Otiorhynchus (Nehrodistus) armatus Boheman, 1846

Rafał Gosik, Peter Sprick, Jiří Skuhrovec, Magdalena Deruś & Martin Hommes, 2016, Morphology and identification of the mature larvae of several species of the genus Otiorhynchus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae) from Central Europe with an update of the life history tr, Zootaxa 4108 (1), pp. 1-67: 20-23

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Otiorhynchus (Nehrodistus) armatus Boheman, 1846


Otiorhynchus (Nehrodistus) armatus Boheman, 1846 

Material examined: 61 larvae ( Figs. 209View FIGURES 203 – 210, 230View FIGURES 226 – 231). JKI, Braunschweig, climate chamber, Chaenomeles  x superba cultivar ‘Hollandia’, flowerpot, 0 4.10 .2013, 7 ex.; dto., Euonymus fortunei  , 25.09 .2014, 6 ex.; dto., Euonymus fortunei  , 0 7.10 .2014, 6 ex.; dto., Hedera helix  L., 0 7.10 .2014, 26 ex.; and 25.09 .2014, 13 ex.; dto., Prunus laurocerasus  cultivar ‘Van Nes’, 19.12 .2013, 3 ex.

Remarks about breeding and development. The larvae of this species were obtained from two breeding attempts in the JKI in 2013 and 2014. Otiorhynchus armatus  is apparently easy to breed also in small flowerpots, and it accepted all tested plants ( Chaenomeles  x superba, Euonymus fortunei  , Hedera helix  , Prunus laurocerasus  ). During the past 15 years this taxon as well as the closely related or even identical O. corruptor (Host, 1789)  was introduced several times to Germany and became noxious in indoor greeneries. Up to now, no permanent population (of both taxa) is known from Germany.

All adults had been collected by Klaus Schrameyer in Merano / Northern Italy on 18.05. 2013, in the town from a hotel wall with ivy ( Hedera helix  ). The weevils were not sclerotized, young adults at this point in time. 4 males and 3 females were used for the first breeding attempt (released on the plants on 24.05.2013) and 8 specimens of undetermined sex for the second (started on 24.06.2014). Adults and larvae from 2014 represent the second reared generation. Breeding gave no indication for any diapause. Mature larvae were already obtained in September and October, and pupae in November and December.

The life-cycle of this species is apparently unknown, but seems to be in some kind resembling to that of Otiorhynchus sulcatus  : emergence of newly hatched adults from (approximately) mid-May, larval development within a few months, pupation during the whole season if temperature remains high in autumn and winter, development also in small flowerpots. The most striking difference is—in Central Europe—the much stronger limitation to indoor situations, apparently due to the demand of higher temperatures. Viggiani (1977) reports about damage on Fragaria  and an occurrence on Vitis vinifera  L., Ficus carica  L., Hedera helix  , Spiraea apulifolia  L. and Citrus medica  L. in Campania ( Italy).

Description ( Figs. 45–55View FIGURES 45 – 50View FIGURES 51 – 55).

Coloration. Head yellow; all thoracic and abdominal segments white; except brownish pronotum; cuticle almost smooth, microcuticular processes, brown, poorly visible.

Body moderately elongated ( Fig. 45View FIGURES 45 – 50). Chaetotaxy. Setae different in length, filiform; brown. Thorax. Prothorax with 4 long and 4 medium long to short prns; and 2 ps, different in length. Mesothorax with 1 short prs; 4 pds (ordered: 1 short, 1 medium long and 2 long); 1 long as; 1 long eps; and 1 long ps. Chaetotaxy of meso- and metathorax similar, with the exception of pds on metathorax (ordered: 1 short, 1 long, 1 medium long and 1 long). Each pedal area of thoracic segments well isolated, with 5 pda, different in length. Each thoracic segment with 1 short eus ( Fig. 46View FIGURES 45 – 50). Abdomen. Abdominal segments I –VIII with 1 short prs; 5 pds (ordered: 2 short, 1 long, 1 short and 1 long); 1 long and 1 minute sps [abd. seg. VIII with only 4 pds (1 long, 1 short, 1 long and 1 short) and 1 minute sps]; 2 eps, different in length; 1 long and 1 minute ps; 1 long lsts; and 2 eus ( Figs. 47, 49, 50View FIGURES 45 – 50). Abdominal segment IX with 3 ds, different in length; 2 ps, different in length; and 2 sts, equal in length ( Figs. 48–50View FIGURES 45 – 50). Each lateral lobe of abdominal segment X with 2–3 minute ts.

Head subglobose, narrowed bilaterally ( Fig. 51View FIGURES 51 – 55). Head capsule with 4 relatively short and 1 minute des, des 1 and des 2 placed on central part of epicranium, des 3 located on frontal suture, des 5 located anterolaterally, minute des 4 located close to stemmata, all des equal in length; 2 relatively short fs, fs 4 placed anteromedially, fs 5 located near to antenna; 2 relatively short les; and 1 very short ves. Postepicranial area with a group of 2 pairs of sensilla, frons with 2 pairs of sensilla. Stemmata (2 pairs) feebly visible. Antennal segment membranous, bearing 1 conical sensorium and 4 filiform sensilla. Clypeus 3.6 times as wide as long with 2 very short cls, equal in length, placed posterolaterally ( Fig. 52View FIGURES 51 – 55). Labrum about 1.7 times as wide as long with 3 straight lms of different length, placed medially or mediolaterally; lms 3 distinctly shorter than other setae, all lms exceeding the outline of labrum; anterior margin of labrum rounded ( Fig. 52View FIGURES 51 – 55). Epipharynx with 3 finger-like als, different in length; 2 ams, different in length; and 2 very short mes; labral rods (lr) short, reniform, strong convergent; epipharynx covered by nodular cuticular processes ( Fig. 53View FIGURES 51 – 55). Mandible ( Fig. 54View FIGURES 51 – 55) bifid, teeth almost of equal height; with 2 mds, different in length; internal egde with a triangular tooth. Maxilla ( Fig. 55View FIGURES 51 – 55) with 1 very long stps and 2 very long pfs, placed ventrolaterally; 1 very short mbs, situated ventrally. Mala with 6 dms, different in length and 3 straight vms, different in length. Maxillary palpi with two palpomeres; basal palpomere distinctly wider than distal; basal palpomere with 1 mxps; distal palpomere with a group of 6 conical, cuticular processes apically; each palpomere with a sensillum. Praelabium heart-shaped ( Fig. 55View FIGURES 51 – 55), with 2 very short ligs and 1 long prms. Labial palpi with two palpomeres, relatively elongated; both palpomeres almost equal in length; praemental sclerite well visible. Postlabium with 3 pms, different in length; pms 2 very long, 3–4 times as long as pms 1, and 5 times as long as pms 3 ( Fig. 55View FIGURES 51 – 55).

Differential diagnosis. See “Key to larvae of selected Otiorhynchus  species” and Tables 1, 2.