Triplophysa qilianensis, Li, Wen-Jing, Chen, Xiao-Cheng & Hu, Yan-Ping, 2015

Li, Wen-Jing, Chen, Xiao-Cheng & Hu, Yan-Ping, 2015, A new species of the genus Triplophysa (Nemacheilinae), Triplophysa qilianensis sp. nov, from Qinghai, China, Zootaxa 3905 (3), pp. 418-424 : 419-422

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Triplophysa qilianensis

sp. nov.

Triplophysa qilianensis sp. nov.

( Figures 1 View FIGURE 1 , 2 View FIGURE 2 )

Holotype. NWIPB 201007133, 106.65 mm SL, Zhamashi Town, Heihe River, Qilian Co., Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Prov., China (38 ° 17 ′ 23.8 ″N, 99 ° 49 ′ 50.1 ″E), 27 July 2010, collected by Wenjing Li, Xiaocheng Chen and Guogang Li.

Paratypes. NWIPB 201007132, 201007134–135, 201007142, 201007145, 201007152, 201007154 –155, 201007166–167, 201007171–172, 201007187–188, 14 ex., 73.17–119.40 mm SL. Collected with the holotype.

Diagnosis. Body long and compressed; skin smooth, scaleless; head short (20.1–23.1 % of SL); head convex from the position of posterior nostrils; posterior chamber of air bladder completely degenerated; intestine short and in zig-zag shape posterior to stomach; unbranched pelvic fin rays ii; caudal fin forked, upper and lower lobes equal in length; and fin tips pointed. Counts and proportional measurements are provided in Table 1 View TABLE 1 .

Description. D iii, 9; A iii, 6; P i, 10; V ii, 7; C 16; inner gill rakers 8–9; vertebrae: 4 + 40–41 (4 specimens). Cephalic lateral-line system with 3 + 11 − 3 + 12 infraorbital, 9–11 supraorbital, 3 + 3 supratemporal and 11–12 preoperculo-mandibular pores. Lateral line pores 70–75.

Morphometric measurements and proportional values are provided in Table 1 View TABLE 1 . Body elongate, and body laterally compressed, caudal peduncle laterally compressed to a higher degree, and belly smooth without scales. Deepest part of body in front of dorsal-fin origin. Head short and round, head convex from the position of posterior nostrils, with depth greater than width. Snout length shorter than postorbital length. Anterior nostrils close to posterior nostrils, anterior nostrils surrounded by short valves; no valves of this nature around posterior nostrils. Eyes small, located in anterior half of head, and close to dorsal profile. Interorbital area flat; inter-narial space slightly convex. Mouth inferior and large. Posterior margin of mouth before vertical of anterior margin of eye. Lips smooth and thin. Anterior margin of lower lip with a median notch; middle interrupted and forming a pair of furrows. Upper jaw arc-shaped, exposed out from upper lip. Lower jaw spoon-like, its edge obtuse, and exposed out from lower lip ( Figure 2 View FIGURE 2 b). Three pairs of short barbels; inner rostral barbels not reaching corner of mouth; outer rostral barbels extending to margin of posterior nostril; maxillary barbels reaching vertical of posterior eye orbit. Gill membranes joined at isthmus. Lower corner of operculum not reaching ventral insertion of pectoral fin. Gill filaments with tiny branches and gill rakers short and thin, and with tiny protuberances.

Dorsal fin truncate, its origin nearer base of caudal-fin than tip of snout; last unbranched ray longest, slightly longer than head length. Anal fin truncate, tip not reaching middle of caudal peduncle. Pectoral fin shorter than half the distance between the insertions of pectoral and pelvic-fins. Pelvic-fin insertion posterior to dorsal fin origin, tip not reaching anus. Distance from anus to anal fin origin larger than eye diameter. Caudal peduncle depth slightly tapering towards caudal fin; at end of caudal peduncle depth increases; width of caudal peduncle origin less than depth. Caudal fin forked, upper and lower lobes equal in length; fin tips pointed.

