Afronurus furcatus ( Zhou & Zheng, 2003 )

Zhang, Wei, Lei, Zhi-Ming, Li, Wen-Juan & Zhou, Chang-Fa, 2021, A contribution to the genus Afronurus Lestage, 1924 in China (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae, Ecdyonurinae), European Journal of Taxonomy 767 (1), pp. 94-116 : 100-106

publication ID 10.5852/ejt.2021.767.1491

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scientific name

Afronurus furcatus ( Zhou & Zheng, 2003 )


Afronurus furcatus ( Zhou & Zheng, 2003) View in CoL

Figs 4B, D View Fig , 6B View Fig , 7A–C View Fig , 8–9 View Fig View Fig , 12A View Fig , 13A–B View Fig

Cinygmina furcata Zhou & Zheng, 2003: 755 , figs 1–6. Types: male and female adults, from Tian-Mu Mountain, Zhejiang Province, China.

Afronurus furcatus View in CoL – Braasch & Jacobus 2011: 64.

Material examined

Holotype CHINA • ♂; Zhejiang Province, Lin-An city, Tian-Mu Mountain , San-Mu-Ping ; 30°21′53.06″ N, 119°25′53.99″ E; alt. 780 m; 29 Jul. 1998; M.S. Zhao leg.; NNU. GoogleMaps

Paratypes CHINA • 2 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀; same collection data as for holotype; NNU GoogleMaps .

Additional material

CHINA • 7 ♂♂, 15 ♀♀, 5 nymphs; Zhejiang Province, Long-Quan city, Shuang-Xi village ; 27°53′16.34″ N, 119°12′55.17″ E; alt. 1391 m; 3 Aug. 2020; Z.X. Ma and X.H.Y. Zheng leg.; NNU GoogleMaps .


Nymph (first description, Figs 7A–C View Fig , 8–9 View Fig View Fig )

MEASUREMENTS. Body length 7.0–10.0 mm, caudal filaments 13.0–18.0 mm long.

COLORATION. Generally yellowish to brown.

HEAD. Head capsule subquadrate, anterior margin of head with 4 small pale dots and basal part of antennae with 2 pale dots; posterior margin of head slightly concave and with 4 pale dots between the compound eyes ( Fig. 7A View Fig ). Labrum 0.5× width of head, laterally tapering and slightly curved; anterior margin with shallow emargination; an additional row of short bristles on ventral anterior margin ( Fig. 8A View Fig ). Both mandibles covered with numerous setae on outer margins; prostheca with 6–8 fimbriate bristles ( Fig. 8C– D, G–H View Fig ); outer incisor of left mandible with serrated margin and one larger terminal denticle; inner incisor shorter than outer incisor and with 3 blunt denticles ( Fig. 8C, G View Fig ); outer incisor of right mandible serrated and with 2 apical terminal denticles; inner one divided into 2 sharp denticles ( Fig. 8D, H View Fig ). Hypopharynx: apex of superlinguae strongly curved and extended into round lobe-like structures, long hair-like setae up to the lower part of superlinguae; lingua bell-like, subequal to superlinguae in length and with tuft of setae at apex ( Fig. 8B View Fig ). Maxillae with scattered fimbriate setae on ventral surface ( Figs 4D View Fig , 8F View Fig ), row of 17–20 comb-shaped setae on crown of galea-lacinia, middle combs with 10–15 teeth, distal dentisetae branched, proximal dentisetae bifid ( Fig. 4B View Fig ); maxillary palpi with setae on outer margin and basal half of inner margin of first segment; segment II longer than the former one and outer margin with long setae, terminal segment with dense setal brush ( Fig. 8F View Fig ). Labium: glossae lobe rounded, inner margin slightly expanded, with tuft of long setae; paraglossae expanded greatly into palpable lobes, with dense setae and bristles on dorsal and free margins; labial palpi 2-segmented, ventral surface and free margin of second segment with setal brush, dorsal surface with scattered golden setae ( Fig. 8E View Fig ).

