Caridina togoensis Hilgendorf, 1893

Jasmine Richard & Paul F. Clark, 2009, African Caridina (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Atyidae): redescriptions of C. africana Kingsley, 1882, C. togoensis Hilgendorf, 1893, C. natalensis Bouvier, 1925 and C. roubaudi Bouvier, 1925, Zootaxa 1995, pp. 1-75: 14-22

publication ID

10.5281/zenodo.1455866

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03EF5668-746E-C706-E79D-1C42FA81FE1C

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Caridina togoensis Hilgendorf, 1893
status

 

Caridina togoensis Hilgendorf, 1893 

( Figs. 5 View Figure , 6 View Figure )

Caridina togoensis Hilgendorf, 1893a: 156  ; 1893b: 217; Rathbun, 1900: 314; Bouvier 1905, 74; 1913: 464; Schmitt, 1926: 11–17, figs. 1–62; Woltereck, 1942: 279, fig. 12, 13.

Caridina togoensis var. stuhlmanni Hilgendorf, 1898: 35  ; De Man, 1925: 7–26, fig. 2l; Gauthier, 1927: 127; J. Roux, 1927: 243–244; 1928: 69.

Caridina togoensis Hilg. var. decorsei  nov. Bouvier, 1904: 131; 1905: 81, fig. 5; Lenz, 1910: 11; Balss, 1914: 97; De Man, 1925: 7–26, fig. 2.

Caridina togoensis var. breviatus Lenz, 1910: 11  ; De Man, 1925: 7–26, fig. 2.

Caridina togoensis Hilgd.  var. Kasaiensis De Man, 1925: 7–26, fig. 2.

Caridina togoensis Hilgd.  var. Kwamouthensis De Man, 1925: 7–26, fig. 2.

Caridina togoensis Hilgd.  var. Schoutedeni De Man, 1925: 7–26, fig. 2.

Caridina africana Kingsley  , forme typica Bouvier, 1925: 213, 214, 470.

Caridina africana var aegyptica Bouvier, 1925: 214  ; Gordon, 1930: 38, fig. 6.

Caridina africana  forme togoensis Bouvier, 1925: 214  , fig. 472, J. Roux, 1933: 339–340; 1935b: 23–25.

Caridina africana  forme decorsei Bouvier, 1925: 216  , fig. 476.

Caridina africana var stuhlmanni Bouvier, 1925: 217  , fig. 470; J. Roux, 1935a: 241– 248, 1935b: 23–25.

Caridina africana  .— Gordon, 1933: 356–358, fig. 4; Barnard, 1950: 661, fig. 123, m, n; Holthuis, 1951: 17–18; Monod, 1968: 1350–1353, figs. 1–4; Magnetti, 1980: 41–46; Hussein & Obuid-Allah, 1990: 71–83, fig. 1–9.

Material examined. Types: Togo Bismarksburg, pres. Buttner, Jan/ Feb.1891, ZMBAbout ZMB: 8717, 2♂, 1♀ ovig., 1♀. The ♂ specimen with a rostral formula of (3) 20/8 is selected here as the lectotype; the remaining types are paralectotypes.

Non types: Togo Misahohe, pres. Smend, 9. 3.1903, ZMBAbout ZMB: 11132, 1♀ ovig., 1♀.

