker greyish scale in middle of basal row in basal flagellomeres, uniformly coloured and almost pure white toward apex of flagellum; maxillary palpus tiny, not reaching above pilifer, directed anterodorsally along dorsal margin of labial palpus, white and pale greyish brown; labial palpus projecting anterodorsally at half right angle distinctly above top of head and anteriorly for about as long as eye diameter, vestiture mostly short, with projecting scales ventrally on first flagellomere and base of second, with third segment distinct, not hidden by scales of second flagellomere, mottled white and various shades of pale brown; haustellum mottled white and various shades of pale brown. Thorax dorsally mostly with greyish brown scales with paler bases, with some scales darker greyish brown or chestnut brown, with large transverse white band in middle of scales of tegulae, white also apically on mesoscutellum and medially on metascutum, apical scales of tegulae with paler bases and apices, subapically pale greyish brown. Foreleg coxa white with few light greyish brown, cream, and sometimes chestnut brown scales; femur medially unicoloured greyish brown, laterally white with dark greyish brown patch subapically; tibia greyish brown with white at base, with long thin scales covering epiphysis light chestnut brown; tarsomere I cream with few greyish brown scales at base, tarsomeres II-V white. Midleg white with blackish brown at apex of femur, scattered light brown on tibia especially on basal half, tarsomeres cream in darker specimens. Hindleg as midleg, with less brown scaling on tibia. Forewing length: 6.5-9.0 mm (holotype: 9.0 mm) (wingspan: 14.0-18.0 mm; holotype: 18.0 mm). Wing vestiture as shown, with chestnut brown markings pale greyish brown instead in specimens from Fernandina, forewing with many of the darker scales erect. Abdomen dorsally with tergite I mostly white, with chestnut brown to pale greyish brown lateral patches, tergite II pale greyish brown with some slightly darker scales or with lateral patches of chestnut brown and base and apical margin white, tergite III as second except for absence of white at base, subsequent tergites pale greyish brown with paler lateral patches or darker greyish brown with few chestnut brown scales and a thin white apical line; laterally on some segments with short, erect, dark greyish brown or chestnut brown scales; ventrally pale greyish with white apical margin apparent in darker specimens. Segment VIII with sclerotization pattern as shown ( Fig. 86View Figs 81 - 91).

Male genitalia (n=2) ( Fig. 116View Figs 116 - 118). Uncus with short wide base, slightly wider than apex of tegumen, with lateral margins rounded, second third (‘neck’) narrow, bare, distal third (‘head’) enlarged, ovoid, with short and thick spine-like setae directed backwards. Subscaphium basally simple, narrow, medially about 2X as wide, distally forming two lateral rods reaching beyond tip of uncus. Tegumen forming complete cover dorsally, elongate, about 4X as long as width at 3/4 of length, narrowing distally to about 1/3 basal width, without longitudinal dorsomedian strut, with lateral margins thickened, basal margin concave, apical margin blunt. Pseudognathos thin, medially membranous along base of subscaphium. Transtilla arms bird-head shaped, almost connected medially. Valva elongate, narrowing to 1/3 basal width, apically rounded, dorsal margin thickly sclerotized from base to 2/3, ventral margin thickly sclerotized from base to middle, medially at mid-length with fibula short, flat, triangular, corrugated, and directed medially. Juxta a triangle with rounded base. Vinculum very narrow laterally, only slightly enlarging dorsally; with ventral margin straight and saccus forming median bulbous enlargement directed dorsally. Phallus straight, with basal 2/5 dorsally membranous, slightly shorter than valva, apically with ventral margin slightly extended, rounded; vesica with single straight cornutus about 2/5 length of phallus shaft.

Female (n=38) ( Fig. 39View Figs 33 - 40): Antenna with length of ciliation about one fourth that of male. Forewing length: 6.5- 12.0 mm (wingspan: 13.5-24.0 mm). Vestiture with markings chestnut brown as shown to mostly greyish brown, also with erect scales on forewing. Abdomen dorsally with tergite I mostly white with chestnut brown or greyish brown laterally, subsequent tergites greyish brown with or without paler patches laterally, ending with row of white scales apically; laterally with short erect scales as in males; ventrally pale cream or pale greyish brown with tiny darker spots medially at apex of tergites.

Female genitalia (n=2) ( Fig. 162View Figs 158 - 162). Papillae anales laterally compressed, disconnected and longer dorsally, forming low right triangle with posterior margin slightly convex; sclerotized basal margin very narrow; posterior apophyses about 2/3 width of papillae anales, slightly widened from 1/2 to 2/5. Segment VIII with tergum longer dorsally, shortening by about 1/3 at level of apophyses, then slightly widening and triangular; ventrally and just posterad of ostium bursae with elongate triangular plate almost connecting with lateroventral angles of sternum and with posterior margin medially v-shaped; anterior apophyses about 10% longer than posterior apophyses, slightly thicker, with slight enlargement subbasally. Ostium bursae with ventral narrow band extending and narrowing laterally. Ductus bursae with funnel-shaped antrum about 10% of whole ductus length, medially with short sclerotized plate of colliculum, dorsally with inception of ductus seminalis; rest of ductus bursae of medium girth, slightly widening toward corpus bursae. Corpus bursae small, about 1/4 of ductus length, circular, without signum or other modifications of membrane.

Biology: Five specimens have been reared from young green fruits of Solanum erianthum D. Don  ( Solanaceae  ) on Fernandina. In the Galápagos specimens have been collected only at higher elevations ranging from 300 m on Isabela, Alcedo, to the crater rim on Fernandina. Collecting dates are in February until May, and November and December.

Distribution: This is a Galápagos endemic so far collected on Fernandina, Isabela, Pinta, Santa Cruz, and Santiago.

Remarks: The host plant species is indigenous, but not endemic to the Galápagos, on which it occurs on several of the islands (Jaramillo Díaz & Guézou, 2015). It can be found around the world in tropical regions ( McMullen, 1999). Older specimens, collected in 1974 and 1975 are from the agriculture zone on Isabela and Santa Cruz, but all other specimens, collected in 1992, 2002, 2004, and 2005 are from pristine habitats or habitats unmodified by man, except for the (former?) presence of invasive introduced mammal species. This may reflect a decrease in the diversity of the fauna and flora in the agriculture zone in more recent times.


Switzerland, Geneva, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle


Edith Cowan University


Museum d'Histoire Naturelle


Invertebrate Collection


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes