PSYCHOPSIDAE Handlirsch, 1906 (2803)

Bakkes, Deon K., Sole, Catherine L. & Mansell, Mervyn W., 2017, Revision of Afrotropical Silky Lacewings (Neuroptera: Psychopsidae), Zootaxa 4362 (2), pp. 151-212 : 155-158

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4362.2.1

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PSYCHOPSIDAE Handlirsch, 1906 (2803)


Family PSYCHOPSIDAE Handlirsch, 1906 (2803) View in CoL View at ENA

Psychopsinae Handlirsch, 1906:42 (2803) [Subfamily of Hemerobiidae View in CoL ] Type genus: Psychopsis Newman, 1842:415 View in CoL (4529) Psychopsini Navás, 1912b:194 (549)

Psychopsidae Tillyard, 1916:271 View in CoL (314)

Balmesini Navás, 1917:207 (0667)

Psychopsididae [sic] Martynova, 1949:161 (4050)

Etymology. From the type genus Psychopsis (feminine) [from the Ancient Greek psyché, (ψυχή) butterfly/moth but also breath, spirit, life, soul, etc.) + ópsis (ὄψις) (aspect, appearance—the suffix -opsis is often used in genus names: resembling in appearance) in reference to the broad wings and general resemblance to butterflies.].

Diagnosis. Adults medium-sized to large with very broad wings distinguished by (1) presence of forewing and hind wing triplet vein formation noted by Oswald (1993) and Andersen (2001) collectively termed the vena triplica, comprising the parallel Sc, R1 and Rs veins that run longitudinally just below the wing costal space from the base to the distal portion where the vein formation completes an anastomosis in the pterostigmal region ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ), (2) the characteristically broad costal space that is at least twice the width of the vena triplica ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ), (3) the presence of one forewing nygma located basally between veins R and M ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ) and (4) the presence of at least four (usually>10) crossveins traversing the subcostal space (vena triplica) between its base and anastomosis ( Fig.1 View FIGURE 1 ).

Redescription. ♂♀ Length of body 10–22mm, forewing 10–35mm.

Head small to medium, short; eyes, large, prominent, compound ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ); ocelli absent, replaced by two or three distinct, setose pulvinae (sclerites) ( Fig. 3A, B View FIGURE 3 ); cardo divided into basicardo and disticardo antenna short, moniliform; toruli with one or two antennifers; labrum narrow, margin slightly emarginated; genae very short; labium broad, as long as maxilla; lacinia short, obliquely pointed; galea and lacinia densely pubescent; lingula long, broad, apex slightly emarginated; maxillary palpi moderate length, five-segmented; labial palpi threesegmented, shorter than maxillary palpi, last segment with palpimacula (sensory area), large, elongate; mandibles well developed, acutely pointed, asymmetrical, always with large internal tooth.

Thorax macropterous; pronotum short, narrow, colour patterns occasionally ( Figs 6 View FIGURE 6 , 87 View FIGURE 87 ); mesonotum broad, large, with scutellum large; metanotum broad, shorter than mesonotum, almost transverse, with scutellum much shorter than that of mesonotum. Legs pale yellowish; tibiae of fore and middle legs distinctly darker at apex; gressorial, short, slender; coxa of foreleg not elongated; tibiae with apical paired spurs, short; tarsi short; terminal segment with paired claws, sharp, curved; empodium weak, broad.

Wings broad, somewhat triangular, apices broadly rounded ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 , 5 View FIGURE 5 , 38 View FIGURE 38 ); hind wing narrower than forewing ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 , 5 View FIGURE 5 , 38 View FIGURE 38 ); membrane with microtrichia; longitudinal veins and costal veinlets densely packed with long macrotrichia on dorsal and ventral surfaces; crossveins without setae; trichosors present on margins of fore- and hind wing; pterostigma absent with no rugose thickening of membrane on both fore-and hind wing; costa of fore- and hind wing straight at base; humeral plate extending from margin as short finger-like projection carrying tuft of hairs, especially long in hind wing, followed by excision of wing margin; costal space very broad from base to apex; costal veinlets numerous, generally branched, often connected with cross-veins; humeral vein present, recurrent; subcosta, R1 and Rs strong, closely parallel forming vena triplica supported by at least four crossveins ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ); forewing vena triplica often but not always connected by strong crossvein distally, forming anastomosis; hind wing vena triplica either anastomosing or tip of subcostal vein atrophied ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ); R1 and Rs in both pairs of wings always connected by crossvein ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ); branching of M in forewing variable and inconsistent, often different in left and right wings; anal veins distinct in both pairs of wings, three; wings mottled or marked with spots and fasciae ( Figs 5 View FIGURE 5 , 38 View FIGURE 38 , 98 View FIGURE 98 ).

