Desmia mordor B. Landry & M.. Solis,

Bernard Landry, 2016, Taxonomic revision of the Spilomelinae (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae s. l.) of the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Revue suisse de Zoologie 123 (2), pp. 315-399: 323-329

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.155309

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9ED8B8D5-ADA1-4B53-A1D3-0F75F889A179

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/7B7F3791-969F-4472-97A4-63390FFDDF50

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:7B7F3791-969F-4472-97A4-63390FFDDF50

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Desmia mordor B. Landry & M.. Solis
status

sp. n.

Desmia mordor B. Landry & M.. Solis  , sp. n.

Figs 12, 13View Figs 9 - 16, 82View Figs 81 - 91, 98View Figs 98 - 100, 144View Figs 143 - 147

Material examined

Holotype: ♀, ‘ ECUADOR [sideways on left side] | GALÁPAGOS | Sta Crúz, Media | Luna, Pampa Zone | 8.II.1989, M[ercury]V[apour]L[ight] | B. Landry’. ‘HOLOTYPE | Desmia  | mordor  | Landry & Solis’. Deposited in CNC. 

Paratypes: 20 ♂, 19 ♀ from Ecuador, the Galápagos Islands: – Fernandina: 1 ♂ (dissected, slide MHNG- ENTO-8671), SW side, crater rim, GPS: 1341 m, S 00° 21.910’, W 091° 34.034’, 13.ii.2005, u[ltra]v[iolet]l[ight] (B. Landry, P. Schmitz). – Isabela: 1 ♂, 3 km N S[an]to Tómas, Agr[iculture]. Zone, M[ercury]V[apor]L[ight], 8.iii.1989 (B. Landry); 1 ♂, 2 ♀, Punta Albermarle, SW of old U[nited]S[tates] radar site, Alt[itude]. ± 10 m, 27.iii. [19]70 (R. Silberglied); 1 ♂, V[olcan]. Darwin, 630 m elev[ation]., 17.v.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♀ (slide MHNG-ENTO-8980), ± 15 km N P[uer] to Villamil, 25.v.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♂, Sierra Negra, Alemania, xi.1974 (T.J. de Vries, B.M. 1976–58). – Pinta: 1 ♂, N 00° 34.591’, W 90° 45.137’, 421 m elev., 17.iii.2006, uvl (P. Schmitz, L. Roque). – Santa Cruz: 2 ♂ (one dissected, slide CNC PYR 352), Los Gemelos, 31.i.1989, MVL (B. Landry); 2 ♀, Media Luna, pampa zone, 8.ii.1989, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♀, Horneman Farm, 220 m, 10.iii.1964 (D. Q. Cavagnaro); 1 ♂, idem except 5.iv.1964; 1 ♂, idem except 3.v.1964; 2 ♀ (slides MHNG- ENTO-8670, 8978), Finca Vilema, 2 km W Bella Vista, 1.iv.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♂, no precise locality, iv.1969 (R. Perry, Tj. de Vries, B.M. 1969-693); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Los Gemelos, 4.v.2002, uvl (B. Landry, L. Roque); 1 ♀, Los Gemelos, 27.v.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 2 ♂, 1 ♀, Horneman Farm, 200 m, 24.vi.1965 (J. DeRoy); 2 ♀, idem except 26.vi.1965; 3 ♀, idem except 27.vi.1965; 3 ♂, 1 ♀, idem except 28.vi.1965. – Santiago: 1 ♀, NE side, close to Caseta, GPS: 686 m elev., S 00°14.177’, W 90°44.619’, 6.iii.2005, uvl (P. Schmitz); 3 ♂ (one dissected, slide MHNG-ENTO-8668), Aguacate [camp], 520 m elev., 6.iv.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♀, Central [camp], 700 m elev., 9.iv.1992, MVL (B. Landry); 1 ♀ (dissected, slide MHNG-ENTO-8667), Aguacate [camp], 520 m elev., 12.iv.1992, MVL (B. Landry). Deposited in AMNH, BMNH, CAS, CNC, MCZ, MHNG, and USNM. 1 ♂ from Brazil: – Bahía  : 1 ♂ (slide MHNG- ENTO-8963), Camacan, Res[erva]. Serra Bonita, 800 m, 15°23’ S, 39°33’W, 24.xi.-2.xii.2013, u[ltra]v[iolet] l[ight] (B. Landry, V. Becker). Deposited in MHNG.