Ghana Fosu Appiah River near Dwukwa Mfuom village, 15.4.1969, coll. T. C. Rutherford, RMNHAbout RMNH D 26099, 23♂, 6♀ ovig., 7♀; Lolobi, Volta Region, ca. 7°12'N 0°30'E, 18. 4.1972, coll. M. S. Hoogmoed, no. 248, RMNHAbout RMNH D 28709, 3♂, 6♀ ovig., 9♀; Rubin River near Brong-Ahafo, 7°56'N 2°03'W, in clear running water, 14.3.1997, coll. C. C. H. Jongkind, received 15.5.1997, RMNHAbout RMNH D 47772, 1♀; Taïn River near Brong- Ahafo, 7°47'N 2°12'W, in clear running water, 11.3.1997, coll. C. C. H. Jongkind, received 15.5.1997, RMNHAbout RMNH D 47775, 81♂, 22♀ ovig., 80♀; Tano River near Brong-Ahafo, 7°32'N 2°57'W, in clear running water, 13.3.1997, coll. C. C. H. Jongkind, received 15.5.1997, RMNHAbout RMNH D 47776, 32♂, 4♀ ovig., 8♀; Sonko River near Brong-Ahafo, 7°32'N 1°47'W, in clear running water, 14.3.1997, coll. C. C. H. Jongkind, received 15.5.1997, RMNHAbout RMNH D 47780, 66♂, 1♀ ovig., 65♀; small stream near Wenini, Brong-Ahafo, 7°41'N 2°06'W, 2.1997, coll. C. C. H. Jongkind, received 15.5.1997, RMNHAbout RMNH D 47781, 1♀. Cote D’Ivoire Vicinity Abengourou; 3.1949, coll. B. Holas, pres. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire, RMNHAbout RMNH D 19459, 4♂, 1♀ ovig., 5♀; Yapo bij Agboville, 10.1946, coll. M. De Keyser, pres. Inst. Frang Afr. Noire, RMNHAbout RMNH 19460 1♀ ovig.; Ivory Coast, 1.1989, small stream going through riverforest, bottom with rocks and sand, pH 7, 160–170 ÁS /ampere, turbidity 5–10 JTU, coll. & pres. J. Lahr, RMNHAbout RMNH D 39345, 2♂, 1♀ ovig., 2♀; ORSTOMAbout ORSTOM, 1.1977, St. Dim Bokro- N121, 3 Corredo, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 6147, 2♂, 9♀ ovig., 10♀; ORSTOMAbout ORSTOM, St. Comoe FOL EN26, 9.2.1977, det. Corredor, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 6148, 20♂, 20♀ ovig., 29 juv.; ORSTOMAbout ORSTOM, 15.2.1976, det. Corredor, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 6149, 3♂, 2♀ ovig., 13♀; St. Nzi Kong, 10.6.1976, det. Corredor, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 6150, (dissected parts); ORSTOMAbout ORSTOM, sta. Gite Tomate 25.6.1974, det. Corredor, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 6152, 2♀ ovig., 9♀; ORSTOMAbout ORSTOM, sta. Makaove Boundiale, 16.3.1977, det. Corredor, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 6153, 9♂, 12♀ ovig., 69♀; ORSTOMAbout ORSTOM, sta. Lekaba 1.1977, det. Corredor, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 6154, 6♀ ovig., 29♀; ORSTOMAbout ORSTOM sta. Kan Amount LACAbout LAC, 2.7.1976, det. Corredor, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 6155, 12♂, 4♀ ovig., 9♀, 1 juv.; ORSTOMAbout ORSTOM sta. Yore–Lomia, 24.4.1976, det. Corredor, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 6157, 2♂, 25♀; ORSTOMAbout ORSTOM, sta. Bandama Seguekele, 30.3.1977, det. Corredor, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 6158, 5♂, 5♀ ovig., 15♀, 1 juv.; ORSTOMAbout ORSTOM, St. Maraoue, 14.3.1977, det. Corredor, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 6165, 1♂, 7♀; ORSTOMAbout ORSTOM sta. Oyo Lokoho, 17.3.1977, det. Corredor, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 6166, 1♂, 1♀ ovig., 6♀; ORSTOMAbout ORSTOM, sta. Bade Nov M’Bingue, 30.3.1977, det. Corredor, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 6169, 1♂, 3♀ ovig., 5♀; ORSTOMAbout ORSTOM, St. Afll Badama, 24. 9.1976, pres. Koombaga, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 6170, 3♂, 27♀ ovig., 13♀; ORSTOMAbout ORSTOM sta. MBE, 25.5.1976, det. GREB, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 6172, 3♂, 3♀ ovig., 5♀; D’Bouet 1907, River Baoule, flow of Basin, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 626, 1♀ ovig. Liberia Matuké, Marigot, 5.3.1948, coll. M. De Keyser and B. Holas, pres. Inst. Franç, Afr. Noire, RMNHAbout RMNH D 19463, 2♂, 4♀ ovig., 1♀; Bwah Creek, Gbanga, about 100 km inshore from Monrovia, 11.6.1967, fast flowing stream, 0–1.2m, sandy rocky bottom, between leaf litter, coll. T. C. Rutherford, RMNHAbout RMNH D 24467, 1♂, 3♀ ovig., 3♀; Gwinney Creek, Tchien near border with Ivory Coast, ca. 100 miles inshore, 5.2.1967, small, shallow, slow flowing stream with lots of leaf litter, coll. T. C. Rutherford, RMNHAbout RMNH D 24468, 3♂, 1♀ ovig., 3♀. Sierra Leone coll. T. S. Jones, NHMAbout NHM 1955.10.7.2–4, 5♂, 5♀; Jagbewema, Kono district, coll. T. S. Jones, det. J. Richard and P. Clark, NHMAbout NHM 2007.462–471, 3♂, 14♀. Guinea ( C. africana  K. var. decorsei Bouvier  ), Fouta-Djalon, Chevalier, 1906, det. Bouvier, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 615, 1♂, 2♀ ovig., 3♀; ( C. africana  K. var decorsei Bouvier  ) River near Mpokpo, 1.12.1891, det. Bouvier, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 618, 1♂, 1♀; Nimba Torrent Mien near Bie altitude 500m, 24.11.1990, coll. M. G. Lamotte, pres. Huguet, RMNHAbout RMNH 47931, 1♂, 1♀; Nimba, Marigot Ya; altitude 550 m, 16.11.1990, coll. M. G. Lamotte, pres. D. Huguet, RMNHAbout RMNH D 47932, 1♂; Nimba, Marigot Goué (= Gouela) 30.11.1990, coll. M. G. Lamotte, pres. D. Huguet. RMNHAbout RMNH D 47933, 1♀. Senegal Lac de Guiers, 6, 1989, project FAO, coll. J. Laho, det. J. P. Ellis, NHMAbout NHM 1991.13.10, 2♂, 5♀ ovig., 1♀, 2 juv.; Niokola-Koba river near Niokolokoba, 1.12.1959, coll. Th. Monod, pres. