Psyllaephagus garuga S. Singh

Singh, Sudhir & Singh, Karan Pal, 2011, Description of two new species of Psyllaephagus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) parasitizing Phacopteron lentiginosum Buckton (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a leaf gall-former of Garuga pinnata Rox, Zootaxa 2885, pp. 33-43: 38-42

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.277604

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Psyllaephagus garuga S. Singh

sp. nov.

Psyllaephagus garuga S. Singh  , sp. nov.

( Figs 9 –21View FIGURES 9 – 15View FIGURES 16 – 24. 16 – 20, 34View FIGURES 25 – 34. 25)

Diagnosis. Females resemble P. phacopteron  females in color except head and mesonotum more greenish-blue and antenna completely dark brown; scutellum with smaller and fewer punctations; ovipositor sheaths dark brown. Metasoma shorter than that of P. phacopteron  . Males similar to P. phacopteron  males except metasoma shorter than mesosoma; body with slight bluish tinge and middle coxae dark brown except distal quarter yellowish (basal half dark and apical half yellowish in P. phacopteron  ), sculpture of mesoscutum is comparatively stronger and larger, but punctations on scutellum smaller and fewer; body color with slight bluish tinge.

Description. FEMALE. Length 2.23–2.61 mm (2.465 ± 0.165 mm, n= 17; holotype 2.58 mm), excluding exserted part of ovipositor sheaths which are negligibly visible dorsally.

Color/Sculpture. Head metallic bluish-green with golden reflections and translucent white setae. Frontovertex bluish-green with irregular punctations at ocellar region where about one-quarter to one-third diameter of median ocellus, but area of frontovertex between dorsal margin of scrobe and median ocellus with larger, about half diameter of median ocellus; scrobal area blue with reticulate-rugose sculpture; parascrobal area, antennal prominence and area below prominence bluish-green with prominent golden reflections, reticulate and with flat, silvery white setae; malar and area below prominence reticulate-punctuate, the punctations widely separated. Malar sulcus prominent. Antenna dark brown with dark setae. Palpi honey yellow colored.

Mesosoma greenish-blue with purple reflections, reticulately punctuate, setae translucent white or pale; side of mesonotum, especially tip of scutellum, prominently metallic green; scutellum with deeper sculpture than mesoscutum; prepectus with base centrally dark brown and with wide, pale outer rim; tegula honey pale with brownish tinge. Metanotum and propodeum dark brown without any metallic reflections. Mesopleuron brown with purple to light bluish-green reflections, golden anteriorly, reticulately sculptured. Legs pale honey in color with mid and hind coxae dark brown.

Metasoma dark brown with purple reflections, but ventrally and laterally also with golden reflections; ovipositor sheath brown.

Structure. Head in frontal view ( Fig. 10View FIGURES 9 – 15) round, 1.2 x (886: 716) as wide as long; 3.38 x (886: 262) as wide as frontovertex at level of median ocellus level; inner margins of eyes almost straight, diverging; eye 2.12 x (508: 239) as high as wide; scrobes shallow, merging dorsally, distance between torulus and median ocellus 2 x length of scrobe length; torulus with center in line with lower margin of eyes, 1.97 x (134: 68) as high as wide; distance between toruli 1.22 x, distance between torulus and mouth margin equal to, and distance between torulus and eye 0.83 x as long as height of torulus (= 164: 133: 112: 133); distance between torulus and median ocellus 2.7 x (363: 1.33) the distance between torulus and mouth margin. Head in dorsal view ( Fig. 11View FIGURES 9 – 15) with anterior and occipital margins concave, but not as deep as in P. phacopteron  (cf. Figs 4View FIGURES 1 – 8, 11View FIGURES 9 – 15); 2.13 x (886: 416) as wide as long; ocelli in a right-angled triangle, POL 2.5 x, OCL as long as, and OOL 0.35 x as long as median ocellus diameter (143: 58: 20: 56), respectively. Head in profile with malar space one-third head height; eye 1.34 x (416: 309) as high as wide. Antenna ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 9 – 15) with scape expanded ventrally, 2.13 x (356: 167) as long as wide; pedicel conical, 1.77 x (94: 53) as long as wide; funicle segments all longer than wide, F 3 the longest, F 1 1.9 x (88: 46) as long as wide and 4 x as long as scape; F 2 1.92 x (98: 51), F 3 1.8 x (103: 57), F 4 1.57 x (94: 60), F 5 1.38 x (95: 68), and F 6 1.33 x (92: 69) as long as wide; club 3 x (218: 72) as long as wide, longer than preceding two funicle segments combined.

Mesosoma ( Fig. 13View FIGURES 9 – 15) 1.34 x (1185: 880) as long as wide (measured across mesopleura), slightly narrower than head (880: 886); pronotum a narrow strip 11 x (681: 62) as wide as long; mesoscutum convex, 1.46 x as wide as long (852: 582) and half as long as mesosoma, with posterior margin slightly curved mesally; axillae narrowly separated; scutellum convex, 1.1 x (518: 468) as long as wide, shorter than mesoscutum (518: 582); propodeum a narrow strip, about 20 x as wide as long, with basal one-third hidden under projected scutellum. Fore wing 2.3 x (2079: 901) as long as wide; venation ( Fig. 14View FIGURES 9 – 15) with marginal vein as long as wide (59), stigmal vein 1.25 x as long as postmarginal vein (143: 114). Hind wing 2.94 x (1525: 518) as long as wide, 1.56 x (1525: 977) as long as venation. Middle tibial spur shorter than basitarsus.