Male abdomen with well-developed tergites and sternites; pleural regions short (Figs 7, 40, 88); segments one to eight each with one pair of spiracles; eighth pair opens through sides of tergite 8 (Fig. 7); sternite IX specialised, often weak, narrow, supported by strong paired apodemes, placed slightly dorsal of sternite VIII (Figs 7, 42, 80); ectoproct large, dorsally separate, bearing cercal callus with numerous trichobothrial sockets of common multilobed shape (Figs 7, 40, 78); sub-anale distinct, between ectoprocts, below anus, above gonarcus; gonarcus has shape of large transverse arch, bearing posteriorly-directed mediuncus (=arcessus, Tjeder 1960), occasionally with paired extra-hemigonarcal processes (Figs 41, 66); 9th gonocoxites often fused medially forming horizontal arch, its ends articulating with lower ends of gonarcus (Figs 9, 10, 41, 43, 92, 93). Hypandrium internum present, small.

Female abdomen with enlarged terminalia appearing as large, ball-like, laterally compressed structure (Figs 22, 61, 106); segments one to eight each with one pair of spiracles; eighth pair opens through downwardsprolonged sides of tergite 8 (Fig. 33); sternite VII modified, apex excised medially, posteromedian margin often introverted (Figs 24, 72, 124); tergite 8 narrow, its sides prolonged downwards, sometimes reaching ventral level of abdomen (Figs 94, 122); pleural region between tergites 8–9 narrow, frequently sclerotised, forming apodeme-like structure (Figs 11, 45, 122); tergite 9 fused posteriorly with ectoprocts, enlarged ventrally (Figs 11, 45, 106); ectoprocts dorsally free but apically fused, each bearing cercal callus with numerous trichobothrial sockets of common multi-lobed shape (Figs 11, 45, 106); apex of ectoproct infolded, setose; sub-anale large, below anus, setose; 9th gonocoxites form paired slender structures membranously connected to one another, their longitudinal costae strong (Figs 36, 97), vertical torsion range of 90° in large abdominal chamber; 9th gonocoxite bears spines longitudinally, apex with stylus as wart- or thumb-like process clothed in claw- or spade-like spines (Figs 50, 110); two kinds of suprastylar setae at apex, one simple and one with flattened, often angled, apex termed cochleariform setae (Figs 14, 110); abdominal chamber formed by enlarged ventral sides of tergite 9, opens ventrally between lower parts of tergite 9, aperture closed by dense, felt-like fringes of setae issuing from margins of tergite that fold inwards (Figs 24, 96); sternite VIII present, greatly reduced in Afrotropical species, located behind apex of sternite VII (24, 72, 109); bursa has shape of large, membraneous sac, its ventral margins confluent with dorsum of elongate, sclerotised spermatheca (Figs 23, 71); spermatheca with ventral portion comprising strongly sclerotised, brownish pigmented, elongate structure of varying shape, having ventrally-directed processes, narrow slit on dorsomedial aspect broadly connects membraneously to bursa (Figs 23, 70, 95); bursa sometimes with accessory structures.

Distribution. Disjunct tripartite distribution in the Afrotropical and Australasian regions with records from sub-saharan Africa, Australia (mostly eastern parts) and south-east Asia.

Included Taxa. Three subfamilies: Zygophlebiinae, Silveirainae subfam. nov. and Psychopsinae (the latter is untreated in this revision).












PSYCHOPSIDAE Handlirsch, 1906 (2803)

Bakkes, Deon K., Sole, Catherine L. & Mansell, Mervyn W. 2017


Martynova 1949: 161


Tillyard 1916: 271


Handlirsch 1906: 42
Newman 1842: 415
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