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire. RMNHAbout RMNH D 19462, 2♀ ovig., 3♀. Mali Dire, in the Niger between Lac Debó and Tombouctou (=Timbuktu), ca. 1934, coll. M. Boudker, pres. H. Nouvel, RMNHAbout RMNH D 7881, 14♂, 6♀; Diré near the Niger, between Lake Debo and Tombouctou (= Timbuktu), 16°16'N 3°24'W, coll. P. Budker, pres. H. Nouvel, RMNHAbout RMNH D 34348, 19♂, 1♀ ovig., 18♀. Chad type: ( C. africana  K. var. decorsei Bouvier  ) Chari, River Gribinqui mission, Dr. Decorse, 1904, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 620, 7♂, 2♀ ovig., 7♀; ( C. africana  K. var. decorsei Bouvier  , type figure Bouvier 1904) Krebedje, Binquetou, Mission Chari, 11.1902, Decorse 1904, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 622, 1 specimen, ( C. africana  K. var. decorsei Bouvier  ) Chari, Krebedje Binque ton mission, 11.1902, Decorse 1904, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 624, 1♂, 1♀ ovig., 3♀; syntype, ( C. togoensis var. decorsei, Bouvier  ) Chari, Exchange Paris Museum, 1904, NHMAbout NHM 1907.1.7.34–39, 2♂, 1♀ ovig., 3♀; non types ( C. togoensis var. decorsei  ) Chari River, pres. G. A. Boalenger, NHMAbout NHM 1925 3.11.1–4, 1♀ ovig., 3♀; ( C. africana  K. var. decorsei Bouvier  ) Fort Archembanll, Mission Chari, 4.1903, Decorse 1904, det. Bouvier. MNHNAbout MNHN Na 617 1♀; ( C. africana Kingsley  , var. togoensis, Hilgendorf  ), Avec passagen Bangoran, 10.11.0 3, Chevalier 1904, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 633, 2♂, 4♀ ovig., 9♀; ( C. africana Kingsley  , var. togoensis, Hilgendorf  ), Pjissilo, 15.4.1908, Dr. Gaillard, det. Bouvier, 1918, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 635, 1♀ ovig., 1♀; Mission Chari, Decorse 1904, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 636, 1♀ ovig.; Fort Lamy, Chari River, 15.5.1939, coll. De Flohic, pres. H. Nouvel, RMNHAbout RMNH 7880, 6♂, 2♀ ovig. 2♀; Lake Chad near Bol, coll. A. Stauch, 10.6.1966, RMNHAbout RMNH D 24462: 25 ♂, 15♀ ovig., 52♀; Djimtilo, Chari River, 1.1966, coll. A. Stauch, RMNHAbout RMNH D 24463, 32♂, 12♀ ovig., 80♀; Mailo, basin of Chari River, coll. A. Stauch, 29.1.1966, RMNHAbout RMNH D 24464, 6♂, 1♀ ovig., 11♀; Djoumboul, Chari River; coll. A. Stauch, 29.12.1965, RMNHAbout RMNH 24465, 1♂, 5♀; Tarara, Lake Chad, coll. B. Dussart, 12.5.1965, RMNHAbout RMNH D 24466, 2♂, 1♀; Chari River near Fort Lamy, coll. M. De Flohic, 15.5.1939, RMNHAbout RMNH D 34349, 13♂, 2♀ ovig., 10♀; Lake Chad, NHMAbout NHM 1973: 665 1♀ ovig., 1♀. Egypt type: ( Caridina africana var. aegyptica Bouvier  ), Cairo, Brit. Museum, pres. Capt. S. S. Flower 1906, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 628, 1♂, 3♀; Nile, Cairo, pres. Capt. S. S. Flower NHMAbout NHM 1906.VI.1.10–16, 1♂, 1♀ ovig., 8♀; ( C. africana aegyptica  ) Giza, NHMAbout NHM 1922.11.36–55, 1♀; ( C. africana aegyptica  ) Lower Nile, NHMAbout NHM 1927.11.22.53–72, 1♂, 2♀. Sudan Khor Madiba, D. T. Lewis Esq, 20.2.46, det. J. Richard and P. Clark, NHMAbout NHM 2007. 472–480, 3♂, 4♀; ( C. africana  K. var. stuhlmanni Hilg.  ) Nomotina, 5.1912, det. Bouvier, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 630, 33♂, 15♀, 12 juv.; Shandi, pres. Gurney Esq., 18.2.1914, NHMAbout NHM 1950.1.2, 1♀ ovig. Burkina Faso Dobo-Dioulasso; 1960–1961, pres. F. Blaise, RMNHAbout RMNH D 17324, 4♀ ovig., 6♀. Benin ( C. africana  K. var. decorsei Bouvier  ), Sey, racinu, Borgou, Niger Rambaerits 8.3.1912, det. Bouvier, 1918, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 621, 1♂, 5♀ ovig., 5♀, 5 juv. Nigeria Chubra Division, pres. I. Sanderson, NHMAbout NHM 1938.7.1.53–56, 16♂, 1♀ ovig., 46♀; River Wulgo, pres. R. Bassindale, det. L. B. Holthuis, NHMAbout NHM 1954.12.7.85–86, 4♂, 2♀, 1 juv., Mouth of Yobe River, Lake Chad, 1967, coll. A. J. & J. Hopson, det. D. I. Williamson, NHMAbout NHM 1967.8.10.8–12, 5♀; Dahomey, Iquidi River on the border of Nigeria, coll. R. L. Welcomma, NHMAbout NHM 1970.330, 1♂, 4♀ ovig., 1♀; Lake Chad area, River at Wulgo, Nigeria, freshwater, 24.12.1949, coll. & pres. R. Bassindale, RMNHAbout RMNH D 10219, 1♂, 2♀ ovig.; Ox bow lake near River Yobe, 5 miles west of Lake Chad, coll. J. C. Deeming 9.6.1967, NHMAbout NHM 1981.439, 1♀; Shika River, 7 miles west of Zaria 25.3.72, C. N. Pearson, BIOL SC ABUAbout ABU, Zaria, NHMAbout NHM 1981.440, 9♂, 1♀ ovig., 16♀. Cameroon Ja River, Bitype, Ebolova, NHMAbout NHM 1910.11.1.9–18, 8♂, 4♀; Assobam, River Bumba, Ja River, NHMAbout NHM 1910.11.1.21–30, 2♂, 1♀ ovig., 11♀; Mamfe Div, pres. Sanderson, NHMAbout NHM 1938.7.1.32–40, 25♂, 21♀ ovig., 24♀; no location, coll. R. H. L. Disney, det. M. J. Bearman, (from several damaged specimens) NHMAbout NHM 1974.695, 5♂, 3♀; Region du N’Tem, Mission, Capit. Cottes 1907, det. Auct, 1918, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 614, 1♀; Riviere Faro (Cpl. J. Hippo) 5.1960, coll. Staunch, MNHNAbout MNHN No Reg., 1♀ ovig., 1♀; Region d’Ouesso, 1.1906, Bassin de N’Goko-Sangha D’graot 1906, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 625, 1♂, 2♀; Cameroun, N'Kolbisson; 24.2.1964, coll. & pres. B. de Wilde-Duyfjes, RMNHAbout RMNH D 21212, 144♂, 22♀ ovig., 42♀, 2 juv.; S E of Ambam, in small brook of the Ntem River, in forest; 2.3.1964, coll. & pres. B. de Wilde-Duyfjes, RMNHAbout RMNH D 21639, 20♂, 7♀ ovig., 31♀. Kwoemveng, ca. 150 km S of Ebolowa, 4.3.1974, in shallow brook in forest, clear water, bottom with mud and leaf litter, coll. & pres. B. de Wilde- Duyfjes, RMNHAbout RMNH D 21640, 30♂, 20♀ ovig., 19♀; Ossidingo, coll. Mansfeld, 20.4.1905, ZMBAbout ZMB: 12208, 1♀ ovig., 1♀; 30 km East of Kirbi, on road to Yaun, Geo de Vanderbilt Af. Exp. 1934, ANSPAbout ANSP 12654, 24– 25.11.1934, 5♂, 2♀ ovig., 77♀ and 26.11.1934, 2♂, 2♀ ovig., 81♀. Central African Republic Christes de mataluil 16 km. V. Voenbaba go vm n.o.v.n’Dele, wit riviertjie in lava substract, coll. Scheepmalur, 29.12.1985, det. L. B. Holthuis, ZMAAbout ZMA De: 103: 725, 5♂, 4♀ ovig., 4♀. Congo River luvubu, Uvira, 9.9.1952, pres. G. Marlier, RMNHAbout RMNH D 19464, 1♂, 1♀ ovig., 1♀; 10 A Luki River Zaife Tussen, 5°47’N 12°53’- 13°17’E, coll. & pres. Mutambu Shango, RMNHAbout RMNH 37270, 20♂, 2♀ ovig., 12♀; Luki River between 