Body smooth and without scales. Cephalic lateralis system well developed. Supraorbital and infraorbital canals extending horizontally from ethmoid and base of outer rostral barbels, respectively; canals converging at posterior edge of orbit and then extending posteriorly to join occipital canal, and then uniting with lateral-line canal. Lateral line complete and straight. Peritoneum silvery-white. Intestine short, zig-zag in shape posterior to stomach ( Figure 2 View FIGURE 2 c). Bony capsule of air bladder dumbbell shaped, thin outthrust posterior to bony capsule ( Figure 2 View FIGURE 2 d). Posterior chamber of air bladder completely degenerated ( Figure 2 View FIGURE 2 d). Males with small rectangular area of weakly developed breeding tubercles on sides of head, extending from anterior lower margin of orbital to base of outer rostral barbels. Outer pectoral-fin rays stiffened.

Color pattern. Preserved specimens in alcohol black gray; head with irregular dark blotches dorsally and laterally. Lips white and tips of barbels gray. Some specimens (6) with 4–5 obscure black blotches located dorsally anterior to dorsal fin and 3–4 obscure black blotches located dorsally posterior to dorsal fin; others (9) without black blotches in dorsum. Anterior pectoral fin rays black. Caudal fin without regular blotches, mostly only gray at margin; two of 15 specimens with 1–2 small blotches ( Figures 1 View FIGURE 1 , 2 View FIGURE 2 ).

Ecology. Triplophysa qilianensis lives in riffles of turbid water at altitudes 3000 m above sea level, and in cool or cold water. Water temperatures were about 16 °C at 12:00 am in July. Ants and hymenopteran were found in the stomach of two specimens.

Distribution. Triplophysa qilianensis is distributed in Heihe River, Zhamashi Town, Qilian Co., Qinghai Prov., China ( Figure 3). Heihe River is an inland river from Qilian Mountain to West of Gansu Prov. and Inner Mongolia of China.

Etymology. The specific epithet qilianensis is derived from the Pinyin Qilian (type locality) and Latin suffix (ensis). It is a noun in apposition.

TABLE 1. Morphometric characters of Triplophysa qilianensis.

    Triplophysa qilianensis
Locality Number of specimen Characteristics Standard length (SL) (mm) Holotype (%) 106.65 Qilian County Qinghai Province 15 Range (%) Mean±SD (%) 73.17–119.40 104.20±11.74
In % of standard length (SL)    
Dorsal head length 19.5 16.9–19.5 18.4±0.7
Predorsal length (PDL) 54.2 50.3–55.2 53.2±1.4
Preventral length 52.0 49.7–53.3 51.6±1.0
Preanal length 72.9 69.1–75.2 72.6±1.5
Preanus length 70.5 66.0–70.7 69.3±1.4
Caudal peduncle length (CPL) 21.4 20.3–23.2 21.9±0.9
Caudal peduncle depth (CPD) 6.5 5.4–6.9 6.0±0.4
Body depth 13.7 10.8–14.4 12.5±1.0
Head width (maximum) 12.7 11.4–13.6 12.4±0.5
Head width (at eye) 9.3 8.4–11.3 9.6±0.8
Head length 22.0 20.1–23.1 21.6±0.8
In % of dorsal head length    
Snout length 52.4 40.2–56.4 50.7±4.2
Eye diameter (ED) 15.7 15.7–19.4 17.2±1.1
Interorbital width 23.0 20.9–25.8 23.5±1.4
Head width (maximum) 65.3 62.5–72.7 67.8±3.1
Head width (at eye) 47.6 44.4–59.4 52.4±3.9
Head height 60.6 54.3–63.2 58.9±2.2
In % of lateral head length (HL)    
Snout length 46.4 36.6–46.9 43.2±3.1
Eye diameter (ED) 13.9 13.2–16.4 14.7±0.9
Inter orbital width 20.3 18.4–21.6 20.0±0.9
Caudal peduncle depth/length 30.2 24.5–33.0 27.4±2.4