28 ♂, 27 ♀, 3 of unknown sex from Costa Rica: – Alajuela: 1 ♂, 12-SRNP-1518, Area de Conservacion  Guanacaste, Sector Rincon Rain Forest, Camino Albergue Oscar, 560 m, Lat: 10.87741, Long: -85.32363, 15.iv.2012, eclosed 4.v.2012 from Psychotria panamensis (E. Araya)  ; 1 ♂, 12-SRNP-1517, idem except eclosed 5.v.2012 (E. Araya); 1?sex, 13-SRNP-475, idem except 26.i.2013, eclosed 16.ii.2013 (C. Cano); 1 ♂, 12-SRNP- 86729, Area de Conservacion  Guanacaste, Camino Francia, Sector Rincon Rain Forest, 410 m, Lat: 10.90425, Long: -85.28651, 21.xi.2015, eclosed 21.xi.2012 from Psychotria panamensis  (. Cordoba); 1 ♂, 13-SRNP- 3341, Area de Conservacion  Guanacaste, Finca San Gabriel, Sector San Cristobal, 645 m, Lat: 10.87766, Long: -85.39343, 26.vi.2013, eclosed 15.vii.2013 from Psychotria panamensis (E. Araya)  ; 1 ♂, 13-SRNP- 3640, idem except 12.vii.2013, eclosed 15.vii.2013 from Psychotria remota (O. Espinoza)  ; 1 ♀, 13-SRNP- 4027, idem except 2.viii.2013, eclosed 21.viii.2013 from Psychotria panamensis (E. Araya)  ; 1 ♂, 12-SRNP-2294, idem except 2.vi.2012, eclosed 2.vi.2012 from Psychotria panamensis (E. Araya)  ; 1 ♀, 12-SRNP-3247, idem except 30.vii.2012, eclosed 27.viii.2012 from Psychotria graciliflora (O. Espinoza)  ; 1 ♀, 12-SRNP-3677, idem except 30.viii.2012, eclosed 2.x.2012 from Psychotria remota  ; 1 sex?, 12-SRNP-283, idem except 25.i.2012, eclosed 21.ii.2012, from Psychotria panamensis  ; 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,927), Finca San Gabriel, 16 km ENE Queb[rada]. Grande, 650 m, 1-10.vii.1986 (I. Gauld & J. Thompson); 1 ♀, idem except 11-15.vii.1986; 1 ♀, 13-SRNP-69246, Area de Conservacion  Guanacaste, Sector San Gabriel, Flecha, 491 m, Lat: 10.94741, Long: -85.31501, 2.ii.2013, eclosed 28.ii.2013 from Psychotria jimenezii (E. Apu)  ; 1 ♀, 12-SRNP-82060, idem except 7.xii.2012, eclosed 29.xii.2012; 1 ♂, 12-SRNP-81734, Area de Conservacion  Guanacaste, Sector Rincon Rain Forest, Jacobo, 461 m, Lat: 10.94076, Long: -85.3177, 4.x.2012, eclosed 2.xi.2012, from Psychotria panamensis (E. Apu)  ; 1 ♂, 12-SRNP-81556, idem except 20.ix.2012, eclosed 18.x.2012, from Psychotria jimenezii  ; 1 ♂, 12- SRNP-3539, Area de Conservacion  Guanacaste, Sector Rincon Rain Forest, Sendero Albergue Crater, 980 m, Lat: 10.84886, Long: -85.3281, 17.viii.2012, eclosed 5.ix.2012 from Psychotria panamensis (E. Araya)  ; 1 ♀, 12-SRNP-3955, Area de Conservacion  Guanacaste, Sector San Cristobal, Sendero Colegio, 520 m, Lat: 10.89296, Long: -85.3788, 15.ix.2012, eclosed 10.x.2012 from Psychotria remota (C. Cano)  ; 1 sex?, 12-SRNP-3947, idem except eclosed 6.x.2012 from Psychotria panamensis (E. Araya)  ; 1 ♀, 12-SRNP-723, Area de Conservacion  Guanacaste, Sector San Cristobal, Sendero Huerta, 527 m, Lat: 10.9305, Long: -85.37223, 25.ii.2013, eclosed 24.iii.2012 from Hamelia patens  (identification suspect) (G. Sihezar); 1 ♀, 13-SRNP- 1836, Area de Conservacion  Guanacaste, Sector San Gabriel, Sendero Perdido, 620 