5°30'-47'N and 12°53' 13°17'E, 29.5.1985, coll. and pres. Mutambue - Shango, RMNHAbout RMNH D 37271, 20♂, 2♀ ovig., 12♀; River near Mpoko, 1.12.1991, Ayborvoki 1086–91, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 632, 2♀; Pool, Rosebanda weid 1907, Ruissrau de vessaul dous C. Stanley, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 634, 1♂; ( C. togoensis var. decorsei Bouvier  ), Tuindo Ta assbi can cettes, 1906, Dr. Pavo, det. Bouvier, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 937, 28♂, 73♀ ovig., 11♀ (out of many specimens). Equatorial Guinea Bimfille Fluss, Neben fluss des Rio Bontio, pres. Tessmann, ZMBAbout ZMB: 13590, 8♂, 4♀ ovig., 7♀. Democratic Republic of Congo Luculla River, May 1911, NHMAbout NHM 1912.4.2.38, 1♀ ovig.; Kasai, Luxemberg Museum, NHMAbout NHM 1913.5.23.1–2, 1♀ ovig., 1♀; Mbogo, Alt 4200Ft, 15.3.30, Howard de Walden Expedition, 1930, NHMAbout NHM 1930.8.29.3–6, 2♂, 3♀; Near Malabunde, coll. J. L. R. Hancock, 24.2.1931, Cambridge Expedition, NHMAbout NHM 1934.2.8.106–111, 3♂, 1♀; Sankura river, Luxemberg Museum, NHMAbout NHM 1935.6.3.9–11, 4♂, 3♀ ovig., 2♀; ( C. africana var. typica  ) Albert Nyanza, Ch. Alluad 1909, det. Bouvier, MNHNAbout MNHN Na 631, 1♀ ovig.; Bambesa, 14.10.1933, H. J. Bredo, pres. Zool. Stutssa Monl. Munchen, RMNHAbout RMNH 16634, 1♂, 3♀ ovig.; Kolwezi, Belgian Congo SAMAbout SAM A 10668 1♂, 1♀. Uganda Near Lake Edward, Cambridge Expedition to the East African lakes, pres. E. B. Worthington, NHMAbout NHM 1934.2.1–105, sta. 512, 1♂, 5♀, 1 juv., sta. 522(1) 5♂, 1♂, sta. 522 (4) 3♂, 3♀, sta. 542, 3♂, 3♀ ovig., 1♀; Capt. Pitman, NHMAbout NHM 1935.6.26.3, 1♂, 1♀; Arua, West Nile, Kampala, Near Malabunde, Cambridge Expedition, J. L. R. Hancock, NHMAbout NHM 1934.2.8.106–111, 2♂, 6♀; coll. & pres. Lord R. Percy, University of Dunham, NHMAbout NHM 1952.7.17.14–20, 1) sta. N 96, Mongiro River, Bwamba, 7.10.1951, 7♂, 5♀, 2) sta. 158, where Mongiro River flows into mbuga hot spring, 17.10.1951, 3♂, 2♀ ovig., 1♀; East Africa, Various localities, pres. East African Fisheries Research Organisation, coll. P. S. Corbet, EAFRO, NHMAbout NHM 1958.1.20–1) Jarvis Dam, 23.7.1954, 2♀, 2) Nyenga stream, 3♂, 3♀, 3) no location 1♀, 4) Itesia River, near Bursia, 1♀, 5) No locality (35) 16.7.55, 1♂, 2♀, 6) No locality (136) 18.4.55, 1♂, 1♀, 7) Sezibwa Falls, Jinja, 26.5.54, 1♂, 4♀, 8) River Namugonga, 2♂, 4♀, 9) Bwamba stream, south of hot spring, 21.1.54, R. H. Lowe, 2♂, 9♀; Upper Waki River, Bunyora district, coll. A. McCrae for Dr. I. Gordon, NHMAbout NHM 1964.7.10.145, 1♀; Madi, coll. G. D. H. Carpenter, det. J. Richard and P. Clark, NHMAbout NHM 2007.501–510, 5♂, 2♀ ovig., 3♀; Mongiro Bwamba Trip off Semiliki River, pres. Dr. L. S. Leaky, Corynden Museum, det. J. Richard and P. Clark, NHMAbout NHM 2007.481–490, 6♂, 1♀ ovig.; Bundibugyo, Ruwenzori, (From swiftly running small stream in forest clearing), 1.9.1952, coll. Dr. G. O. Evans, Arachnida section, NHMAbout NHM, det. J. Richard and P. Clark, NHMAbout NHM 2007.511–520, 6♂, 9♀ ovig., 15♀; sta. El 180, Muyembe River, Siroko Sector, Mount Elgon, Uganda, coll. & pres. Dr Trefor Williams, 18.1.61, det. J. Richard and P. Clark, NHMAbout NHM 2008.3108–3109, 1♂, 1♀. Kenya Chiefly Kenya Rivers, coll. H. Copley 1954, det. J. Richard and P. Clark, NHMAbout NHM 2007.491–500 1) Trib. River Nzoia River, Nyanza Province, 10♂, 1♀ ovig. 8♀, 2) Gaula River, Trib.of Nzoia river, Nyanza Province, Kenya, 4♂, 9♀, 3) Lake Victoria, Kenya, 1♂, 2♀; Various Nyanza rivers of East Africa, coll. P. J. P. Whitehead, NHMAbout NHM 1956.6.1.7–11 1) Lusumu River, Nzoia River system (22 (1) 6) 1♂, 2) Gauca River, Nzoia River system (2 (2) D) 2♂, 2♀, 3) Gauca River, Nzoia River system (3 (2) E) 1♂, 4♀, 4) Gauca River, Nzoia River system (3 (2) E) 1♂, 2♀ ovig., 1♀. Angola Post do Cuilo, Luitar River, 8°02'S 19°25'E; 3– 4.7.1952, coll. A. de Barros Machado, no. 17376–3, RMNHAbout RMNH 24470, 3♀; Kunzumbia River, Miss Pocock SAMAbout SAM A 6887, 2♀, 2 juv. Zambia Zambezi River, Chiboboma 2.1956, pres. G. Fryer, NHMAbout NHM 1958.1.21.1–2,1 ♀, 1♀ (abnormal), Lake Tanganyika, Chilanja, coll. & pres. R. Huddart, NHMAbout NHM 1971: 259, 2♂, 6♀; irrigation ditch, Nakambala, Sugar Estat, Mazabula, pres. J. Pollock 29.6.1981, det. J. Richard and P. Clark 2007, NHMAbout NHM 2007.745–746 (ex NHMAbout NHM 1982.139), 1♂, 1♀; Mulemba River, 12°28'S 30°20'E, 25.10.1998, coll. P. C. Goudswaard, RMNHAbout RMNH D 48006, 4♂, 2♀ ovig., 12♀; North of Kawambwa, Mantapala Forest, 9°35'S 29°21'E, in Vlei stream, 6.1.1999, coll. P. C. Goudswaard, RMNHAbout RMNH D 48007, 19♂, 1♀ ovig., 24♀. Malawi Rocky shore of Lake Malawi, 20.9– 20.11.1974, coll. P. Lamarque and C. Gosset, pres. Y. Therezien, RMNHAbout RMNH D 30477, 1♀; Banga River, in basin of Limphasa river, neat mout in Lake Malawi, 30 miles S of N'khata Bay, 11°40'S 34°14'E, 6.1962, coll. D. Eccles, pres. Y. Therezien, no. P., RMNHAbout RMNH D 30478, 1♀ ovig., 3♀; Rikalanga River die in Lake Chilwa wit mondt op ca. 10 km van de visserij school, Malawi, 20.9.– 20.11.1974, coll. P. Lamarque and C. Gosset, pres. Y. Therezien, RMNHAbout RMNH D 30476, 5♂, 15♀ ovig., 11♀. Mozambique Zambezi River, Chiboboma, 3.1956, pres. G. Fryer, NHMAbout NHM 1958.1.21.1–2, 1♂, 1♀. Botswana Popa Falls, Okavango, above delta, 18°07'09"S 21°40'35.2"E, coll. Frank Riedel, 20.8.2007, ZMBAbout ZMB 29462, 1♂, 10♀; Cuando River, Kwando, Chobe River, Okavango, above delta, 17°47'26.4"S 20°40'39.5"E, coll. Frank Riedel, 21.8.2007, ZMBAbout ZMB 29463, 2♂, 4♀; Sidudu Rapids, Chobe River Kasane, 17°46'51.14"S 25°09'55.4"E, coll. Frank Riedel, 25.8.2007, ZMBAbout ZMB 29464, 3♂, 1♀; Boronyane stream 6m, East of Maun 10.9.75, coll. A. Russel Smith, Ecological Survey. SAMAbout SAM A 45529, 1♂, 13♀.

