Emersoniella crassicarina Gustafsson & Bush

Gustafsson, Daniel R. & Bush, Sarah E., 2014, Three new species of chewing lice of the genus Emersoniella Tendeiro, 1965 (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) from Papua New Guinean kingfishers and kookaburras (Aves: Coraciif, Zootaxa 3796 (3), pp. 528-544: 530-533

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3796.3.7

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D3E1601F-74E9-4594-8820-F5365DB42AF1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03EF879B-824E-254D-5CFF-4A741E4C7815

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Emersoniella crassicarina Gustafsson & Bush
status

new species

Emersoniella crassicarina Gustafsson & Bush  , new species

(Figs 2 a –e)

Type host. Dacelo gaudichaud Quoy and Gaimard, 1824  ( Coraciiformes  : Alcedinidae  ) – rufous-bellied kookaburra.

Other host: Dacelo leachii intermedia Salvadori, 1876  ( Coraciiformes  : Alcedinidae  ) – blue-winged kookaburra.

Diagnosis. Emersoniella crassicarina  n. sp. keys out as Emersoniella regis  in the key of Emerson & Price (1978: 106), but differs from this species in the shape of the male genitalia. Pterothoracic and abdominal chaetotaxy are very similar to those of E. regis  , which may be the closest relative to E. crassicarina  . The host of E. regis  , Clytoceyx rex  , is the closest relative to Dacelo  spp. ( Moyle 2006).

No significant differences are apparent among material of E. crassicarina  from the two host species, but tergal setae are somewhat longer in specimens from D. leachii intermedia  than in material from the type host. Also, specimens from the type host are generally larger in all measurements, but there is considerable overlap. The only available material from Dacelo leachii  is from the New Guinean subspecies D. l. intermedia  , but it is presently unknown whether different Australian subspecies are also hosts to E. crassicarina  . Based on morphology we conservatively recognize specimens from both hosts as E. crassicarina  .

Description. Head broadly triangular (Fig. 2 a), with occiput and frons both slightly concave. Marginal carina very broad laterally, with irregular median margin and several smaller carinal islands median to the marginal carina. Marginal carina uninterrupted at feeding canal, and narrowed, but not interrupted, laterally. Dorsal preantennal suture and dorsal anterior plate missing. Carina narrows to about half width at AS 1; at feeding canal the carina is partially transparent and displaced posteriorly and dorsally. Anterior part of displaced marginal carina darkly pigmented; pigmented section is gently rounded. Hyaline margin broad, filling displacement. Ventral carinae more or less straight, converging, but turn to become parallel near VSMS 2. DSMS and AS 1-3 more or less equally lateral, with attendant canals in marginal carina. ADS short. VSMS 1-2 median to marginal carina, AVS 3 near these, but more lateral. AVS 1-2 sublateral, with attendant canals in marginal carina. Preantennal nodi large, curved slightly medianly, intensely pigmented. Coni not larger than scapes, broadly triangular with blunt distal tip. Antennae not sexually dimorphic. Preocular nodi large, median to eye. Postocular nodi not separable from marginal temporal carina, POS thorn-like, positioned on eye. OS long, could reach across antennal socket. Marginal temporal carina continuous around postantennal head, of uneven width. MTS 1 and MTS 3 macrosetae, of equal or subequal length. Other MTS short, slender. PNS slightly longer than ADS. One pair of PTS visible as very short setae, postero-lateral to gular plate. Gular plate narrow, spade-shaped.

Prothorax shorter than wide, lateral sides convex. One pair of short setae on posterior margin, median to spiracle openings. Prosternum nude. Proepimera broad, with blunt median ends. Pterothorax wider than long, with diverging, flat lateral margins and slightly rounded posterior margin in male, and posterior margin that is convergent to median point in female. Mesosternum with two pairs of medium-sized setae, metasternum with three pairs of medium-sized setae on posterior margin and one pair of medium-sized setae on lateral margin (Fig. 2 b).

Tergites II-VIII divided medianly, sternites II-VI transversely continuous (Fig. 2 b). Pleurites very broad, anterior half reaching to, or median to, spiracle opening. Pleural heads re-entrant, well developed, and typically reach spiracle opening in preceding segment. Pleurites are wider in males than in females.

