Afronurus hunanensis ( Zhang & Cai, 1991 )

Zhang, Wei, Lei, Zhi-Ming, Li, Wen-Juan & Zhou, Chang-Fa, 2021, A contribution to the genus Afronurus Lestage, 1924 in China (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae, Ecdyonurinae), European Journal of Taxonomy 767 (1), pp. 94-116 : 106-109

publication ID 10.5852/ejt.2021.767.1491

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scientific name

Afronurus hunanensis ( Zhang & Cai, 1991 )


Afronurus hunanensis ( Zhang & Cai, 1991) View in CoL

Figs 4C–D View Fig , 6C View Fig , 7D–F View Fig , 10–11 View Fig View Fig , 12B View Fig , 13C–D View Fig

Cinygmina hunanensis Zhang & Cai, 1991: 237 , figs 1–9 (male, male subimago). Types: male, male subimago, from Hunan, China.

Cinygmina hunanensis – You & Gui 1995: 54, fig. 53 (male). — Zhou & Zheng 2003: 756, figs 11, 15 (male).

Afronurus hunanensis View in CoL – Braasch & Jacobus 2011: 64.

Material examined

Holotype CHINA • ♂; Hunan Province, Zhang-Jia-Jie city, Jin-Bian creek ; 29°20′45.14″ N, 110°32′46.36″ E; alt. 253 m; 18 Jun. 1986; J. Zhang and S.S. She leg.; NNU. GoogleMaps

Paratypes CHINA • 9 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀; same collection data as for holotype; NNU GoogleMaps .

Additional material

CHINA • 25 ♂♂, 22 ♀♀, 16 nymphs; Hunan Province, Chen-Zhou city, Mang-Shan National Forest Park; 24°58′55.92″ N, 112°51′22.32″ E; alt. 511 m; 7 Aug. 2020; Z.X. Ma leg.; NNU GoogleMaps .


Nymph (first description, Figs 7D–F View Fig , 10–11 View Fig View Fig )

MEASUREMENTS. Body length 7.0– 8.5 mm, caudal filaments 15.0–17.0 mm long.

COLORATION. Body brown to dark brown.

HEAD. Head capsule ellipsoid, anterior margin unicolor, posterior margin slightly concave and with 4 pale dots in the middle of the compound eyes ( Fig. 7D View Fig ). Labrum ca half width of head, lateral margins expanded slightly; free margin nearly straight, both surfaces with setae but those on dorsal surface relatively longer and denser; ventral surface with shallow median groove, an additional row of bristles on ventral anterior margin ( Fig. 10A View Fig ). Both mandibles covered with numerous long setae on outer margins; prostheca with 5–7 fimbriate bristles ( Fig. 10C–D, G–H View Fig ); outer incisor of left mandible with serrated margin and a large terminal denticle; inner incisor divided into 3 blunt denticles ( Fig. 10C, G View Fig ); outer incisor of right mandible serrated with 2 apical terminal denticles; inner one divided into 2 sharp denticles ( Fig. 10D, H View Fig ). Hypopharynx: apex of superlinguae extended into round lobe-like structures, row of long hair-like setae on lateral margins from base to apex; lingua bell-like, much shorter than superlinguae, apex with tuft of setae ( Fig. 10B View Fig ). Maxillae with fimbriate setae on ventral surface ( Figs 4D View Fig , 10F View Fig ), row of 16–18 comb-shaped setae on crown of galea-lacinia, middle combs with 10–13 teeth, distal dentisetae branched, proximal dentisetae bifid and fringed ( Fig. 4C View Fig ); maxillary palpi 3-segmented, basal segment with scattered setae on both outer and inner margins, second segment with long setae on outer margin and terminal segment with setal brush ( Fig. 10F View Fig ). Labium: glossae lobe rounded, inner margins slightly expanded, with tuft of long setae; paraglossae expanded into distinct lobes, with dense setae and bristles on dorsal surface and outer margin; labial palpi 2-segmented, ventral surface and free margin of second segment with setal brush ( Fig. 10E View Fig ).

