Rafał Gosik, Peter Sprick, Jiří Skuhrovec, Magdalena Deruś & Martin Hommes, 2016, Morphology and identification of the mature larvae of several species of the genus Otiorhynchus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae) from Central Europe with an update of the life history tr, Zootaxa 4108 (1), pp. 1-67: 23-26

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Otiorhynchus  (s. str.) armadillo (Rossi, 1792) 

Material examined: 28 larvae ( Figs. 210View FIGURES 203 – 210, 231View FIGURES 226 – 231). Larvae were obtained from permanent breeding in the climate chamber of the JKI, Braunschweig, continued until today and started in 2010 with first instar larvae from Thorsten Ufer, Ellerhoop. On 12.07. 2010, 0 9.08. 2010 and 12.09. 2010 first instar larvae from adults collected in Mühlacker (on 17.06.2010) were placed mainly in flowerpots with Euonymus fortunei  cultivar ‘Emerald ‘n Gold’ ( Fig. 221View FIGURES 220 – 225), and also with a cultivar of Bergenia cordifolia  and with Primula veris L. Since  June 2011 only different cultivars of Euonymus fortunei  were used. In flowerpots with first instar larvae from 12.09. 2010 the first teneral adult specimen was seen on 0 3.01. 2011. The following larvae were used for the description: JKI, Braunschweig, breeding with Primula veris  , 16.11 .2010, 1 ex.; JKI, permanent breeding with Euonymus fortunei  , 21.09 .2011, 10 ex.; dto., 28.10 .2011, 1 ex.; dto., 0 5.01 .2012, 6 ex.; dto., 10.01 .2013, 5 ex.; Ellerhoop, breeding by Thorsten Ufer with Euonymus fortunei  flowerpots, received on 0 3.01 .2011, 5 ex., from plants used for efficacy tests of entomopathogenous nematodes.

Remarks about breeding and development. The life-cycle of this species was studied for the first time by Del Bene & Parrini (1986), but together with Otiorhynchus sulcatus  , as preimaginal instars could not be distinguished. This paper contains a long list of ornamental plants from 25 families on which O. armadillo  was found, exclusively woody plants including some conifers. According to Del Bene & Parrini (1986) eggs from both species were deposited from June to September, larvae were present from August during the whole winter until April, then pupation occurred from April to end of May, followed by the presence of adults from May to September. Our results for O. armadillo  are not completely in accordance with these life-cycle data. There were also overwintering adults already in April, e.g. on Thuja  and other bushes. Pupae were found from end of April until end of July and newly hatched adults from mid-May or June until September, which may indicate pupation at least until August. Usually recently emerged adults of O. armadillo  were found up 2 to 3 weeks later than the last teneral adults of O. sulcatus  (Sprick 2012, in Sprick & Stüben 2012). Apparently, the life-cycle of O. armadillo  is very similar to that of O. sulcatus  , but should be studied at further sites to complete and validate the data.

Description ( Figs. 56–66View FIGURES 56 – 61View FIGURES 62 – 66).

Coloration. Head light yellow; all thoracic and abdominal segments milk-white, cuticle smooth.

Body elongated ( Fig. 56View FIGURES 56 – 61). Chaetotaxy. Setae different in length, relatively long, filiform, light yellowish. Thorax. Prothorax with 4 long and 4 medium long to short prns; and 2 ps, different in length. Mesothorax with 1 medium long prs; 4 pds (ordered: 2 short and 2 long); 1 long as; 1 long eps; and 1 long ps. Chaetotaxy of meso- and metathorax similar. Each pedal area of thoracic segments well isolated, with 4 pda, different in length. Each thoracic segment with 1 short eus ( Fig. 57View FIGURES 56 – 61). Abdomen. Abdominal segments I –VIII with 1 short prs; 5 pds (ordered: 2 short, 1 long, 1 short and 1 long); 1 long sps [abd. seg. VIII without sps]; 2 long eps; 1 long and 1 minute ps [abd. seg. VIII with only 1 long ps]; 1 long lsts; and 2 eus ( Figs. 58, 60, 61View FIGURES 56 – 61). Abdominal segment IX with 4 ds, different in length; 1 very long ps; and 2 sts, equal in length ( Figs. 59–61View FIGURES 56 – 61). Lateral lobes of abdominal segment X without seta.

Head subglobose, slightly narrowed bilaterally ( Fig. 62View FIGURES 62 – 66). Head capsule with 4 des, des 1 and des 2 placed on central part of epicranium, des 3 located on frontal suture, des 5 located anterolaterally; 2 fs, fs 4 placed anteromedially, fs 5 located near to antenna; 2 les and 1 ves; all setae relatively long with the exception of fs 4, which is distinctly shorter than the others. Stemmata (2 pairs) very small, feebly visible. Antennal segment membranous, bearing 1 conical sensorium and 2–3 filiform sensilla. Clypeus 2.8 times as wide as long with 1 very short cls, placed posterolaterally ( Fig. 63View FIGURES 62 – 66). Labrum about 2 times as wide as long with 3 straight lms of different length, placed medially or mediolaterally; lms 2 distinctly longer than other setae, only lms 2 exceeding the outline of the labrum; the anterior margin of labrum almost rounded ( Fig. 63View FIGURES 62 – 66). Epipharynx with 3 finger-like als, different in length; 3 ams, different in length, one very small ams similar to mes, but the position is more to ams; and 2 very short mes (see comments about ams and mes in Material and Methods); labral rods (lr) elongated, strong convergent ( Fig. 64View FIGURES 62 – 66). Mandible ( Fig. 65View FIGURES 62 – 66) feebly bifid, teeth almost of equal height; with 2 mds, different in length; internal edge with a triangular tooth. Maxilla ( Fig. 66View FIGURES 62 – 66) with 1 very long stps and 2 very long pfs, placed ventrolaterally; 1 very short mbs, situated ventrally. Mala with 5 dms, different in length and 4 straight vms, different in length. Maxillary palpi with two palpomeres; basal palpomere larger than distal; basal palpomere with 1 mxps; distal palpomere with a group of 5 conical, cuticular processes apically; each palpomere with a sensillum. Praelabium heart-shaped ( Fig. 66View FIGURES 62 – 66), with 2 very short ligs and 1 very long prms. Labial palpi with two palpomeres, relatively elongated; both palpomeres almost equal in length; praemental sclerite well visible. Postlabium with 3 pms, different in length; pms 2 very long, 3 times as long as pms 1 and pms 3 ( Fig. 66View FIGURES 62 – 66).

Differential diagnosis. See “Key to larvae of selected Otiorhynchus  species” and Tables 1, 2.