Male. 8–10 pairs of setae on posterior margin of pterothorax. Male subgenital plate consisting of sternites VII- IX, but fades at terminal segment, and may or may not reach the terminal margin of the abdomen (Fig. 2 b). Abdominal chaetotaxy as in Table 1. Male genitalia (Fig. 2 c): basal plate long and slender, diffusely beginning near anterior margin of segment VI, and widening to almost double size in distal half. Lateral thickenings slender, present only in distal half. Parameres fused entirely to basal plate, but lateral thickenings interrupted near fusion site, otherwise continuous around parameres. Two pairs of small setae very close to distal tip of parameres, on outer side. Basal plate medianly open to semi-oval atrium, in which the mesomere and endomere are located. Endomere short, broad, and distinctly thickened on distal margin, with antero-lateral elongations that almost reach lateral margins of parameres. Mesomere small, antero-lateral sclerites about as long as central sclerites. The lateral pair of needle-like bars are about half as long as the median pair, and both have bulbous proximal ends. Measurements: Ex Dacelo gaudichaud  (n = 15): TL: 1.68–1.91 (1.79); HL: 0.51–0.55 (0.53); HW: 0.55–0.59 (0.57); PRW: 0.30–0.33 (0.31); PTW: 0.46–0.51 (0.48); AW: 0.56–0.65 (0.61). BW: 0.11–0.12 (0.12); PML: 0.025–0.032 (0.027); PMW: 0.036–0.042 (0.039); EW: 0.033–0.044 (0.038); EL: 0.009–0.014 (0.010). Ex Dacelo leachii intermedia  (n = 9): TL: 1.68–1.81 (1.73); HL: 0.49–0.52 (0.51); HW: 0.53–0.57 (0.55); PRW: 0.30–0.33 (0.31); PTW: 0.46–0.47 (0.47); AW: 0.58–0.65 (0.62). BW: 0.11–0.12 (0.12); PML: 0.026–0.033 (0.029); PMW: 0.032–0.041 (0.038); EW: 0.038–0.042 (0.040); EL: 0.009–0.012 (0.010).

Female. 10–11 pairs of setae on posterior margin of pterothorax, Female subgenital plate consists of tergite VII-VIII, and reaches vulval margin (Fig. 2 d). Abdominal chaetotaxy as in Table 2. Vulval margin with 4–6 pairs of slender setae marginally and 3–5 pairs of thorn-like setae submarginally. Subgenital plate with 3–4 oblique pairs of short, slender setae. Three (rarely 4–5 on one side) pairs of spine-like setae postero-lateral to vulval margin (Fig. 2 d). Measurements: Ex Dacelo gaudichaud  (n = 15): TL: 1.98–2.25 (2.10); HL: 0.54–0.60 (0.56); HW: 0.58–0.65 (0.61); PRW: 0.32–0.36 (0.34); PTW: 0.50–0.54 (0.52); AW: 0.64–0.77 (0.70). Ex Dacelo leachii intermedia  (n = 15): TL: 1.85–2.06 (1.95); HL: 0.50–0.57 (0.54); HW: 0.54–0.61 (0.59); PRW: 0.28–35 (0.32); PTW: 0.45–0.52 (0.49); AW: 0.64–0.73 (0.68).

Type material. (All type material is from Northern District, Papua New Guinea). Male holotype ex Dacelo gaudichaud  , PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Northern District, Popondetta, elev. 200 ft, 30. VIII. 1963, P.J. Shanahan, host BBM-NG- 28658 ( NHML). Female allotype ex Dacelo gaudichaud  , on same slide as holotype ( NHML).

Paratypes: 7 males and 2 females, same data as holotype, and 2 males and 18 females, Popondetta, Jumbora Plantation, elev. 200 ft, 25. IX. 1963, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 29670 ( NHML). 8 males and 18 females, Cape Killerton, elev. 10 ft, 19. X. 1963, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 29250. 5 females, Popondetta, Jumbora Plantation, elev. 200 ft, 18. IX. 1963, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 28773 ( USNM). 1 male and 1 female, Cape Killerton, elev. 10 ft, 17. X. 1963, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 29229. 2 males and 9 females, Popondetta, Jumbora Plantation, elev. 200 ft, 25. IX. 1963, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 29674. 1 male and 2 females, Amboga River, Vicinity of Popondetta, elev. 350 ft, 20. IX. 1963, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 28808. 4 males and 5 females, Vicinity of Popondetta, Ahola, elev. 150 ft, 8. X. 1963, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 29896 (PIPeR).