THORAX. Pronotum slightly extended laterally, subequal in length to head ( Fig. 7D View Fig ). Supracoxal spurs rounded. Femora of all legs with acute and spatulate setae on dorsal surfaces, outer margins with long setae and inner margins with short bristles. Foretibia subequal in length to femur, outer margin with tiny setae at base; foretarsi approximately ⅓ length of tibiae ( Fig. 11A View Fig ). Midleg similar to foreleg, but tibia 0.89× of femur in length, outer margin and dorsal surface with rows of sparse setae ( Fig. 11B View Fig ). Hindleg similar to midleg except tibia 0.7× of femur in length and dorsal surface of tibia with long and short bristles ( Fig. 11C–D View Fig ). Claws of all legs with 4 subapical denticles ( Fig. 11E View Fig ).

ABDOMEN. Abdominal terga I pale or with transverse brown band; terga II–VII brown with pair of pale dots medially, and terga IV–V, VII with adlateral dots; terga VIII–IX pale but with pale thin stripe anteriorly; tergum X brown with 2 small pale longitudinal stripes ( Fig. 7E View Fig ); terga II–VIII with weakly developed posterolateral angles. Gill I banana-shaped, trachea visible ( Fig. 11F View Fig ); gills II–VI heart-like and lamellae expanded laterally ( Fig. 11G View Fig ), gills V–VI with arrowlike accessory lobes ( Fig. 11H View Fig ); gill VII slightly asymmetrical, with fine marginal setae ( Fig. 11I View Fig ). Caudal filaments with whorls of spines on articulations, proximal part pale and other parts yellowish brown ( Fig. 7F View Fig , as in Fig. 1B View Fig ).

Male imago

See Zhang & Cai (1991: 237, figs 1–9, original description) and Zhou & Zheng (2003: 756, figs 11, 15).

Egg ( Fig. 6C View Fig )

Ovoid, small KCTs concentrated at each pole, chorion smooth, large KCTs and oval micropyles located equatorially.


The nymphs of A. hunanensis and A. yixingensis can be separated into one group due to the anterior margins of head capsules being without any dot. However, the following characters can help differentiate them: 1) lingua of A. hunanensis is much shorter than superlinguae ( Fig. 10B View Fig ) but in A. yixingensis it is subequal in length (as in Fig. 8B View Fig ); 2) glossae of A. hunanensis are round ( Fig. 10E View Fig ) while slightly oblong in A. yixingensis (as in Fig. 2F View Fig ); 3) number of comb-shaped setae on maxillae: 16–18 in A. hunanensis (middle combs with 10–13 teeth) and 12–14 in A. yixingensis (middle combs with 7–10 teeth); 4) gill VII of A. hunanensis is broad ( Fig. 11I View Fig ) but narrow, leaf-like in A. yixingensis (as in Fig. 9F View Fig ); 5) caudal filaments of A. hunanensis are pale at base and yellowish-brown in other parts ( Fig. 7F View Fig ), whereas caudal filaments of A. yixingensis have dark brown dots on every two or three segments ( Fig. 7O View Fig ).

In male imago, A. hunanensis has plate-like titillators and bifurcated apices of penial lobes ( Fig. 13C–D, I–J View Fig ). In contrast, A. yixingensis has spine-like titillators and a remarkable projection between divergent penial lobes.


China (Hunan, Jiangxi, Guizhou).














Afronurus hunanensis ( Zhang & Cai, 1991 )

Zhang, Wei, Lei, Zhi-Ming, Li, Wen-Juan & Zhou, Chang-Fa 2021

Afronurus hunanensis

Braasch D. & Jacobus L. M. 2011: 64

Cinygmina hunanensis

Zhou C. F. & Zheng L. Y. 2003: 756
You D. S. & Gui H. 1995: 54

Cinygmina hunanensis

Zhang J. & Cai W. D. 1991: 237
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