THORAX. Pronotum slightly expanded laterally, wider than head ( Fig. 7A View Fig ). Supracoxal spurs rounded. Femora of all legs with row of long setae on outer margins, dorsal surfaces with spatulate setae and inner margins with short bristles. Foretibia subequal in length to femur, outer margin with sparse hair-like setae near base, inner margin with row of bristles; foretarsi 0.4× as long as tibiae, outer and inner margins with tiny setae ( Fig. 9A View Fig ). Midleg similar to foreleg except tibia 0.91× of femur in length, outer margin with row of hair-like setae, dorsal surface with rows of hair-like setae and bristles; tarsi approximately ⅓ length of tibia ( Fig. 9B View Fig ). Hindleg tibia 0.8× of femur in length, outer margin and dorsal surface with rows of long setae and bristles, inner margin with row of bristles and very tiny setae ( Fig. 9D View Fig ); tarsi about ¼ length of tibia ( Fig. 9C View Fig ). Claws of all legs with 3–4 subapical denticles ( Fig. 9E View Fig ).

ABDOMEN. Abdominal terga I–VII yellowish to brown, with 3 pale dots medially and 2 pale dots laterally; terga VIII–IX with fused pale dot medially; tergum X dark brown, anterior margin with 3 light pale dots ( Fig. 7B–C View Fig ). Gill I banana-shaped, inner margin slightly curved ( Fig. 9F View Fig ); gills II–IV heart-like and with lamellae expanded laterally ( Fig. 9G View Fig ); gills V–VI oval, with additionally arrow-like accessory lobes ( Fig. 9H View Fig ); gill VII oval, with fine marginal setae, trachea clearly visible ( Fig. 9I View Fig ). Caudal filaments pale, with whorled spines on articulations ( Fig. 7C View Fig , as in Fig. 1B View Fig ).

Male imago

See Zhou & Zheng (2003: 755, figs 1–6, original description).


Oval, chorion mostly smooth and decorated with small KCTs at each pole, larger KCTs located equatorially ( Fig. 6B View Fig ).


The male imago of A. furcatus is similar to the one of A. hunanensis due to color pattern of abdominal terga, plate-like titillators and bifurcated apices of penial lobes. However, they can be separated by the following characters: 1) the body color of A. furcatus is bright yellow when it is alive ( Fig. 12A View Fig ) while reddish brown in A. hunanensis ( Fig. 12B View Fig ); 2) A. furcatus has slightly divergent penial lobes, which are connected by a foliated structure ( Fig. 13A–B View Fig ), while penes of A. hunanensis are obviously divergent and with deeply cleft ( Fig. 13C–D View Fig ); 3) the plate-like titillators of A. hunanensis are smaller than in A. furcatus ( Fig. 13A–D View Fig ).

In the nymph, A. furcatus resembles A. drepanophyllus sp. nov., A. obliquistriatus and A. rubromaculatus because of marking patterns on head capsules. However, the following combination of characters can help to separate them: 1) head capsule of A. furcatus has one row (4 dots) of pale dots on anterior margin ( Fig. 7A View Fig ), while A. drepanophyllus sp. nov. has two rows (generally 2–5 dots) of pale dots on anterior margin ( Fig. 1A View Fig ), A. obliquistriatus and A. rubromaculatus have two rows (generally 8–9 dots) on anterior margins ( Fig. 7G, J View Fig ); 2) linguae and superlinguae are approximately the same length in A. furcatus , A. drepanophyllus sp. nov. and A. rubromaculatus ( Fig. 2C View Fig , 8B View Fig ); however, the lingua of A. obliquistriatus is much shorter than superlinguae (as in Fig. 10B View Fig ); 3) number of comb-shaped setae on maxillae: 13–15 in A. drepanophyllus sp. nov. (middle combs with 9–13 teeth), 17–20 in A. furcatus (middle combs with 10–15 teeth), 11–13 in A. obliquistriatus (middle combs with 8–10 teeth) and 14–16 in A. rubromaculatus (middle combs with 10–12 teeth); 4) caudal filaments of A. furcatus are pale ( Fig. 7C View Fig ) whereas in A. drepanophyllus sp. nov. they are pale near the base and yellowish-brown in other parts ( Fig. 1A View Fig ); A. obliquistriatus and A. rubromaculatus have dark brown dots on articulation ( Fig. 7I, L View Fig ).


China (Jiangxi, Zhejiang).














Afronurus furcatus ( Zhou & Zheng, 2003 )

Zhang, Wei, Lei, Zhi-Ming, Li, Wen-Juan & Zhou, Chang-Fa 2021

Afronurus furcatus

Braasch D. & Jacobus L. M. 2011: 64

Cinygmina furcata

Zhou C. F. & Zheng L. Y. 2003: 755
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