Non-type material. Ex Dacelo gaudichaud  . 1 Nymph (N), on same slide as holotype. 5 N, same data as holotype. PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Northern District: 5 N, Popondetta, Jumbora Plantation: elev. 200 ft, 25. IX. 1963, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 29670 ( NHML). 1 N, Cape Killerton, elev. 10 ft, 19. X. 1963, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 29250 ( USNM). 1 N, Cape Killerton, elev. 10 ft, 22. X. 1963, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 29291. 1 N, Cape Killerton, elev. 10 ft, 17. X. 1963, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 29229. 3 N, Popondetta, Jumbora Plantation, elev. 200 ft, 25. IX. 1963, H. Clissold, BBM-NG- 29674. 3 N, Amboga River, Vicinity of Popondetta, elev. 350 ft, 20. IX. 1963, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 28808. 1 N, Vicinity of Popondetta, Ahola, elev. 150 ft, 8. X. 1963, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 29896. PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Western District: 1 male, 3 females, 1 nymph, Balimo, elev. 30 ft, 14. III. 1964, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 50209. 3 males and 9 females, Balimo, elev. 30 ft, 30. III. 1964, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 50423. PAPUA NEW GUINEA: West Sepik District: 2 males and 2 females, May River, elev. 400 ft, 1. VI. 1963, P. Temple, host BBM-NG- 22622. 1 male and 1 female, May River, elev. 400 ft, 31. V. 1963, P. Temple, host BBM-NG- 22620. 1 female and 2 nymphs, Ambunti, elev. 500 ft, 2. V. 1963, P. Temple, host BBM-NG- 22542. PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Morobe District: 1 male and 1 female, Finschhafen, elev. 50 ft, 13. IV. 1963, P.J. Shanahan, host BBM-NG- 27663. 3 males, 2 females, 1 nymph, Finschhafen, elev. 50 ft, 12. IV. 1963, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 27658. 9 males and 30 females, Lae-Goroka Road, 40 miles from Lae, 24. XI. 1970, A.B. Mirza, host BBM-NG- 99426. 11 males, 14 females, 5 nymphs, Singakwa River, Vicinity of Lae, elev. 30 m, 4. IV. 1966, O.R. Wilkes, host BBM-NG- 24713. INDONESIA: West Papua Province: 19 males, 35 females, 16 nymphs, Oransbari, elev. 10 ft, 20. I. 1963, L.P. Richards, host BBM-NG- 22280 (all at PIPeR).

Ex Dacelo leachii intermedia  . PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Western District: 1 male and 1 female, Oriomo River, elev. 20 ft, 14. II. 1964, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 29518. 9 males and 19 females, Oriomo River, elev. 20 ft, 13. II. 1964, H. Clissold, host BBM-NG- 29503. 4 females, Balimo, elev. 30 ft, 30. III. 1964, H. Clissold, host BBM- NG- 50425 (all at PIPeR).

Etymology. The species epithet is derived from “ crassus ”, Latin for “thick”, and “ carina ”, Latin for “keel”, referring to the very broad marginal carina.

TABLE 1. Abdominal chaetotaxy for male Emersoniella crassicarina n. sp. Numbers in parentheses refer to aberrant numbers of setae found in small numbers of specimens. Digits separated by a plus sign denote segments that have one set of setae (the first number) on the anterior end, and another set (second number) on the posterior end.

Tergomedian Post-spiracular Postero-lateral
1–2 + 3–4
Terminal

TABLE 2. Abdominal chaetotaxy for female Emersoniella crassicarina n. sp. (see explanatory notes in Table 1).

Tergomedian Post-spiracular Postero-lateral
1 + 3–4
Terminal
NEW

University of Newcastle

NHML

Natural History Museum, Tripoli

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History