Locality not known. Probably Cameroon, Geo.Vanderbilt Af. Exp. 1934: ANSPAbout ANSP 12655, 13♂, 11♀ ovig., 11♀.

Description. Total length: 14–35 mm. Carapace length: 4–5.5 mm.

Rostrum ( Fig. 5 View Figure a-h): straight, mostly equal to antennular peduncle or equal to antennal scale rarely shorter than peduncle ( Fig. 5 h View Figure ) or fractionally longer than scale ( Fig. 5g View Figure ). 2.5–4 mm in length. 0.6–0.9 × long as carapace. 14–30 (usually 16–24) teeth on dorsal margin arranged to tip ( Fig. 5b, c, f, h View Figure ) or arranged leaving 0.1–0.45 (usually 0.1–0.3) of dorsal margin unarmed ( Fig. 5d, e, g View Figure ). 2–5(mostly 2–3) post-orbital teeth (1♀ ovig. and 1♂ from Equatorial Guinea, ZMBAbout ZMB: 13590 had 5 post-orbital teeth). 2–12 (mostly 5–11) teeth on ventral margin arranged to tip ( Fig. 5f View Figure ) or with unarmed distal end ( Fig. 5e View Figure ). Tip always pointed. Formula (2–5) 14–30/2–12, mostly (2–3) 16–24/5–11.