m, Lat: 10.8794, Long: -85.38607, 12.iv.2013, eclosed 1.v.2013 from Psychotria remota (G. Sihezar)  ; 1 ♀, 13-SRNP-1835, idem; 1 ♀, 13-SRNP-40840, Area de Conservacion  Guanacaste, Sector Rincon Rain Forest, Sendero Rincon, 430 m, Lat: 10.8962, Long: -85.27769, 26.ii.2013, eclosed 30.iii.2013 from Psychotria panamensis (J. Perez)  ; 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,959), 1 ♀, Estacion Pitilla, 9 km S. Santa Cecilia, vii.1988 (Espinosa & Chaves); 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,949), 1 ♀, F[in]ca. La Campana, El Ensayo, 7 km NW Dos Rios, 15-17.iii.1986 (D.H. Janzen & W. Hallwachs); 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,964), San Lorencito, Res[erva]. For[estal]. San Ramon, 5 km N. Col. Palmarena, 800 m, 1-4.xi.1986 (I. &. Chacon). – Cartago: 1 ♂, (slide USNM 106,957), Tapanti, Grande de Orosi, 1300-1400 m, 9.iv.1984 (D.H. Janzen & W. Hallwachs). – Guanacaste: 2 ♂ (slides USNM 106,955 & USNM 106,951), 2 ♀, Estacion Mengo, SW side Volcan Cacao, 1100 m, 29.vii.1987 (D.H. Janzen & W. Hallwachs); 1 ♀, 13-SRNP-30124, Area de Conservacion  Guanacaste, Sector Pitilla, Sendero Laguna, 680 m, Lat: 10.9888, Long: -85.42336, 10.i.2013, eclosed 30.i.2013 from Psychotria panamensis (F. Quesada)  ; 1 ♀, 13-SRNP-31124, Area de Conservacion  Guanacaste, Sector Pitilla, Sendero Orosilito, 900 m, Lat: 10.98332, Long: -85.43623, 19.viii.2013, eclosed 16.ix.2013 from Psychotria panamensis (M. Rios)  ; 1 ♀, 13-SRNP-31126, idem; 1 ♂, 13-SRNP-31127, idem except eclosed 14.ix.2013; 2 ♂ (slides USNM 106,950 & USNM 106,954), 2 ♀, W. of Carmona, Nicoya, 600- 700 m, 19.viii.1982 (D.H. Janzen & W. Hallwachs). – Heredia: 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,956), 1 ♀, El Angel Waterfall, 8.2 km downhill Vara Blanca, 1350 m, i.1981 (D.H. Janzen & W. Hallwachs); 2 ♂ (slides USNM 106,952 & USNM 106,953), 2 ♀, Finca La Selva (OTS), Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, 50 m, 14-15.xi.1982 (D.H. Janzen & W. Hallwachs); 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,932), La Selva Biol. Sta., Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, 40 m, v.1987 (M.M. Chavarria). – Puntarenas: 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,960), 1 ♀, Monte Verde, 15-16.v.1980 (D.H. Janzen & W. Hallwachs); 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,948), Tajo Cafrosa, Z.P. Las Tablas, 1300 m, 25.xi.1987 (I. Chacon). – San Jose: 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,961), 1 ♀, Estacion Carrillo, Par[que]. Nac[ional]. Braulio Carrillo, 700 m, v.1985 (I. &. Chacon); 1 ♀, Estacion Zurqui (El Tunel), Par. Nac. Braulio Carrillo, 1500 m, vii.1985 (W. I. &. Chacon); 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,947), idem except ix.1985 (W. I. &. Chacon); 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,926), 1 ♀, La Montura, Braulio Carrillo Nat[ional]. P[ar]k., 1100 m, 17.xii.1981 (D.H. Janzen & W. Hallwachs). Deposited in USNM.