Metasoma conical, pointed posteriorly, 1.32 x (1202: 909) as long as wide and about as long as mesosoma, with cercal plates situated at middle; hypopygium extending to basal third; ovipositor sheaths not exserted; ovipositor as in Fig. 15View FIGURES 9 – 15 (paratype).

MALE. Length 2.06–2.35 mm (2.157 ± 0.104 mm, n = 10).

Color/Sculpture. Resembles males of P. phacopteron  except for differences given here. Head and mesosoma dorsally metallic bluish-green, metasoma dark brown with a little purple reflection; legs yellowish with middle and hind coxae brown. Head in frontal view bright metallic bluish- green; scrobal region bluish-green and prominently reticulately punctuate; antennal prominence with slight golden hue; palpi and legs honey pale. Antenna with radicle and scape pale; inner face of scape with median shorter longitudinal dark brown streak.

Mesosoma dorsally metallic bluish-green except for central area over both mesoscutum and scutellum with reddish bronzy reflections; comparatively more deeply reticulately punctate; legs yellow except hind and basal two-thirds of middle coxae dark brown; wings hyaline.

Structure. Head in frontal view ( Fig. 16View FIGURES 16 – 24. 16 – 20) rounded, 1.2 x (746: 606) as wide as high; inner margins of eyes smoothly diverging, eye 2 x (375: 188) as high as wide; scrobes shallow, short, and not merging dorsally; center of torulus in line with lower margins of eyes; distance between toruli 1.8 x, distance from torulus to eye 0.75 x, and distance from torulus to mouth margin 1.19 x as long as height of torulus (188: 76: 124: 104); distance between torulus and median ocellus about 2 x (257: 124) distance between torulus and mouth margin; head height 4.88 x distance between torulus and mouth margin. Head in dorsal view 1.92 x (746: 315) as wide as frontovertex width at level of median ocellus, both anterior and occipital margins concave; ocelli arranged in obtuse-angled triangle, POL 4 x, OOL 0.5 x, and OCL 0.9 x diameter of median ocellus (= 226: 28: 50: 56). Head in profile with height 2.58 x (606: 235) malar space; eye 1.4 x (375: 268) as high as wide. Antenna ( Fig. 17View FIGURES 16 – 24. 16 – 20) with scape 2.58 x (266: 103) as long as wide and 4.15 x as long as pedicel; pedicel as long as wide (64: 65); funicle segments all longer than wide: F 1 1.43 x (109: 75), F 2 1.43 x (125: 87), F 3 1.48 x (138: 93), F 4 1.57 x (151: 96), F 5 1.7 x (147: 86), and F 6 1.73 x (144: 83) as long as wide; club 3 x (245: 80) as long as wide.

Mesosoma ( Fig. 18View FIGURES 16 – 24. 16 – 20) 1.42 x (1047: 733) as long as wide; mesoscutum 1.4 x (704: 498) as wide as long; scutellum 1.16 x (470: 405) as long as wide. Fore wing 2.28 x (1955: 859) as long as wide; marginal vein: stigmal vein: postmarginal vein = 52: 136: 113; hind wing 2.65 x (1333: 503) times as long as wide, 1.58 x (1333: 844) as long as venation.

Metasoma shorter than mesosoma (891: 1087); last sternite ( Fig. 19View FIGURES 16 – 24. 16 – 20) 1.68 x (362: 215) as wide as long. Genitalia as in Fig. 20View FIGURES 16 – 24. 16 – 20 (allotype).

Material examined. Holotype female (NFIC-FRI) labeled “ INDIA, Uttarakhand, Dehradun, Karva Paani, coll. 18.xii. 2009, Sudhir Singh ex. Phacopteron  lentiginosum  Buckt. (morph- 2) (Homoptera), on Garuga pinnata  . Labeled in red, Acc. No. NFIC-FRI- 21902. Paratypes: (34 Ƥ, 333): 27 Ƥ, 273 card mounted; 1 Ƥwith antennae, wings and legs removed and mounted on a slide under three cover slips, remaining intact body mounted on a card (measurements and photographs were taken from this specimen); 3 Ƥ, one completely dissected and mounted under eight cover slips (ovipositor shown in Fig. 15View FIGURES 9 – 15 from this specimen), one without metasoma, and one complete, but all three mounted on one slide; 13 completely dissected and mounted under six cover slips on a slide (allotype, measurements and photographs of body parts taken from this specimen); 23, one completely dissected and one with only genital plate and genitalia, with all parts mounted under nine cover slips on one slide and remainder of second male (allotype) card mounted; other data same as for holotype. 3 Ƥ and 33: India, Uttarakhand, Dehradun, Shimla Bypass, coll. 30.xi. 2008, KP Singh ex. Phacopteron  lentiginosum  Buckt. on Garuga pinnata  . All labeled in green, Acc. No. NFIC-FRI- 21902.

Etymology. Named after the genus of the host tree.

Distribution. Known and likely distribution similar to P. phacopteron  .

Host: Leaf gall forming psyllid, Phacopteron  lentiginosum  Buckt. (Morph- 2) ( Figs 32, 33View FIGURES 25 – 34. 25) (Homoptera), on Garuga pinnata  .

Variation. There is very little variation among females and males except for body coloration which is slightly variable from deep purple to golden greenish-blue; body size also varies as described. As mentioned for P. phacopteron  , color of the legs and number of pegs on the middle tibia and tarsi are also variable.