Antennular peduncle ( Fig. 5i View Figure ): 0.55–0.7 × carapace. Stylocerite 0.6–0.8 × length of basal segment. Anterolateral teeth of basal segment 0.3–0.45 × second segment. 6-21 segments, usually 10-12, bearing aesthetascs.

First pereiopod ( Fig. 6a View Figure ): dactlyus 1.0–1.3 × palm of propodus. Chela 2.0–2.5 × long as broad. Carpus 1.5–2.0 × long as broad, anteriorly excavated.

Second pereiopod ( Fig. 6b View Figure ): long and slender. Dactylus 1–1.4 × long as palm of the propodus. Chela 2.2–2.6 × long as broad. Slender carpus, 3.8–4.9 long as broad.

Bristle-like setae arranged at tip of chelae of first and second pereiopods.

Third pereiopod ( Fig. 6c–f View Figure ): dactylus 2.3–2.6 × long as broad. Spines on dactylus varying from 6–13 (including terminal spines), mostly 6–10. Propodus 3.5–5.0 × long as dactylus and 12–14.5 × long as broad with 10–13 spines arranged along inner margin. Carpus 0.55–0.70 × length of propodus. 3 or 4 spines present at anterior end of carpus, either pronounced ( Fig. 6d, e View Figure ) as in type specimens and in specimens from West Nile, Kampala, Cameroon and Lake Tanganyika, or not pronounced. 3 or 4 small spines and large spine arranged along inner margin. Merus with 3 or 4 large spines on posterior margin and 1.5–2.0 × carpus.

Fifth pereiopod ( Fig. 6g, h View Figure ): dactylus 3–4 × long as broad with 45–86, usually 50 to 65 spines. Propodus 12.0–13.5 × long as broad and 2.5–3.5 × long as dactylus with 10–15 spines arranged along inner margin. Carpus 0.45–0.60 × propodus length and with small spines along inner margin. Merus, 1.7–1.9 × carpus length, with 3 or 4 large spines and small spines on inner margin.

Setobranchs: 2 on all pereiopods.

First male pleopod ( Fig. 6i, j View Figure ): endopod 0.2–0.3 × exopod length. Appendix interna absent. Stalked, thinly plumose setae arranged around the entire margin of endopod. Setation varying from dense to sparse.

First female pleopod ( Fig. 6k View Figure ): endopod is usually 0.6–0.8 × long as exopod. Rarely, endopod measuring 0.35–0.40 of exopod.

Eggs ( Fig. 6l View Figure ): 45–60, usually of 0.9–1.1 × 0.55–0.60 mm in size but 1.45 × 0.85 mm in type specimens ( ZMBAbout ZMB No 8717).

Second male pleopod ( Fig. 6m, n View Figure ): Appendix masculina 1.4–2.0 × appendix interna and 0.25–0.35 × endopod.