1 ♂ from Mexico: – Veracruz: 1 ♂ (slide USNM 106,939), La Gloria, Cardel, iii.1937 (J. Carmelo G.). Deposited in USNM.

Diagnosis: The new species is externally similar to D. vulcanalis Felder, Felder & Rogenhofer  , described from Volcan Chiriqui, Panama, and Veragua. They have similar markings and absence of obvious modification of the male antenna, but externally D. vulcanalis  males are larger (holotype = 21 mm forewing length, but most specimens are larger than 16 mm), the females of both species are almost the same size, D. vulcanalis  colour is more chocolate brown than black, D. vulcanalis  lacks the femoral and tibial modified scaling that occurs in the new species, the white markings on both wings are broader in both sexes, and in the males only, the basal areas of both wings have longer scales that give these areas a ‘fluffy’ look. In the male genitalia, the valvae are similar, but in D. vulcanalis  the apex is round with a small fold that is absent in the new species, the ventrobasal section also with a small, triangular, marginal projection, but much more prominent in D. vulcanalis  . Most obvious are the differences in the transtilla that is very straight in the new species, but with two lobes in D. vulcanalis  , the juxta is about as long as wide in D. vulcanalis  , whereas in the new species it is about twice as long as wide, and the saccus is wider and about twice as large in vulcanalis  than in the new species. In the phallus both species have two sets of cornuti on the vesica, but in D. vulcanalis  it is 2 lines of straight spines, about 5 on each side, decreasing in size posteriorly, whereas in the new species they form curving structures with differing sizes and arrangement of spines. In the female genitalia of D. vulcanalis  the anterior apophyses are almost three times as long as the posterior apophysis, they are only twice as long in the new species. In D. vulcanalis  the ductus bursae is shortly membranous followed by a sclerotized, square-shaped colliculum with a short extension into another membranous anterior part of the ductus bursae, the colliculum in the new species is wide and rectangular. The corpus bursae are similar, but in D. vulcanalis  it is less broad at the cephalic end. In the Galápagos this species is unlike any other by virtue of its black wings adorned with white spots and bands. Hymenia perspectalis (Hübner)  and Spoladea recurvalis (Fabricius)  are superficially similar, but they are paler brown and they have the forewing paler markings that touch the costa as well as the dorsum, whereas the white spots on the forewing of D. mordor  do not touch either margin.

Etymology: The new name, treated as a noun in apposition, means ‘Black Land’ in Sindarin, a fictional language used in The Lord of the Rings, the epic high-fantasy novel written by English author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973) ( Wikipedia, 2016). Mordor  is volcanic and partly arid, like the Galápagos. As Mordor  is the land controlled by Sauron, the evil lord in Tolkien’s tale, this name also refers to the tendency of earlier authors to attribute names in relation to death to species of Desmia  , such as D. tages (Cramer, 1777)  , D. sepulchralis Guenée, 1854  , or D. mortualis Hampson, 1912  .