Sixth abdominal somite: 0.5–0.7 × long as carapace.

Telson ( Fig. 6o, p View Figure ): gently tapering, broad distally, 0.8–1.1 × long as sixth abdominal somite. 4–7 pairs of dorsal spines (including sub terminal spine) present. Tip rounded and bearing 1 pair of plain lateral spines and 3–4 pairs or 7 or 9 long stalked plumose processes that gradually increase in size towards centre.

Uropod ( Fig. 6q, r View Figure ): 8–15 (usually 9–12) diaeresis spinules.

Preanal carina ( Fig. 6s View Figure ): unarmed.

Remarks. Hilgendorf (1893) described Caridina togoensis  from Bismarckburg, Togoland, West Africa and provided information on rostral dentition as (2–5) 17/6, and size of eggs as 1 mm long. He differentiated C. togoensis  from C. laevis Heller, 1862  by its longer rostrum and from C. africana  by the longer dactylus on the fifth pereiopod. Later, Hilgendorf (1898) described a new variety of C. togoensis  , namely stuhlmanni  , from Undussuma and Bach bei Undussuma mainly on the basis of fewer teeth on the dorsal margin of the rostrum. While describing C. togoensis var. stuhlmanni, Hilgendorf (1898)  provided information about the presence of pinnated processes at the hinder end of the telson in C. togoensis  and C. togoensis var. stuhlmanni  . He noted that in the presence of the pinnate processes at the hind end, C. togoensis  and C. togoensis var. stuhlmanni  were closer to the C. africana  that De Man (in Weber et al. 1897) described from Natal.

Caridina togoensis  was reported by Rathbun (1900), Schmitt (1926) and Woltereck (1942) from Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Bouvier (1905, 1913) provided distinguishing characters of C. togoensis  . Caridina togoensis var. stuhlmanni  was described by De Man (1925) and J. Roux (1927).

Bouvier (1904) described a variety of C. togoensis  , namely C. togoensis Hilg. var. decorsei  . Later, Bouvier (1905), Lenz, (1910) and Balss (1914) reported C. togoensis var. decorsei  . Further, Lenz (1910) described another new variety too, namely, C. togoensis var. breviatus  . However, based on the study of vast collections from western Coast of Africa and faunal areas to Senegal to Angola, Schmitt (1926) indicated that Hilgendorf’s (1898) C. togoensis var. stuhlmanni  , Bouvier’s (1904) C. togoensis var. decorsei  and Lenz’s (1910) C. togoensis var. breviatus  were founded on variants that can be placed in C. togoensis Hilgendorf (1893)  , rather than a continuous series of intergrading forms. Schmitt (1926) aptly described C. togoensis Hilgendorf (1893)  as, “ A much more variable species than hitherto realized by authors”. He made this remark particularly with reference to the highly variable shape, dentition and length of rostrum of C. togoensis  . However, the broader range that Schmitt (1926) provides for post-orbital teeth, dentition of the ventral margin of the rostrum, the number of uropod diaeresis spinules, and his figure 52 suggest that his samples might contain C. togoensis  and a second new species. De Man (1925) described three new varieties of C. togoensis  from Belgian Congo namely, C. togoensis Hilgd.  var. Kasaiensis, C. togoensis Hilgd.  var. Kwamouthensis and C. togoensis Hilgd.  var. Schoutedeni, and illustrated the variation in the rostrum and pereiopods of his new varieties. De Man (1925) dealt with C. togoensis  , C. togoensis var. stuhlmanni  , C. togoensis var. decorsei  and C. breviatus  . It appears that Schmitt’s (1926) comments on the varieties of C. togoensis  are applicable to De Man’s (1925) varieties also, as these are based on normal variations within the species.

In C. togoensis  , the shape of the rostrum which is mostly straight or slightly curved, the length of the rostrum that ranges from the middle of the second segment of the antennular peduncle to end of the antennal scale or rarely slightly longer and the presence of teeth on both the dorsal and ventral margin of the rostrum arranged with or without distal unarmed margin or only the distal dorsal or distal ventral margin unarmed, have all led to the establishment of many varieties and forms.

In spite of the above variation, the rostrum of C. togoensis  can be defined as reaching beyond the middle of the second segment of the antennular peduncle and not distinctly overreaching the antennal scale. The tip of the rostrum is always pointed, with the teeth on the dorsal margin of the rostrum compactly arranged with or without a distal unarmed margin, which when present is not interrupted by teeth. The teeth on the ventral margin of the rostrum are arranged from the proximal end either to the tip or with with a distal unarmed margin. The rostral formula is (2–5) 14–30/2–12 mostly (2–3) 16–24/5–11. Woltereck (1942) illustarated these variations of the rostrum and the arrangement of teeth on the rostrum of C. togoensis  .