Description: Male (n=50) ( Fig. 12View Figs 9 - 16). Head with frons flat, dark blackish brown except for thin white line along margin of eye ventrally from antennal base, broad scales on dorsal half of frons not entirely appressed, slightly elevated, longer and thinner scales between antennae projecting anterodorsally, longer hair-like scales behind ocelli projecting dorsomedially; antenna filiform, without modified flagellomeres but with pair of thickened setae arising laterally on each side of scale coating before middle of flagellomeres except first few, short on first flagellomeres on which they appear and then about twice as wide as corresponding flagellomeres at maximum length, vestiture dark blackish brown on scape and first few flagellomeres, paler greyish brown beyond, with white longitudinal line ventrally on scape; maxillary palpus minute, smaller than pilifer, with greyish brown scales; labial palpus bicolored, white ventrally on most of first segment and base of second, dark greyish brown elsewhere, slightly paler medially toward apex of second and tiny third segment; haustellum greyish brown at base, white to light cream beyond. Thorax dorsally mostly dark greyish brown, slightly darker at base of collar scales, with thin, paler, whitish scales at base of mesoscutum hidden by collar scales, white laterally and sometimes also basally on metascutum. Tegula extending to posterior margin of mesoscutum, scales extending to first abdominal segment. Foreleg coxa dark greyish brown with white at base and apex; femur with chocolate brown brush of short erect scales of equal length ventrally from base to 3/4, with greyish brown at base and white apically; tibia greyish brown with white and cream at base and apex, with long greyish brown scales at base of epiphysis and projecting over it, with short projecting scales laterally on distal half; tarsomeres cream coloured. Midleg femur greyish brown with white and cream at base and white subapically, ventral edge at base with row of mediumlength hair-like scales; tibia greyish brown with black at base and white and cream at tip, spurs cream with greyish brown; tarsomere I dirty cream with greyish brown on distal half dorsally; tarsomeres II-V pale cream. Hindleg femur dirty white at base, greyish brown subapically, snow white apically; tibia dark greyish brown, spurs cream dorsally and white ventrally; tarsomere I dirty cream with greyish brown on distal half dorsally; tarsomeres II white with cream distally; tarsomeres III-V white. Forewing length: 12.0-14.0 mm (wingspan: 24.0-26.0 mm); vestiture with blue-tinged white markings as illustrated ( Fig. 12View Figs 9 - 16), reniform spot white, rectangular, orbicular and claviform white spots as one, rectangular, fringe with longer scales white above tornus. Hindwing broadly triangular, posterior margin length equal to costal margin, with white discal spot extending as a line to posterior margin, fringe with longer scales white on all of termen except anal sector. Abdomen tapering, 9 mm long, longer than female’s, dorsally dark greyish brown to blackish brown on tergite VII, tergites II-VI with snowy white line on terminal margin, with line generally wider on tergite II, ultimate segment longer than wide, blackish brown with longitudinal lateral white lines ending in black hair-like scales surrounding genitalia; ventrally white except for dark greyish brown apex of ultimate sternite. Segment VIII with sclerotization pattern as shown ( Fig. 82View Figs 81 - 91).

Male genitalia (n=21) ( Fig. 98View Figs 98 - 100). Uncus long and narrow, with broad base, down curved distally, apically expanded slightly, dorsoventrally flattened, and covered evenly with short, thick setae, with longer setae at base. Subscaphium long and narrow, about 1.5X length of uncus. Tegumen an inverted U with bifid lateral arms, the median pair more thickly sclerotized and partly covered by wider lateral pair. Parategumenal sclerites membranous, barely extending to saccus, with sclerotized edge, with small group of long, narrow scales and denser fan of shorter, narrow and apically bifid scales. Gnathos a narrow, weakly sclerotized (hardly visible) band, apparently not connected medially. Transtilla a pair of narrow, sclerotized sclerites sharply pointed distally (or adjoining costa of valva), narrowing toward middle and connected by membrane medially. Valva elongate, wider medially, narrowing toward almost square-like apex, with dorsal, more thickly sclerotized band ending at about 3/4, with oval-shaped ventrobasal section devoid of setae and ending in small, triangular, marginal projection, ventral margin set with long (as long as width of valva), thickly sclerotized, narrow scales easily detached and shorter toward apex. Juxta with slightly broader base, parallelmargined until blunt apex, slightly shorter than uncus. Vinculum with arms of medium width, as long as wide; saccus a bulbous projection directed anteriorly, only slightly wider than long from base of vinculum. Phallus straight, with ventral wall more thickly sclerotized, widening from middle, with short, narrower tongue-like projection apically, also with short membranous, bulbous, and shortly setose projection on each side ventrolaterally before apex; vesica with two cornuti formed by small attached spines, one curved with more than 10 slightly curved spines, the other bear paw-like, with about 12 straight apical spines.

Female (n=47) ( Fig. 13View Figs 9 - 16): Antenna without pair of lateral setae from first few flagellomeres, but subsequently present and increasing slowly in length to reach slightly more than width of flagellomeres. Legs without femoral and tibial modified scales. Forewing length: 10.5- 13.0 mm (wingspan: 21.0-24.0 mm) (holotype: 10.5 mm forewing length, 21.5 mm wingspan); reniform spot rectangular as in male; orbicular and claviform spots not rectangular, appearing as two spots adjoining, sometimes disconnected. Hindwing differing from that of male in markings as illustrated ( Fig. 13View Figs 9 - 16); posterior margin length shorter than costal margin; white discal spot extending to posterior margin as two short, white lines. Abdomen similar in colour to male, dorsally with white lateral lines on ultimate segment shorter than those of male but reaching apex, <6 mm in length, tergites II-VI not tapering, tergite VI much broader than ultimate segment giving it a square-like appearance, ultimate segment as long as wide.

Female genitalia (n=4) ( Fig. 144View Figs 143 - 147). Papillae anales narrow, with setose surface slightly longer dorsally, ventral 1/3 flattened and slightly curving posteriorly; narrow basal sclerotized band slightly enlarging ventrally; posterior apophyses straight except for slight subbasal bend, about half as long as width of papillae anales. Segment VIII with tergum dorsally about 3X ventral length, with medium length setae more concentrated on distal half and dorsally; without sternal plates or other ventral modifications; anterior apophyses almost twice as long as posterior apophyses, slightly sinuate, with slight enlargement subbasally. Membrane around ostium bursae membranous, unmodified. Ductus bursae very short, with basal section occupied entirely by wide, rectangular colliculum dorsally thickly sclerotized and only so as basal band ventrally; constriction at base of colliculum followed by equally wide shorter membranous and spiculate section. Corpus bursae elongate, about thrice as long as ductus bursae, with basal section scobinated until medioventral inception of ductus seminalis, with following short section slightly narrower and without membrane ornaments, then slightly enlarged in broad triangle on right side with scobination slightly thicker on enlargement than at cephalic end.

Biology: One BMNH paratype specimen from Santa Cruz Island, without specific locality, bears a label recording ‘further specimen from larva taken on Psychotria rufipes, Fernandina  , October 1969 ’. This specimen is probably a CDRS specimen only labelled ‘105’, a number that refers to a note in a CDRS notebook mentioning that it was reared from ‘ Psychotria rufipes  ’. Many of the paratypes from Costa Rica have been reared also from species of Psychotria  ( P. graciliflora Benth.  , P. jimenezii Standl.  , P. panamensis Standl.  , P. remota Benth.  ). Most Galápagos specimens were collected above 200 m in elevation, up to 1341 m at the rim of the volcano on Fernandina, but a small series was taken near the sea shore at Punta Albermarle on Isabela. Collecting localities on Galápagos harbour a diverse set of habitats, from untouched to modified for lowintensity agriculture. Collecting dates of the Galápagos specimens are from January to June and October.

Distribution: In the Galápagos this species has been collected on the islands of Fernandina, Isabela, Pinta, Santa Cruz, and Santiago. On the continent it is known from Mexico, Costa Rica, and Brazil.

Remarks: Rubiaceae  , Psychotria rufipes Hook.  f. is a vulnerable Galápagos endemic present on Fernandina, Floreana, Isabela, Pinta, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, and Santiago (Jaramillo Díaz & Guézou, 2015).

CNC

Canada, Ontario, Ottawa, Canadian National Collection of Insects

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

MHNG

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

CDRS

Invertebrate Collection

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Pyralidae

Genus

Desmia