Caridina togoensis  was either synonymised with or identified as C. africana  probably because Hilgendorf (1898) indicated that his new variety and species were closer to C. africana  of De Man (in Weber et al. 1897) from Natal in possessing the pinnate processes at the hind end of the telson. Bouvier (1925) who identified the specimens with the characters of C. togoensis  , as C. africana  , created varieties of his C. africana  , mostly based on the normal variations present in C. togoensis  . Bouvier’s (1925) description of the specimens with the characters of C. togoensis  , as Caridina africana Kingsley  , forme typica, Caridina africana var. aegyptica  , Caridina africana  forme togoensis  , Caridina africana  forme decorsei  and Caridina africana var. stuhlmanni  , probably further paved the way to the identification of specimens with the characters of C. togoensis  as C. africana Kingsley (1882)  . Gordon (1930) identified her specimens with the characters of C. togoensis  from the lower Nile as Caridina africana var aegyptica  . Gordon (1933), Monod (1968), Magnetti (1980) and Hussein & Obuid-Allah (1990) identified their specimens with the characters of C. togoensis  as C. africana  . Jean Roux (1935a, b) described Caridina africana Kingsley  , form togoensis  and Caridina africana Kingsley  , form stuhlmanni  . However, in the present study, the type specimens of C. africana Kingsley (1882)  , C. togoensis (Hilgendorf, 1893)  and C. africana, De Man (in Weber et al. 1897)  C. africana natalensis Bouvier 1925  were examined and the identity of the three species established. It is confirmed that C. africana  described by Kingsley (1882), type specimes catalogued by Sharp (1893) and later examind by Ortmann (1894), is known by the type material only from Zululand, and is probably restricted to South Africa. De Man’s (in Weber et al. 1897) one male specimen is unique in its distinguishing characters, and is here elevated to species level as to C. natalensis ( Bouvier 1925)  ; it is known only from Natal and probably restricted to South Africa.

Caridina togoensis  is distinguished by the following unique characters. The rostrum usually reaches as far as the apex of the antennular peduncle or antennal scale, but rarely underreaches the peduncle or fractionally overreaches the antennal scale. The teeth on the dorsal and ventral margins of the rostrum are either arranged to the tip ( Fig. 5f View Figure ), or both the dorsal and ventral rostral margins are unarmed distally ( Fig. 5e View Figure ), or either the dorsal ( Fig. 5d View Figure ) or ventral ( Fig. 5h View Figure ) distal margin can be unarmed; there are no teeth at the tip of the unarmed dorsal margin. The rostral formula is (2–5) 14–30/2–12 mostly (2–3) 16–24/5–11. The tip of the rostrum is always pointed. The stylocerite 0.6–0.8 × the length of basal segment of antennular peduncle. Anterolateral teeth of basal segment 0.30–0.45 × the second segment. 6–21 segments (usually 10-12) bearing aesthetascs. The propodus of the third pereiopod is 3.5–5.0 × long as dactylus, with 6–13 spines (including the terminal spine); the carpus bears 3 or 4 spines at the anterior end which may be pronounced. The propodus of the fifth pereiopod is 2.5–3.5 × the dactylus length and bears 45–86 spines, but mostly 50–65. The endopod of first pleopod of male is 0.2–0.3 × the exopod length without appendix interna. The endopod of first pleopod of female is usually 0.6–0.8 × long as exopod, but rarely measures 0.35–0.40 exopod length. The eggs are mostly 0.9–1.1 × 0.55–0.60 mm in size and 45–60 in number. However in the type specimen the size of the egg is 1.45 × 0.85 mm. The appendix masculina 0.28–0.35 × endopod of the second pleopod of the male and 1.4–2 × the appendix interna. The telson bears 4–7 pairs of dorsal spines (including the subterminal spines), 1 pair of plain lateral spines and 3 or 4 pairs or, 7 or 9 long stalked plumose processes on the posterior margin. The uropod diaeresis spinules are 8–15 (usually 9 or 12) and the preanal carina is plain without spines.

Caridina togoensis  is present along the entire West coast, from Angola in the South, the entire Nile basin and extending to Malawi in the East, and from Chad to Botswana. It appears to be endemic to Africa.

ZMB

Museum f�r Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)

RMNH

National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis

ORSTOM

Office de la Recherche scientifique et Technique Outre-mer

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

LAC

Xian Institute of Lacquer

NHM

University of Nottingham

ABU

Ahmadu Bello University Herbarium

ANSP

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

ZMA

Universiteit van Amsterdam, Zoologisch Museum

SAM

South African Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Malacostraca

Order

Decapoda

Family

Atyidae

Genus

Caridina

Loc

Caridina togoensis Hilgendorf, 1893

Jasmine Richard & Paul F. Clark 2009

2009
Loc

Caridina togoensis Hilg. var. decorsei

, Bouvier 1925

1925
Loc

Caridina africana var aegyptica

Bouvier 1925: 214

1925
Loc

togoensis

Bouvier 1925: 214

1925
Loc

decorsei Bouvier, 1925 : 216

, Bouvier 1925: 216

1925
Loc

Caridina africana var stuhlmanni

Bouvier 1925: 217

1925
Loc

Caridina togoensis var. breviatus

Lenz 1910: 11

1910
Loc

Caridina togoensis var. stuhlmanni Hilgendorf, 1898 : 35

, Hilgendorf 1898: 35

1898
Loc

Caridina togoensis

Hilgendorf 1893: 156

1893
Loc

Caridina togoensis Hilgd.

Hilgendorf 1893

1893
Loc

Caridina togoensis Hilgd.

Hilgendorf 1893

1893
Loc

Caridina togoensis Hilgd.

Hilgendorf 1893

1893
Loc

Caridina africana Kingsley

, Kingsley. We 1882

1882
Loc

Caridina africana

, Kingsley. We 1882

1882
Loc

Caridina africana

, Kingsley. We 1882

1882
Loc

Caridina africana

, Kingsley. We 1882

1882